Ascension of Christ.

Questions & Answers

QUESTION 1. What significance does the event of the Ascension of Jesus
Christ have for the Christian? We should understand why we celebrate any
feast, and its inner meaning. 


Christ ascended to Heaven as man and as God. Once he became a man, being
at the same time, as always, perfect God, he never put off His manhood,
but deified it, and made it and us capable of apprehending heavenly

The Ascension is a prophecy of things to come for those who love God and
believe in Him in an Orthodox manner. Those who believe and live
according to this belief will be in the heavens, in the flesh, with Him,
just as He now abides in the Heavens in the flesh. Our flesh and souls
will be saved, because Christ made human flesh capable of deification.

We also call to mind the promise of the Holy Spirit, since Christ
mentions this promise He had made before to them, and its advent is tied
to His ascension thusly: 

"Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go
away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if
I depart, I will send him unto you. {8} And when he is come, he will
reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: {9} Of
sin, because they believe not on me; {10} Of righteousness, because I go
to my Father, and ye see me no more; {11} Of judgment, because the
prince of this world is judged." (John 16:7-11) 

What Christ has done for human flesh and our souls is impossible to
understand, but the church, with sweet melody, meditates with fervor and
thanksgiving and precise theology in her services. 

"O Christ, having taken upon thy shoulders our nature, which had gone
astray, thou didst ascend and bring it unto God the Father" (Matins
canon for the Ascension, Ode 7) 

"Having raised our nature, which was deadened by sin, Thou didst bring
it unto Thine own Father, O Savior" (ibid.) 

"Unto Him Who by His descent destroyed the adversary, and Who by His
ascent raised up man, give praise O ye priests, and supremely exalt Him,
O ye people, unto all the ages." (Matins canon for the Ascension, Ode 8)

Since the disciples were "filled with great joy", we who are Orthodox in
belief and way of life should naturally be this way also, and should
hasten to the temple. There we can meditate upon the magnificent truths
and promises in the ascension by listening carefully to the divinely
inspired theology, sung in sweet melody. If we pray with care, and
expectation, having valued divine worship above our worldly cares,
surely God will enlighten us and noetically teach us the true meaning of
Christ's Ascension. 

QUESTION 2. There is an important account of the Ascension in the
scriptures that is not in the Gospels. Where is it? The story involves
angels. How? Describe how a cloud was involved. 


St. Luke, who wrote an account of the Ascension in his Gospel, also
wrote a slightly different account in his Acts of the Apostles. In this
account, he describes two angels who speak to the Apostles as they are
gazing at Christ going up into the sky: 

"And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold,
two men stood by them in white apparel; Which also said, Ye men of
Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is
taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have
seen him go into heaven." (Acts 1:10-11) 

St Luke also mentions a cloud in his account in the Acts: 

"And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken
up; and a cloud received him out of their sight." (Acts 1:9) 

"Thou Who art immortal by nature didst arise on the third day, and didst
appear unto the eleven and all the disciples, and riding upon a cloud,
didst hasten back unto the Father, O Thou creator of all." (Matins canon
for the Ascension, 1st Ode, Irmos) 


QUESTION 3. In the gospel reading for liturgy on the Ascension, two
gifts are mentioned by Christ. One is given and one is promised. What
are they? Comment on their importance and meaning for a Christian. 


When Christ saw his disciples in the upper room, he told them: 

"Peace be unto you." (Luke 24:36). 

This peace is not a worldly peace, but is the gift of God, and the
attainment of it is the purpose of our life. The only way to understand
this peace is to live the Christian life and be changed. It is freely
given, but not freely received - not until a man is purified by intense
effort, war against his passions, and desire to fulfill the will of God.

Shortly after this, Christ promised: 

"And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in
the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high."
(Luke 24:49). 

This, of course, is the promise of the gift of the Holy Spirit, to be
given only ten days later, on Pentecost. 

The ministry of the Holy Spirit is so profound, it cannot be described

He convicts concerning sin and righteousness, He gives strength, He
gives wisdom, and the words to say when being persecuted. Ignorant and
weak fisherman and all those who make an abode for Him wax bold in their
witness of the gospel. He guides the church, and enlightens every man
concerning the truth. Without Him, the Christian life cannot be lived. 


