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E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F
RELIGION
S E C O N D E D I T I O N


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E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F
RELIGION
S E C O N D E D I T I O N
1
AARON
LINDSAY JONES

EDITOR IN CHIEF
ATTENTION

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Encyclopedia of Religion, Second Edition
Lindsay Jones, Editor in Chief
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Encyclopedia of religion / Lindsay Jones, editor in chief.— 2nd ed.
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1. RELIGION—ENCYCLOPEDIAS. I. JONES, LINDSAY,
1954-
BL31.E46 2005
200’.3—dc22
2004017052
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E D I T O R S A N D C O N S U L T A N T S
EDITOR IN CHIEF
Program in Religious Studies,
SIGMA ANKRAVA
LINDSAY JONES
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Professor, Department of Literary and
Associate Professor, Department of
C
Cultural Studies, Faculty of Modern
HARLES H. LONG
Comparative Studies, Ohio State
Professor of History of Religions,
Languages, University of Latvia
University
Baltic Religion and Slavic Religion
Emeritus, and Former Director of
Research Center for Black Studies,

DIANE APOSTOLOS-CAPPADONA
BOARD MEMBERS
University of California, Santa Barbara
Center for Muslim–Christian
DAVÍD CARRASCO
Understanding and Liberal Studies
MARY N. MACDONALD
Neil Rudenstine Professor of Study of
Program, Georgetown University
Professor, History of Religions, Le
Latin America, Divinity School and
Art and Religion
Moyne College (Syracuse, New York)
Department of Anthropology, Harvard
DIANE BELL
DALE B. MARTIN
University
Professor of Anthropology and Women’s
Professor of Religious Studies, and
Studies, George Washington University
GIOVANNI CASADIO
Chair, Department of Religious
Australian Indigenous Religions
Professor of History of Religions,
Studies, Yale University
Dipartimento di Scienze
KEES W. BOLLE
AZIM NANJI
Professor Emeritus of History,
dell’Antichità, Università degli Studi
Professor and Director, The Institute
University of California, Los Angeles,
di Salerno
of Ismaili Studies, London
and Fellow, Netherlands Institute for
WENDY DONIGER
JACOB OLUPONA
Advanced Studies in the Humanities
Mircea Eliade Distinguished Service
Professor, African American and
and Social Sciences
Professor of the History of Religions,
African Studies Program, University
History of Religions
University of Chicago
of California, Davis
MARK CSIKSZENTMIHALYI
GARY L. EBERSOLE
MICHAEL SWARTZ
Associate Professor in the Department
Professor of History and Religious
Professor of Hebrew and Religious
of East Asian Languages and
Studies, and Director, UMKC Center
Studies, Ohio State University
Literature and the Program in
for Religious Studies, University of
Religious Studies, University of
INÉS TALAMANTEZ
Missouri—Kansas City
Wisconsin—Madison
Associate Professor, Religious Studies
Chinese Religions
JANET GYATSO
Department, University of California,
RICHARD A. GARDNER
Hershey Professor of Buddhist Studies,
Santa Barbara
Faculty of Comparative Culture,
The Divinity School, Harvard
Sophia University
University
CONSULTANTS
Humor and Religion
GREGORY D. ALLES
CHARLES HALLISEY
Associate Professor of Religious Studies,
JOHN A. GRIM
Associate Professor, Department of
McDaniel College
Professor of Religion, Bucknell
Languages and Cultures of Asia and
Study of Religion
University and Co-Coordinator,
v

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vi
EDITORS AND CONSULTANTS
Harvard Forum on Religion and
TED PETERS
Religion, University of Chicago
Ecology
Professor of Systematic Theology,
Law and Religion
Ecology and Religion
Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary
TOD SWANSON
JOSEPH HARRIS
and the Center for Theology and the
Associate Professor of Religious Studies,
Francis Lee Higginson Professor of
Natural Sciences at the Graduate
and Director, Center for Latin
English Literature and Professor of
Theological Union, Berkeley,
American Studies, Arizona State
Folklore, Harvard University
California
University
Germanic Religions
Science and Religion
South American Religions
URSULA KING
FRANK E. REYNOLDS
MARY EVELYN TUCKER
Professor Emerita, Senior Research
Professor of the History of Religions
Professor of Religion, Bucknell
Fellow and Associate Member of the
and Buddhist Studies in the Divinity
University, Founder and Coordinator,
Institute for Advanced Studies,
School and the Department of South
University of Bristol, England, and
Asian Languages and Civilizations,
Harvard Forum on Religion and
Professorial Research Associate, Centre
Emeritus, University of Chicago
Ecology, Research Fellow, Harvard
for Gender and Religions Research,
History of Religions
Yenching Institute, Research Associate,
School of Oriental and African
GONZALO RUBIO
Harvard Reischauer Institute of
Studies, University of London
Assistant Professor, Department of
Japanese Studies
Gender and Religion
Classics and Ancient Mediterranean
Ecology and Religion
DAVID MORGAN
Studies and Department of History
HUGH B. URBAN
Duesenberg Professor of Christianity
and Religious Studies, Pennsylvania
Associate Professor, Department of
and the Arts, and
State University
Comparative Studies, Ohio State
Professor of Humanities and Art
Ancient Near Eastern Religions
University
History, Valparaiso University
SUSAN SERED
Politics and Religion
Color Inserts and Essays
Director of Research, Religion, Health
CATHERINE WESSINGER
JOSEPH F. NAGY
and Healing Initiative, Center for the
Professor of the History of Religions
Professor, Department of English,
Study of World Religions, Harvard
and Women’s Studies, Loyola
University of California, Los Angeles
University, and Senior Research
University New Orleans
Celtic Religion
Associate, Center for Women’s Health
New Religious Movements
M
and Human Rights, Suffolk University
ATTHEW OJO
Healing, Medicine, and Religion
ROBERT A. YELLE
Obafemi Awolowo University
African Religions
LAWRENCE E. SULLIVAN
Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow, University
of Toronto

J
Professor, Department of Theology,
UHA PENTIKÄINEN
Law and Religion
Professor of Comparative Religion, The
University of Notre Dame
History of Religions
University of Helsinki, Member of
ERIC ZIOLKOWSKI
Academia Scientiarum Fennica,
WINNIFRED FALLERS SULLIVAN
Charles A. Dana Professor of Religious
Finland
Dean of Students and Senior Lecturer
Studies, Lafayette College
Arctic Religions and Uralic Religions
in the Anthropology and Sociology of
Literature and Religion
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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E D I T O R I A L A N D P R O D U C T I O N S T A F F
PUBLISHER
Michael R. Fischbach, Rebecca J.
INDEXER
Frank Menchaca
Frey, Paul R. Greenland, Ellen
Coughlin Indexing Services, Inc.
Hawley, Peter Jaskowiak, Jean Fortune
PUBLISHING DIRECTOR
Kaplan, Eric B. Lagergren, Michael L.
PRODUCT DESIGN
Hélène Potter
Levine, Steven M. Long, Eric
Lowenkron, Matthew May, Andrew
Michelle DiMercurio, Tracey Rowens
P
H. Miller, Michael J. O’Neal, Janet
ROJECT EDITORS
Patterson, Kathleen A. Roy, Mary H.
I
Deirdre S. Blanchfield, Dawn
MAGING
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Randy Bassett, Lezlie Light, Michael
Akins Swartz, Alan Thwaits, Visual
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Logusz, Dan Newell, Christine
Education Group
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PROOFREADERS
CONTRIBUTING PROJECT EDITORS
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GRAPHIC ART
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R
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IGHTS ACQUISITION AND
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MANAGEMENT
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BIBLIOGRAPHY RESEARCHERS
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EDITORIAL TECHNICAL SUPPORT
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COMPOSITION
MANUSCRIPT EDITORS
TRANSLATORS
Kari Bethel, Carol Brennan, Sheryl A.
Evi Seoud, Mary Beth Trimper
Names of translators appear through-
Ciccarelli, Judith A. Clinebell, Tony
out the body of the encyclopedia, at
Coulter, Judith Culligan, Andrew
the end of each article that has been
MANUFACTURING
Cunningham, Anne C. Davidson,
rendered into English.
Wendy Blurton, Dorothy Maki
vii

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T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
Preface to the Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Visual Essays: Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Preface to the First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Foreword to the First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Introduction to the First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
List of Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxi
List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxvii
Abbreviations and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxliii
E N C YC LO PE D I A O F R E L I G I O N ,
S E C O N D E D I T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Volume 15 includes Appendix, Synoptic Outline of
Contents, and Index

ix

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P R E F A C E T O T H E S E C O N D E D I T I O N
To participate in a revision of Mircea Eliade’s Encyclopedia of
sort. Careful reading reveals enormous diversity of perspec-
Religion, first published in 1987, is an occasion of intense
tive among first-edition contributors, far more than is often
humility, but also a grand opportunity. Though not without
assumed; and for the revision, even among the principal deci-
its critics, the first edition was suitably heralded as the stan-
sion makers, and positively among the contributors, there is
dard reference work in the field, a truly landmark achieve-
a very wide spectrum of opinions as to the most serviceable
ment. The work of revision has, at nearly every turn, ampli-
definitions of religion and the most worthy purview for the
fied rather than diminished appreciation for the accomplish-
field of religious studies.
ment of those original volumes. Dealing firsthand with the
conceptual and organizational challenges, coupled with the
On the one hand, encyclopedias seem by nature vehicles
logistical labors of coordinating the efforts of countless schol-
of convention, destined to simplify, reify, essentialize, and
ars and editors, redoubles a sense of admiration, respect, and
provide falsely stabilized views of dynamic historical eras,
gratitude for the makers of the original version of this ency-
religious traditions, doctrines, and practices. Yet, on the other
clopedia.
hand, a large percentage of the contributors to this project
understand their academic calling to be primarily one of dis-
If the making of that original set posed innumerable
ruption and destabilization; many have explicitly dedicated
theoretical, organizational, and practical challenges, the revi-
their careers to complicating and calling to question conven-
sion of such a work evokes no fewer questions of balance and
tional wisdoms about religion and things religious. Thus in
compromise. On the one hand, the building and remodeling
order to capitalize on their talents, contributors were provid-
of a work of this wide scope is a preeminently collaborative
ed explicit instructions, tidy scope descriptions, and specific
enterprise. It is born of a vast community of scholars, togeth-
word allotments, but they were also provided a fair measure
er participating in an immensely collective project; the inter-
of space for improvisation and flexibility. One member of the
activity among editors, consultants, and contributors has
editorial board framed the balance this way:
indeed provided perhaps the most rewarding aspects of this
project. Yet, on the other hand, such a large and multifaceted
The letters to all contributors should include a general
undertaking has a deeply impersonal, even anonymous, qual-
statement that we wish to respect their judgment in
ity. Face-to-face meetings among participants are few, sched-
defining the general contours of each article, and the
ules fast, authors and editors far-spaced. By engaging the tal-
scope descriptions are meant only to be suggestive,
ents of so many people from so many places, large encyclo-
although of course we do hope that we will be taken
pedias, and even more so their revisions, perpetuate the pre-
seriously. Also that we are looking for entries that reflect
tense of anonymous, objective, and interchangeable authors;
the current state of the field and that we are hoping that
numerous hands touch every piece, and the target of respon-
each entry will not gloss over problems of evidence or
sibility either for credit or for blame is not always easy to
conceptualization in the current state of the field but
will instead frankly acknowledge such problems and
locate.
make them key parts of the entry in a bid to make the
Such an encyclopedia requires, in one respect, a large
[second edition of the Encyclopedia of Religion] look to
measure of consensus among contributors as to what religion
the future and help to shape things to come.
is and what academic students of religion ought to and ought
not to circumscribe within their view. But, in another
The intellectual challenges are likewise reflected in more
respect, it is a scholarly consensus of a very broad and pliant
practical tensions and balancing acts. Perhaps most onerous-
xi

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xii
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
ly, the recruitment of literally hundreds of qualified scholars,
ASSESSMENTS, ADJUSTMENTS, AND CONVENTIONS
available and willing to deliver their work in a timely man-
The initial step in the revision process was a comprehensive
ner, is no mean task. For some, participation in an encyclo-
evaluation of every one of the 2,750 first-edition entries. As
pedia of this stature is a high calling, a fortuitous opportuni-
though dealing out an enormous deck of cards, each of the
ty to engage a uniquely wide readership; others, however,
original articles was assigned to suitable members of the
admit far less enthusiasm about undertaking assignments
thirteen-person board of associate editors or the slate of some
construed as diversions from their more technical research,
two dozen consultants. Parity did not apply insofar as a stur-
more public service than privilege. Once aboard, contribu-
dy few were taxed with assessing hundreds of articles, others
tors had to balance the standards of accuracy, sophistication,
with only a handful. In the subsequent entry-by-entry
and scholarly nuance that would satisfy themselves and their
review, a relatively small number of articles were completely
academic peers with the encyclopedia’s incentive to reach a
jettisoned while the huge remainder was assigned to one of
far more broad, less specialized audience.
three categories.