QUESTION 4. What mountain did Christ ascend from? How will this mountain
be involved in another, cataclysmic event? 


Christ ascended by the Mount of Olives. "Then returned they unto
Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is from Jerusalem a
Sabbath day's journey." (Luke 1:12). Holy tradition understands that
Christ will come to judge the world at the culmination of all things
"from the East" over this very same mountain. 

"And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold,
two men stood by them in white apparel; {11} Which also said, Ye men of
Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is
taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have
seen him go into heaven." (Acts 1:10-11) 


QUESTION 5. There is a significant occurrence in the Ascension story
that can only be understood in the context of the church, and the
absolute need for apostolic succession of bishops and priests. This
occurrence, properly understood, should cause everyone who trusts his
own interpretation of the bible outside of the context of a visible,
authoritative and dogmatic church to flee from his false, individual
understanding and seek out the church. 

What is this occurrence? Comment on it, and try to specify other
scriptures which point out or support this critical Christian teaching. 


It is clear that the scriptures are a dark book, unless God gives
illumination. The Jews did not understand the book they gave appearances
to love, and Jesus corrected their misunderstandings numerous times. The
Holy apostles themselves had to be taught in numerous private sessions
with their Lord, an important one which is described in the Ascension

"Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the
scriptures, {46} And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it
behooved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: {47}
And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name
among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. {48} And ye are witnesses of
these things. {49} And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon
you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with
power from on high." (Luke 24:45-49) 

There much that the apostles were taught that was not written in the
scriptures, and which has become part of the mind of the church, through
the teaching of the apostles, and all their successors, who remained
true to their teachers as the apostles had to one great teacher. St.
John alludes to this hidden wisdom, held so closely to the bosom of the
church, when he says: 

"And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if
they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself
could not contain the books that should be written. Amen." (John 21:25) 

St. Peter admonishes us and reminds us of our own frailty and the sure
reliability of the church when he tells us: 

"Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private
interpretation." (2 Peter 1:20) 


QUESTION 6. When is Ascension celebrated? 


Ascension is always on a Thursday, exactly forty days after Pascha, just
like it occurred in the Scriptures. The Jewish (and Orthodox) way of
reckoning days is to count the first and last days. So, Pascha is the
first day, and Ascension Thursday, in the 6th week after Pascha, is the
Fortieth day. 

In the same way, Christ was in the tomb three days, although not even
one and a half days in terms of hours.  Good Friday, the first day, He
was buried in the late afternoon. The second day, Saturday, His body lay
in the tomb the entire day, then at some point in the very early hours
of the third day, He rose from the dead.


QUESTION 7. What commemoration is the day before Ascension? Explain. 


The Apodosis of Pascha is celebrated on the Wednesday before Ascension
Thursday (according to the Russian Typicon). 

All Great Orthodox feasts, according to the Jewish model, have three

There is a preparation phase, which may be very long. The preparation
for Pascha is the whole of Great Lent, and especially Holy Week. Great
Feasts such as Theophany and Nativity have pre-festal Vesperal divine
liturgies served the day before. Many feasts are preceded with certain
hymns, such as the katavasia of the matins canon, sung for a period
before a feast. 

The feast itself is the ultimate celebration, and then there is a
post-festal period, where the truths of the celebration are meditated
upon at length in the services. 

For Pascha, this period is forty days, and ends on the "Apodosis", or
"leave-taking" of the feast, on the Wednesday before Ascension. 

QUESTION 8. How long is the feast of the Ascension? 



The feast of the Ascension lasts until the Friday before Pentecost, when
its Apodosis occurs. This makes perfect sense, as we are waiting for
Pentecost, just as the disciples were waiting for the coming of the Holy
Spirit, Whom Jesus promised would come to them. 

QUESTION 9. What, in general terms, is the Typicon for the services of
the Ascension? List all the books needed to serve the services
completely. Where may one obtain the main texts for the Ascension in


One the eve of the Ascension, Wednesday evening, an All Night vigil is
served. This is a service which combines Great Vespers, Litya, Matins
and the First Hour, with slight changes to the beginning and end of
Great Vespers and Matins from their form when they are served alone. 