The balancing of word counts is likewise a constant con-
A first category of entries is composed of those approved
cern, and the space allotted to various topics is, to some real
to be reprinted with few or no changes. Though roughly
extent, a telling indicator as to the relative importance of
1,800 articles in this set were to remain largely or fully intact,
those topics, at least in the eyes of the editorial board. Yet,
attempts were made to reach the authors of those
equations of article length and significance, a familiar
first-edition entries both with an invitation to modify or
assumption among reviewers, are invariably too simple, too
update their contribution in ways that they saw fit and with
little aware of the practical exigencies of accepted and
a request that they augment the bibliography with relevant
declined invitations, met and missed deadlines, obeyed and
sources that had appeared in the interim. Of course, many of
ignored editorial recommendations. The most well consid-
those scholars were no longer active in the profession; others
ered intentions and the clearest of visions are, not infre-
did not reply; and others declined to make any alterations to
quently, causalities in the stiff competition for the time of
their original articles. Articles that were, therefore, reprinted
twenty-first century academics. In fact, it is both noteworthy
essentially unchanged have a designation of “(1987)” follow-
and deeply disappointing that several dozen additional new
ing the author’s name. In numerous instances, however, first-
articles were conceived but never successfully assigned, and
edition authors did take the occasion to adjust their own arti-
also that at least three dozen promised articles had not
cles in small or large ways. For these articles, the attribution
arrived by the production deadline, and thus had to be omit-
of authorship is followed by two dates, for example, Eleanor
ted from the revision. Gaps and asymmetries in coverage
Zelliot (1987 and 2005). Additionally, where original
could, therefore, have innumerable explanations.
authors of articles in this set were unavailable or nonrespon-
Be that as it may, perhaps the most vexing acts of bal-
sive, many of the respective bibliographies were nonetheless
ance and compromise are built into the very notion of “revi-
supplemented with relevant new sources; this accounts for
sion” itself. Neither defense nor attack, revision demands
those bylines that include the designation “Revised
commingled attitudes of respect for and discontent with the
Bibliography,” which signals that a “New Sources” section is
original. To revise requires, on the one side, that a goodly
appended to the bibliography.
portion of the previous work will remain intact; this editori-
A second category of entries comprises those judged to
al board was not afforded a fully fresh point of departure. Yet,
need significant revision or updating. These articles are per-
on the other side, the initiative of revising does afford, even
haps most properly worthy of the title “revised” insofar as
necessitates, changes, reconceptualizations, and wholly new
they both retain a substantial portion of the original work
additions that respond both to recent events and to recent
and introduce substantially new information and/or new
trends in scholarship. Revision is, by nature and by design, a
conceptual formulations. This sort of revision took one of
balancing and a juxtaposition of old and new elements.
three forms. In some cases, original authors were enlisted to
This complex intermingling of first-edition and new
rework and update their own articles; those articles (not
components enriches but also greatly complicates the critical
unlike those in which authors voluntarily revised their origi-
use and assessment of these volumes. The synoptic outline of
nal articles) are consequently attributed to a sole author but
contents, the alphabetical list of entries, and the index pro-
with two dates, for example, Davíd Carrasco (1987 and
vide usefully comprehensive guides, but to discover all that is
2005). In many other cases, the revision was undertaken by
new and different between the second edition and its prece-
a different scholar, which accounts for those articles that are
dent can, nonetheless, pose a difficult challenge. The remain-
attributed to two authors, for example, Robertson Davies
der of this preface works, therefore, to direct attention (1) to
(1987) and Eric Ziolkowski (2005). Irrespective of whether
some of the most prominent new elements of this revision;
the modifications were completed by the original author or
(2) to the decision-making processes that put those adjust-
by someone else, the revisions are, in some instances, mod-
ments in place; and (3) to the conventions in this edition that
est, perhaps addressing recent events or attending to an
can assist in ascertaining the precise status of individual
important new publication on the topic; but, in other cases,
entries.
the adjustments and reconceptualizations are more thor-
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
xiii
oughgoing. All of the revisions and “updates” of these sorts
NEW FEATURES AND CONFIGURATIONS
do, however, eventuate in entries that are, at once, old and
In addition to these various layers of revision and replace-
new.
ment, the second edition introduces entries on nearly six
A third variation on this revision theme—and one of the
hundred topics that did not appear in the first edition. New
more distinctive features of the second edition of
topics and titles are added to almost every portion of the revi-
Encyclopedia of Religion—is a consequence of those situations
sion, but especially noteworthy are those that appear in relat-
in which the original article was assessed as a still-valuable
ed sets of articles—or so-termed composite entries. Many of
exposition of the topic, worthy of reprinting, but not a treat-
these composite sets, which were also a very prominent fea-
ment that could any longer be represented as state-of-the-art.
ture of the first edition, provide a means of surveying the
In many of these instances, the first-edition entry provided a
geographical distribution of a large tradition: The
seminal statement on the subject, but was distinctive, or
“Buddhism” composite entry, for example, is composed of
sometimes idiosyncratic, in ways that precluded revision or
articles that treat, in succession, “Buddhism in India,”
updating per se. Thus, instead of reworking the original, it
“Buddhism in Southeast Asia,” “Buddhism in Central Asia,”
was more suitable to retain the integrity of that article by
and so on. In many other cases, however, these composite sets
reprinting it unchanged and then augmenting it with a kind
are trained on a broad topic or theme such as “Pilgrimage,”
of supplementary addendum. For instance, Mircea Eliade
“Iconography,” “Music,” or “Soul,” which is then addressed
in a cross-culturally comparative fashion. In the main, these
wrote the first-edition entry “Sexuality: An Overview,” which
thematically configured composites open with a broad
articulates a prominent, still-important exposition of the
overview article, which is then followed by a series of articles
topic, but not one that can be regarded as current in a field
that explore that large theme either in different contexts
of study where there has been enormous activity in the past
and/or from different angles of view. And, although every
two decades. The original entry is, therefore, allowed to stand
sort of composite entry enjoys a measure of revision, it is
with the parenthetical designation “[First Edition]” and then
these thematically linked sets that are subject to the most
is complemented by a completely new entry titled “Sexuality:
venturesome innovation and growth. Several permutations
An Overview [Further Considerations],” which focuses
and outstanding examples deserve quick comment.
attention on research and perspectives that have emerged
since the first edition. This pairing of prominent but now
In numerous instances, thematic composite entries that
dated first-edition entries with new complementary pieces—
appeared in the original edition were reworked and very sub-
there are roughly fifty of these juxtapositions of old and
stantially expanded. For example, the first-edition “Afterlife”
new—adds a special texture to the revision; it facilitates a
composite entry included an overview and only two
kind of historical, even archaeological, appreciation of the
area-specific articles, one on Jewish concepts of the afterlife
unfolding succession of ideas on a topic. But the same edito-
and another on Chinese concepts. In the new edition, how-
rial tactic also places a special burden on readers.
ever, that pair is complemented by completely new entries on
Accordingly, as a cautionary note, it would, in principle,
African conceptions of the afterlife, as well as Australian,
Oceanic, Mesoamerican, Christian, Islamic, Greek and
never be suitable to rely on one of these “First Edition” pieces
Roman, and Germanic concepts. The first-edition
without reading ahead also to its complimentary, sometimes
“Cosmology” composite is similarly expanded with thor-
quite critical, “Further Considerations” counterpart.
oughly new entries on the cosmologies of Africa, indigenous
In any case, the initial article-by-article assessment of the
Australia, Oceania, indigenous North America and
first edition eventuated also in a third category constituted of
Mesoamerica, South America, Islam, and finally, so-termed
those entries for which a topic and title were retained but the
“Scientific Cosmologies.” Or, to cite just one more such
actual article was completely replaced. There are well over
example of the enhancement of a standing composite entry,
three hundred of these new renditions of already-standing
the original cluster of entries under the rubric of “Rites of
topics. As a rule, authors of these replacement articles were
Passage,” which had included entries solely on Hindu,
invited to employ the original entry as a resource but not
Jewish, and Muslim rites, is fleshed out to include new arti-
necessarily a model, that is, to compose an essentially new
cles on African, Oceanic, Mesoamerican, and Neopagan rites
treatment of the existing topic. Not surprisingly, one can find
of passage.
instances in which there is considerable continuity between
Other second-edition composite entries—article sets
the original and present articles while, in other cases, the
that provide some of the most notable new contributions to
first-edition article and its new, second-edition iteration
the revision—result from cases in which a topic that had
share little beyond the title. That is to say, the great majority
received fairly limited coverage in the first edition becomes
of these so-termed replacement articles are, for all practical
the subject of a much more extensive block of new articles.
purposes, thoroughly new entries. Consequently, author
For instance, where the original edition had modest-length
attribution for these articles includes a parenthetical date pre-
and broadly-framed articles devoted to “Healing,”
cisely like other new articles, for example, Mary MacDonald
“Medicine,” and “Diseases and Cures,” the revision explores
(2005).
those themes far more fully via a composite entry that opens
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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
with “Healing and Medicine: An Overview,” which is then
tions under consideration. A second level of revision focused
followed by fourteen completely new articles trained on heal-
on individual entries: standing articles like “Women’s
ing practices in various regions and traditions, for example,
Studies,” “Human Body,” and “Spirit Possession” were revis-
in Africa, in the African diaspora, in the Ancient Near East,
ited, then replaced or heavily reworked in light of contem-
in Judaism, in Islamic texts and traditions, in the popular
porary approaches to gender and religion. Space was opened
healing practices of Middle Eastern cultures, in Greece and
also for numerous new topical entries such as “Beauty,”
Rome, and so on. A sole first-edition entry on “Ecology” is
“Gynocentrism,” “Lesbianism,” “Men’s Studies in Religion,”
supplanted by a full constellation of “Ecology and Religion”
“Patriarchy and Matriarchy,” and “Thealogy”; for several
articles that includes eleven new tradition-specific articles on
midsized composite entries on “Feminism,” “Feminist
various ways of conceiving the interrelations between
Theology,” and “Nuns”; and for numerous new biographical
humans, the earth, and the cosmos, as well as thematic
entries on women. Finally, at a third and especially ambitious
entries on environmental ethics and on science, religion, and
level, the completely new “Gender and Religion” composite
ecology. “Law and Religion” is also much expanded and fully
entry employs the familiar pattern of an overview article, fol-
reconfigured in a set of thirteen articles that address the topic
lowed by a succession of region- or tradition-specific articles;
in six different regions or traditions and then in relation to
but this set is unique in its scale of execution.
six different sorts of themes, such as law and religion in con-
New religious movements is yet another area of major
nection with literature, with critical theory, with human
growth and reconceptualization. In fact, no segment of the
rights, with morality, with new religious movements and,
encyclopedia enjoys quite such extensive enlargement. The
finally, with punishment. And, by the same token, the free-
original five-part composite entry is replaced by an eleven-
standing entry on “Politics and Religion” in the first edition
part set that includes not only a revamped overview and new
is replaced by a ten-part composite entry that begins with a
or reworked area-specific articles on the United States,
broad overview of the topic and then engages intersections of
Europe, Japan, and Latin America, but also thematic and
religion and politics in each of several traditions.
comparative articles on the scriptures of new religious move-
Additional composite entries are completely new insofar
ments and on new religious movements in relation to
as they have no direct counterpart in the first edition. The
women, to children, to millennialism, and to violence.
treatment of literature, for instance, an enormous and multi-
Where the first-edition synoptic outline listed a couple dozen
faceted topic that streams through countless sections of the
supporting articles under the heading of “New Religions and
encyclopedia, was reconfigured in ways that issued in a com-
Modern Movements,” the revision includes nearly three
pletely new ten-part composite entry on fiction and religion
times that many. Among the wealth of new topical entries are
in various guises. In that case, a lead entry titled “Fiction:
“Anticult Movements,” “Brainwashing (Debate),” and
History of the Novel” is complemented by all new entries
“Deprogramming”; “Neopaganism” and “Wicca”;
that survey connections between religion and the Western
“Swedenborgianism,” “Rastafarianism,” “UFO Religions,”
novel, Latin American fiction, Chinese fiction, Japanese fic-
“Heaven’s Gate,” “Aum Shinrikyo¯,” and “Falun Gong.”
tion, Southeast Asian fiction, Australian fiction, Oceanic fic-
Similarly abundant new biographical articles address figures
tion, African fiction, and Native American fiction. Another
ranging from Aleister Crowley, Daddy Grace, Matilda Joslyn
fully new composite entry under the rubric of
Gage, Emma Curtis Hopkins, and L. Ron Hubbard to Jim
“Transculturation and Religion” opens with an overview that
Jones and David Koresh, to mention just a few.
situates “the problem of religion” within the context of the
An innovative new composite entry under the rubric of
making of the modern world; subsequent elements of the set
“Study of Religion” is one of several components designed to
address the role of religion in the formation of, respectively,
engage matters of theory, method, and intellectual history,
modern Canada, the modern Caribbean, modern Japan,
concerns that were very important for the first edition and
modern India, and modern Oceania. Other innovative new
remained a priority for the second. Where the original edition
composite entries, though on somewhat more modest scales,
had entries focused primarily on the emergence and develop-
engage such topics as “Orgy,” “Sociobiology and
ment of religious studies in Western Europe and the United
Evolutionary Psychology,” and “Humor and Religion.”
States, this new “Study of Religion” grouping works to survey
Particularly notable among new composite entries is the
ways in which the nature and study of “religion” have been
twenty-one-part “Gender and Religion,” a wholly new set
conceptualized and institutionalized also in Eastern Europe,
that deserves special mention not only as the largest such
Japan, North Africa and the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa,
grouping in the revision, but also as part of a three-tiered ini-
and South Asia. Also in a methodological realm, most of the
tiative to engage the abundance of important work that has
eighteen first-edition “History of Study” entries (e.g.,
appeared in that field since the original version. At one level,
“Australian Religions: History of Study”; “Chinese Religion:
the instructions to authors of every article for this edition,
History of Study”; “Egyptian Religion: History of Study”;
whether revised or completely new, included an incitement
etc.) were substantially updated or replaced, and entirely new
to consider seriously, and to make explicit, the gendered
entries were added to address the history of the study of
dynamics of the religious doctrines, practices, and institu-
African American religions, Baltic religion, Celtic religions,
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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
xv
Confucianism, and Germanic religions, along with new
Religion” were areas of considerable growth and innovation.
entries on the history of the study of gender and religion, of
Yes, the enumeration of new and reworked features could go
Gnosticism, and of new religious movements. Numerous of
on and on. It is, to be sure, only via direct engagement of the
the “Methods of Study” entries were revised, and wholly new
entries themselves that one can really begin to appreciate all
offerings include “Ethology of Religion,” “Literature: Critical
that is new and different between the second edition and its
Theory and Religious Studies,” “Subaltern Studies,” and a
precedent.
two-part set on “Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.”