The "rank" of commemoration is "Vigil" The rank indicates somewhat the
importance of the feast, and how much the regular formats for vespers
and matins will be modified. Two other "ranks" are "single
commemoration" and "double commemoration". 

On Thursday morning, the Third and Sixth hours and Divine Liturgy are

To serve the Great vespers, Litya, matins, the hours, and Divine liturgy
the following service books are needed. 

The Horologion - the fixed parts of vespers, matins, the hours and the
Divine liturgy 

The Psalter - needed for the kathisma readings at vespers and matins.
Usually any other psalms that are read are in the Horologion 

The Apostolos - for the epistle reading at liturgy. 

The Old Testament - Great vespers has 3 OT readings. They are usually
contained in the service texts in the 

Gospel - read in matins and the liturgy. 

The Pentecostarion - texts for the feast, such as the stichera at Lord I
have cried, the Aposticha, the matins canon, etc. 

The priest's liturgikon - used by the priest for services like vespers,
matins, Compline, the midnight office, the hours and divine liturgy. 


QUESTION 10. Detail the differences between the services of the
Ascension and those of a "regular" Sunday. 


On a "regular" Sunday, vigil is appointed, just as for Ascension. The
services are very similar, with these differences (and some,
similarities, listed for comparison purposes): 


Both have ten stichera at Lord I have cried. All of the stichera for the
Ascension are about the feast, as is the case for all "great feasts of
the Lord". For "regular" Saturday night vespers, there are at most 7
stichera about the Resurrection (sometimes 6, sometimes 4), with the
rest being concerned with a Saint(s) or another event At the end of the
Lord I have cried stichera, for the Ascension, "Glory ... Both Now ..."
is sung all at once, and one sticheron, about the feast, is sung. In a
regular Sunday vigil, there are usually two stichera here, the first one
preceded by "Glory to the Father and the son and the Holy Spirit", the
second being preceded by "Both now and ever, and to the ages of ages,
amen". The second Sticheron is a "Theotokion", which is about the
Theotokos and the incarnation. 

Three OT readings are read for the Ascension. OT readings are not read
in most Sunday vigil services. 

Litya is appointed in the Ascension services. This service is usually
omitted in a regular Sunday service (but the Old Believers always do a
litya on every Sunday)


At the end of vespers for the Ascension, the troparion of the feast is
sung three times (this is just before the blessing of the loaves, wheat,
wine and oil). In regular vespers, "O Theotokos and virgin rejoice" is
sung three times. 


The Ascension matins has the "Polyeleos", followed by the
"magnification" (the latter is in Russian usage only), whereas a regular
Sunday matins usually has in stead of the Polyeleos, the 118th kathisma
(known as "the blameless"), and there is no magnification. 

Just before the praises, on Sunday, an expostilarion, "Holy is the Lord
our God", is sung. This hymn is omitted on the Ascension. 


The Ascension liturgy replaces the regular antiphons with festal ones. 

QUESTION 11. Detail the differences between the services of the
Ascension and those of a "regular" weekday. 


On a "regular" weekday", vespers is served on the eve, and matins in the
morning, and no vigil service is sung, as there is for Ascension,
Sundays, and most great feasts of the Lord (Pascha being a special

Daily vespers, which is usually served on a weekday is a far simpler
service than Great Vespers, with no small entrance, "O Gladsome light"
being chanted instead of being sung, and less "Lord I have cried"
stichera (there are usually 6). In addition, the last two litanies of
both vespers and matins are reverses (read in a different order), and
the first two petitions of the second litany in regular (daily) vespers
and matins are omitted. 

There are numerous other differences, because daily services are much
simpler and shorter. Here are a few, off the top of my head. 



The kathisma for Great Vespers on a feast is "Blessed is the man". A
different kathisma is read at a daily vespers for every day of the week 

No Small entrance, OT readings, at a daily vespers 

No litya at the end of a daily vespers. 

Less "Lord I have cried stichera" at a daily vespers 


No gospel, "Save O God" intercession at a daily matins. 

That is enough for now. The best place to understand these services and
their differences is to study the service books and chant or sing in the
chanters stand. 

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