Of more than one hundred first-edition entries listed in the
In sum, then, it is important to note that the associate
synoptic outline under so-called “Scholarly Terms,” very few
editors and consultants—all of whom deserve enormous cred-
were deleted; some are substantially revised (e.g.,
it for their expertise, insight, and endurance—worked with-
“Conversion,” “Dualism,” and “Tradition”); some prominent
out any fixed quota as to how much would change and how
terms are augmented with “Further Considerations” pieces
much remain the same. This open policy proved a proverbial
(e.g., “Mysticism,” “Ritual,” “Religion,” “Sacrifice,” and
mixed blessing—both an ample benefit and what became a
“Syncretism”); and many others are replaced with essentially
heavy burden insofar as, it is safe to say, the extent of revision
new entries (e.g., “Charisma,” “Folklore,” “Religious
and enlargement far exceeded anyone’s expectation. The final
Experience,” and “Sacred Time”). Completely new offerings
tally of new and essentially new entries, in fact, exceeds by
under that heading include “Colonialism and Post-colonial-
fourfold the initial projections, which were only whispered at
ism,” “Creolization,” “Globalization and Religion,” “Implicit
the outset of the process. Were there anticipation in the
Religion,” “Invisible Religion,” “Orientalism,” “Spirituality,”
beginning that this revised second edition would include, as it
and “World Religions.” And with respect to “Scholars of
does, well over five hundred new topics, nearly one thousand
Religion,” another area of special distinction for Encyclopedia
completely new articles, and 1.5 million more words than the
of Religion, we retained the policy of separate biographical
original Encyclopedia of Religion perhaps fewer would have
entries only for scholars who are deceased, but nonetheless
agreed to participate in the editorial initiative.
added more than fifty new names to the list.
The fortuitous result is, nevertheless, a scholarly
The enumeration of important new articles and features
resource too large and layered for anyone to master or even
could, as they say, go on and on. In the Judaism section,
appreciate fully; no one can attain that vantage that affords a
nearly all of the principal articles, the main “Judaism: An
view of the whole. Instead—and happily—individual readers
Overview” included, are thoroughly rewritten and more than
will inevitably be drawn to those parts that appeal to their
thirty new topics were added. Among the articles on Islam, a
distinct interests and serve their special purposes. This ency-
high percentage both of the large geographical survey entries
clopedia is, in an important sense, many encyclopedias, each
and the dozens of shorter supporting articles are revised in
of which emerges in dynamic relations with the persons who
variously minor and major ways, and numerous wholly new
read and use it. Moreover, time and again, searching and
topics have been introduced. The treatment of Buddhism,
serendipity blend so that an entry simply happened upon, an
including the several composite configurations devoted to
article or aspect other than that which you are seeking,
that tradition, received especially thoroughgoing reconceptu-
evokes the strongest excitement and provides the most satis-
alizations, as well as the introduction of more than two dozen
fying reward. Even those of us with much invested in this
completely new topics, numerous of them focused on Tibet.
North American Indian religions was also a zone of especial-
revision, continue to read, reread, and experience these vol-
ly extensive revision and expansion in ways that reflect the
umes with a sense of discovery. It is our sincere hope, more-
tumultuous changes in that field over the past two decades
over, that this new edition can provide other readers that
and the emergence of a generation of native scholars whose
same ongoing sense of exploration and evocation of interest.
presence was largely absent from the first edition. The large
LINDSAY JONES
lists under “Art and Religion” and, even more, “Science and
Ohio State University, September 2004
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V I S U A L E S S A Y S : R A T I O N A L E
Without exception, religions around the world and through-
3. They structure relations with other persons, beings,
out time have included a vital visual dimension—whether it
and communities.
is icons to contemplate, sacred diagrams used in ritual, pow-
4. They shape one’s state of mind and body for ritual and
erful objects charged with the capacity to protect or heal, the
devotional experience.
creation of sacred spaces, or the use of clothing, vestments, or
liturgical objects in worship. Because human beings rely
5. They visualize sacred texts, intermingling word and
heavily on sight for information about their worlds, images
image or transforming them into one another.
of different kinds have always played an important role in the
Of course, a single image may do several or even all of these.
design of religious spaces and rites and in the daily practices
But for the sake of clarity, selections for each essay focus on
of the devout. Art historians, anthropologists, archeologists,
one function.
and historians of religion have long noted the significance of
images in religious life.
I do not suppose that any of these operations is unique
to imagery. One might make the same points regarding food,
The fourteen visual essays included in the second edi-
dress, dance, or any of the arts regarding most, if not all, of
tion of Encyclopedia of Religion seek to demonstrate how per-
the functions. But images will operate in different terms from
vasively visual culture permeates religion. Each of the essays
other media. The larger point here is to show by means of
is organized around a practice or theme common to many
example and comparison how images and visual practices
different religions. Since the goal was to explore the relevance
provide rich evidence for the study and understanding of reli-
and power of the visual culture of religion, the task in each
gion as a lived and visually engaging experience.
case has been to show how images and visual practices par-
ticipate in the lived experience of religion. This approach
VISUAL ESSAY THEMES
contrasts with the passive use of images sometimes used by
scholars and reference works merely to illustrate religious
The fourteen essays are organized under the five broad
practice or doctrine. In no instance does an image appear
rubrics outlined above. It is important to underscore the fact
here in that capacity. Images are not used in these essays to
that any given image might be classified simultaneously
under several of the themes and rubrics. In fact, categories
recall or exemplify religious ideas or topics, but to provide
such as “space” and “time” are only extricated and regarded
concrete examples of how religions happen visually, that is,
in abstracto since, in practice, they are often collapsed into a
how images are put to use in visual practices that are the sub-
single domain of experience, as several examples of the sacred
stance and experience of religious belief. Thus, the emphasis
diagrams in the third essay will show. Moreover, images that
has been consistently on what images do.
perform such acts as healing or protection, or images that
The fourteen themes have been selected in order to
help one to remember or convey information, do so within
show the great variety of ways in which images, objects, and
the cultural contexts of their users. An image is not an
spaces make religious practice take the form it does. Broadly
autonomous entity, but is embedded in a life-world and a
speaking, images accomplish at least five operations:
history, and charged with meaning and purpose within its
society and civilization, deprived of which its function and
1. They create a sense of time.
power to signify and operate to purpose are necessarily com-
2. They create a sense of space.
promised. Like any cultural artifact, images are not things in
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VISUAL ESSAYS: RATIONALE
themselves, but organic components of an operating whole.
II. Space
But in order to convey as clearly as possible the individual
4. Sacred Matter—the use of images and objects such as
functions of images, the fourteen themes are placed under
relics, reliquaries, amulets, or liturgical objects in reli-
discrete rubrics.
gious practice.
To remove images and visual practices from one habitat
5. Sacred Space—the role of images in creating shrines,
and history, as often happens through migration, coloniza-
monuments, gardens, temples, mosques, churches, and
tion, warfare, and trade, means to inaugurate new cultural
pilgrimage sites.
and historical meanings. The ability of images to transcend
III. Structuring Social Relations
one context, to synthesize different systems of meaning, to
help invent new traditions of practice and thought, and to
6. Community—imaging clan, tribe, ancestor, family,
nation, congregation, ethnicity, and race.
lead many lives beyond those originally ascribed to them are
all part of the power of images that will be explored visually
7. Commerce of Images—the role that images play in the
in these essays.
metaphysical as well as social economies of the sacred.
The operative question posed throughout the organiza-
8. Appropriation and Identity—the manner in which
tion of these themes and the examples gathered under each
images facilitate transformation, migration, and evolu-
has been: what do images do in religious life? Images are not
tion of religious ideas and practices.
used identically in various religions, though there are many
9. Efficacious Images—images that heal, protect, or
striking parallels. And images often mark and remember the
enable their users to benefit or harm others.
boundary of one tradition and another. Not all of the cate-
10. Portraits—images of ancestors, teachers, saints, or
gories listed below apply to every religious tradition. Not
deities that enable veneration, adoration, or union.
every religion in human history is represented. Indeed, far
IV. Shaping Mind and Body
from it. The task was not universal coverage, but rather an
attempt to register some of the most important things that
11. Sacred Gaze—images that assist meditation, visualiza-
images do, things that belong at the heart of any study of reli-
tion, memory, and aesthetic contemplation.
gious practice and history. Students and scholars should find
12. The True Image—visual traditions in certain religions
in these categories and their examples a prompt for the visu-
that seek nonhumanly created images of a deity,
al investigation of virtually any religious group, behavior, or
founder, or saint.
idea.
13. Images and the Body—how images are used to condi-
I. Time
tion the body, affect its operation, and control it.
1. Sacred Time—the creation of time in ritual, memory,
V. Imaging Sacred Text
prophecy, or dream time; that is, remembering, look-
14. Word and Image—artifacts involving the integration of
ing ahead, and stepping out of time.
text and image in order to intensify the artifact’s mean-
ing and effect or evade taboos against pictorial repre-
2. Visual Narrative—the visual means of storytelling.
sentation.
3. Cosmic Visions—maps, calendars, man.d.alas, yantras,
DAVID MORGAN
astrological charts, and sacred diagrams.
Valparaiso University, September 2004
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P R E F A C E T O T H E F I R S T E D I T I O N
Such an encyclopedia as this has long been overdue. In all
gnostic writings at Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt and of a
areas of religious studies—in the historical religious tradi-
great number of Essene manuscripts at Qumran, near the
tions as well as in nonliterate (“primitive”) religious sys-
Dead Sea, have given us documents of immeasurable value.
tems—the “information explosion” of recent decades has
Although publication and translation are not yet completed,
demanded a new presentation of available materials. Further,
much light has already been thrown on two problems that
in the last half century, new methodological approaches and
were extremely controversial until a generation ago.
more adequate hermeneutics have enhanced our knowledge
A specific characteristic of the last several decades’ activ-
of the existential value, the social function, and the cultural
ities has been the amazing number of Asian religious texts
creativity of religions throughout history. We understand
that have been edited and, in many cases, translated for the
better now the mind and the behavior of homo religious (“reli-
first time into a European language. This editorial enterprise
gious man”), and we know much more about the beginnings,
has been accompanied by the publication of a series of
the growth, and the crises of different religions of the world.
monographs spanning a range of scholarship difficult to
These impressive advances in information and under-
imagine a few generations ago. The significance of such
standing have helped to eradicate the cliches, highly popular
works is enormous, and the consequences of their publica-
in the nineteenth century, concerning the mental capacity of
tion are far-reaching.
nonliterate peoples and the poverty and provincialism of
The esoteric and occult traditions, misunderstood or
non-Western cultures. To realize the radical change of per-
neglected by former generations of scholars born and
spective, it suffices to compare, for instance, the current
brought up in a positivistic milieu, constitute but one area of
interpretations of an Australian Aboriginal ritual, a tradition-
study on which recent research has cast new light. Here,
al African mythology, an Inner Asian shamanistic seance, or
much that was once obscure has been illuminated by, for
such complex phenomena as yoga and alchemy with the eval-
instance, the classic monographs of Gershom Scholem on
uations en vogue a few generations ago. Perhaps for the first
Qabbalah and on Jewish gnostic and mystical systems.
time in history we recognize today not only the unity of
Scholem’s erudition and insight have disclosed to us a coher-
human races but also the spiritual values and cultural signif-
ent and profound world of meaning in texts that had earlier
icance of their religious creations.
been generally dismissed as mere magic and superstition.
I shall not here attempt to survey all the decisive contri-
Likewise, our understanding of Islamic mysticism has been
butions of recent research to a more correct appreciation of
radically improved by Louis Massignon’s works, while Henry
the dialectics of the sacred and of so many ethnic and histor-
Corbin and his disciples have revealed the neglected dimen-
ical religious systems. A few examples will serve to underscore
sions of Isma¯Eı¯lı¯ esoteric tradition.
my point.
Also, in the past forty years we have witnessed a more
In some areas of religious studies, unexpected and aston-
correct and comprehensive appraisal of Chinese, Indian, and
ishing consequences of recent archaeological or textual dis-
Western alchemies. Until recently, alchemy was regarded
coveries have become almost immediately apparent.
either as a proto-chemistry—that is, as an embryonic, naive,
Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, for instance,
or prescientific discipline—or as a mass of superstitious rub-
have revealed the grandiose proto-historical urban civiliza-
bish that was culturally irrelevant. The investigations of
tion of the Indus Valley, and discoveries of the library of
Joseph Needham and Nathan Sivin have proved that Chinese
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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
alchemy has a holistic structure, that it is a traditional science
peasants toward the Virgin Mary might bear in some way on
sui generis, not intelligible without its cosmologies and its
our understanding of the Classical Demeter.” And the
ethical and, so to say, “existential” presuppositions and sote-
archaeologist Marija Gimbutas has pointed out that the pre-
riological implications. And it is significant that in China
Christian layer in Baltic folklore “is so ancient that it
alchemy was intimately related to secret Taoist practices, that
undoubtedly reaches back to prehistoric times—at least to
in India it was a part of Tantric Yoga, and that, in the West,
the Iron Age or in the case of some elements even several mil-
Greco-Egyptian and Renaissance alchemy was usually con-
lennia deeper.” As to the archaism of Irish popular traditions,
nected with gnosticism and Hermetism—all of which are
recent studies have demonstrated numerous analogies with
secret, “occult” traditions.
ancient Indian ideas and customs.
A most surprising result of contemporary scholarship
Even more important, popular traditions around the
has been the discovery of the important role that alchemy
globe reveal a specific originality in their reinterpretation of
and Hermetic esotericism have played in Western thought,
the Christian message. In many cultures, peasants practice
not only in the Italian Renaissance but also in the triumph of
what can be called a “cosmic Christianity,” which, in a “total”
Copernicus’s new astronomy, in the heliocentric theory of
history of Christendom, ought to have a place, for it repre-
the solar system. Frances A. Yates has brilliantly analyzed the
sents a new type of religious creativity. Thus, parallel to the
deep implications of the passionate interest in Hermetism in
different Christian theologies constructed both on Hebrew
this period. For almost two centuries, Egyptian magic, alche-
scriptures and on Greek metaphysics, one must also set the
my, and esotericism have obsessed innumerable theologians
“popular theology” that assimilated and christianized many
and philosophers, believers as well as skeptics and cryp-
archaic traditions, from Neolithic to Oriental and Hellenistic
toatheists. Yet, only recently has the importance of alchemy
religions. In this way, the religious history of Christian
in Newton’s thinking, for example, been revealed. Betty J. T.
Europe will be deprovincialized and its universal values will
Dobbs has pointed out that Newton probed in his laborato-
become more evident.
ry “the whole vast literature of the older alchemy as it has
I may also recall some of the results of contemporary
never been probed before or since.” In fact, Newton sought
work on the religious meaning—or function—of oral, and
in alchemy the structure of the small world to match his cos-
even written, literature. Some years ago, a number of schol-
mological system.
ars pointed out the initiatory symbols and motifs of certain
Among many other examples of the progress realized in
categories of fairy tale. Significantly, almost at the same time
the last several decades, I may also recall the reevaluation of
many critics in Europe as well as in the United States began
European popular traditions. Until the 1930s, the religious
to investigate the patterns of initiation recognizable in vari-
systems of Australian Aborigines and North American
ous literary works. In both types of narrative, oral and writ-
Indians were more seriously investigated, and were better
ten, we are led into an imaginary world, and in both we meet
understood, than were European folk traditions. On the one
characters who undergo a series of initiatory ordeals, a com-
hand, researchers were interested mainly in folk literature; on
mon plot structure that is generally presented more or less
the other hand, their interpretations of rituals and “popular
transparently. The difference is that, while some fairy tales
mythologies” usually followed one of the fashionable theo-
can be regarded as reflecting the remembrance of actual ini-
rists, such as Wilhelm Mannhardt or James G. Frazer.
tiation rites practiced in the past, such is not true of modern
Furthermore, many scholars, in both eastern and western
literary works.
Europe, considered rural traditions as fragmentary and
Specialists have also identified initiatory elements in
debased survivals from a superior layer of culture, from that,
such classical sources as the sixth book of Vergil’s Aeneid, in a
say, represented by the feudal aristocracy or that derived from
number of scenarios and personages of the Arthurian leg-
church literature. In sum, taking into account the powerful
ends, in the neo-Greek epic Digenis Akritas, in Tibetan epic
influences of the church and of urban culture, one was
poetry, and elsewhere. Most probably, these elements are
inclined to doubt the authenticity or the archaism of rural
ghostly souvenirs of the distant past, memories, vaguely
religious traditions in Europe.
recalled, of ancient initiatory rituals. But such cannot be so
Recent and more rigorous studies have revealed a quite
with initiatory structures found in modern literature from
different situation. The Austrian ethnologist Leopold
Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Eliot’s The
Schmidt, for example, has shown that certain mythico-ritual
Waste Land to the many novels of James Fenimore Cooper,
scenarios that were still current among peasants of central
Jules Verne, Mark Twain, and William Faulkner.
and southeastern Europe at the beginning of the twentieth
Nevertheless, these facts are relevant for an understanding of
century preserved mythological fragments and rituals that
modern Western man. Indeed, in a desacralized world such
had disappeared in ancient Greece before the time of Homer.
as ours, the “sacred” is present and active chiefly in imaginary
Other scholars have concluded that Romanian and Balkan
universes. But imaginary experiences are part of the total
folklore preserves Homeric and pre-Homeric themes and
human being. This means that nostalgia for initiatory trials
motifs. According to the American linguist and anthropolo-
and scenarios, nostalgia deciphered in so many literary and
gist Paul Friedrich, “The attitudes of contemporary Greek
artistic works (including the cinema), reveals modern man’s
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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
xxi
longing for a renovation capable of radically changing his
An obvious corollary may thence be drawn: that knowl-
existence.
edge of the religious ideas and practices of other traditions
better enables anyone to understand his or her own. The his-
Of course, this is only an example of the unconscious
tory of religions is the story of the human encounter with the
reaction against the desacralization of modern Western soci-
sacred—a universal phenomenon made evident in myriad
eties, in some regards a phenomenon parallel to the accultur-
ways.
ation of many traditional (“primitive”) cultures. This com-
plex and delicate problem warrants far more attention then I
These, then, are some of the themes and topics that the
can give it here, but I do wish to note that what has been
interested reader will find in the hundreds of articles that
called the “occult explosion” in contemporary North
constitute this encyclopedia. In planning it, the editors and
America belongs to the same desperate effort to react against
the staff have aimed at a concise, clear, and objective descrip-
the growing desacralization of the modern world, specifical-
tion of the totality of human experiences of the sacred. We
ly the almost general crisis of the Christian churches.
have, we hope, paid due attention to traditions both great
and small, to the historical religions as well as to the primal
The most significant advance in religious studies of the
religions, to the religious systems of the East as well as to
past several decades has been realized in our understanding of
those of the West. Wishing particularly to avoid reduction-
primal religions—that is, the religious systems of “primitive,”
ism and Western cultural bias, we have given far greater space
nonliterate peoples. There is no doubt that improvement of
to the religions of non-Western areas than have earlier refer-
fieldwork methods and the growing interest of anthropolo-
ence books on religion. Finally, and in conformity with the
gists in depth psychology, linguistics, and historiographical
international design of our encyclopedia, we have invited
methodology have contributed to this success. Especially the
scholars from five continents to contribute articles related to
researches, hypotheses, and controversies in relation to myths
their specific areas of research.
and mythological thinking have played a decisive role. The
once-popular theories of the intellectual inferiority of “sav-
Our encyclopedia was not conceived as a dictionary,
with entries covering the entire vocabulary in every field of
ages,” or of their “pre-logical mentality,” have been obsolete
religious studies. Rather, it was conceived as a system of arti-
for some time. Anthropologists and sociologists as well as his-
cles on important ideas, beliefs, rituals, myths, symbols, and
torians of religions nowadays emphasize the structural coher-
persons that have played a role in the universal history of reli-
ence of “primitive” religious beliefs and ideas. Although, as is
gions from Paleolithic times to the present day. Thus, the
always true in humanistic disciplines, no general theory on
reader will not find here entries on all the popes or on all the
the “primitive mind” has been universally accepted, one
patriarchs of the Eastern churches, nor on all the saints, mys-
methodological presupposition seems to be shared by the
tics, and minor figures of the various religious traditions.
majority of today’s scholars: namely, the “normality” and,
Instead, here is a great network of historical and descriptive
consequently, the creativity of the primal religions.
articles, synthetical discussions, and interpretive essays that
Indeed, it has been repeatedly pointed out that the
make available contemporary insight into the long and mul-
archaic mind has never been stagnant, that some nonliterate
tifaceted history of religious man.
peoples have made important technological discoveries and
Here, among many others, are articles devoted to recent
that some others have had a certain sense of history. Such
archaeological and textual discoveries and, particularly
radical modification of our former understanding and evalu-
important, articles devoted to the reevaluation of facts and
ation of nonliterate religious traditions has been in part a
systems of thought ignored or neglected until a few decades
consequence of growing interest in the structure and the
ago: for instance, the history of Hermetism and of alchemy,
morphology of the sacred—that is, in religious experience
the occult revival in our time, the creativity of “popular” reli-
and in its ritual and symbolic expressions.
gions, the millenaristic movements among contemporary
Progressively, scholars have realized the necessity of try-
“primitive” societies, and the religious dimensions of the arts.
ing to discover the meanings given by nonliterate peoples to
A more rigorous study of such themes not only illuminates
their own religious activities. W. E. H. Stanner, who dedicat-
their meanings but, in some cases, opens new perspectives on
ed his life to the study of Australian Aborigines, emphatical-
the evaluation of other cultural phenomena.
ly asserted that their religion must be approached “as religion
By consulting various entries in the encyclopedia, the
and not as a mirror of something else.” Stanner repeatedly
reader will learn the latest results of anthropological research
criticized the fallacious presupposition “that the social order
and the current evaluation of various primal religions. These,
is primary and in some cases causal, and the religious order
in turn, have led to the burgeoning contemporary interest in
secondary and in some sense consequential.” Equally signifi-
the structure, meaning, and functions of myth and of reli-
cant is the affirmation of the British Africanist E. E. Evans-
gious symbols. A number of articles herein are devoted to
Pritchard that knowledge of Christian theology, exegesis,
these subjects, which are equally important, I might add, for
symbolic thought, and ritual better enables the anthropolo-
recent Western philosophical inquiry. As a matter of fact, the
gist to understand “primitive” ideas and practices.
exegesis of mythical thinking has played a central role in the
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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
works of many distinguished modern philosophers and lin-
psychologist, and the philosopher. To know the great variety
guists. Similarly, a more adequate understanding of symbolic
of worldviews assumed by religious man, to comprehend the
thinking has contributed to the systematic study of religious
expanse of his spiritual universe, is, finally, to advance our
symbols, and, thus, to a reevaluation of the central role of
general knowledge of humankind. It is true that most of the
religious symbolism.
worldviews of primal societies and archaic civilizations have
I need not list here other examples of recent method-
long since been left behind by history. But they have not van-
ological progress that has made possible our present compre-
ished without a trace. They have contributed toward making
hension of religious structures and creations. It suffices to say
us what we are today, and so, after all, they are part of our
that the researches of the last half century concern not only
own history.
the historian of religions, the anthropologist, and the sociol-
MIRCEA ELIADE
ogist but also the political scientist, the social historian, the
Chicago, March 1986
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F O R E W O R D T O T H E F I R S T E D I T I O N
Mircea Eliade, the editor in chief of this encyclopedia, died
reminders that any encyclopedia, including this one, begins
in April 1986, shortly after drafting his preface. The publish-
to grow obsolete almost before it is published.
er wisely chose to leave his preface substantially as he had
Readers will notice, of course, some basic differences
composed it, and it was suggested that I spell out in a fore-
between these two encyclopedias. Joachim Wach
word what might be called the encyclopedia’s “angle of
(1898–1955) often reminded us that religion usually has
vision,” to supplement what had already been said by its edi-
three “expressions” (his term) or dimensions, namely, the the-
tor in chief.
oretical (e.g., doctrines, dogmas, myths, theologies, ethics),
Needless to say, it would be virtually impossible for an
the practical (e.g., cults, sacraments, meditations), and the
encyclopedia of this sort to cover adequately every religious
sociological (e.g., religious groupings, ecclesiastical forms).
idea, practice, and phenomenon known to the human race.
Our encyclopedia tries to do justice as much as possible to
these three dimensions of religion, in contradistinction to the
At the same time, the publisher, the editors, and our many
ERE, which focused primarily on the theoretical aspect to the
advisers wished to produce not a dictionary but a genuine
exclusion of the practical and the sociological. Admittedly,
encyclopedia that would introduce educated, nonspecialist
the division of human experience into various compart-
readers to important ideas, practices, and persons in the reli-
ments—religion, philosophy, ethics, art, and so on—is large-
gious experience of humankind from the Paleolithic past to
ly a Western convention; and historically, in the West, theol-
our day.
ogy (cognitive attempts to systematize religious teachings)
The present work has much in common with another
has occupied a conspicuously important place in defining
major English-language encyclopedia produced earlier in this
religion, which in turn has enjoyed a traditionally ambiguous
century, namely, the thirteen-volume Encyclopaedia of
but close relationship with ethics and the philosophy of reli-
Religion and Ethics, edited by James Hastings with assistance
gion. Thus it is not surprising that the ERE was primarily
from John A. Selbie, Louis H. Gray, and others (Edinburgh,
concerned with theologies and philosophies of religion and
1908–1926; reprint, New York, 1955; hereafter designated
with ethics, for it was the underlying theological and philo-
sophical interest of the planners of the ERE that led them to
ERE ). Both came into being at times when knowledge about
look for normativeness in religion and ethics. In this sense,
the various religions had grown to such a degree that without
the ERE and the present encyclopedia are very different.
an encyclopedic work of some sort, it would not be possible,
as the architects of the ERE put it, “to have at our command
It is important to appreciate the difference between the
the vast stores of learning which have accumulated.”
mental world of the planners of the ERE and our own men-
tal world. Unconsciously if not consciously, the planners of
The planners of both encyclopedias attempted to solicit
the ERE viewed non-Western peoples, histories, cultures, and
contributions from the most advanced scholars at work in
religions primarily from the Western perspective. It was
the various fields of study; they asked their contributors for
doubtless true that politically, socially, culturally, religiously,
the most up-to-date information available, to be sure, but
economically, and militarily the power of Western colonial
also for histories of interpretation and the most current inter-
nations reached its zenith during the nineteenth century, and
pretive schemas. That much of what was said in the ERE has
that the most important events of the modern world
now gone out of date and that all of it reflects the scholarship
occurred through the impetus and initiative of the West.
of the time in which it was produced are melancholy
Moreover, as has been aptly remarked, the ethos of the nine-
xxiii

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FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION
teenth century lasted rather longer than the actual calendar
similar ideas and beliefs can be differently expressed … [so
end of the century; and furthermore, although World War I
that] confusion has often been caused by naive comparisons
undeniably weakened the unity and cohesiveness of the
and rash inferences” (ibid.). A rational scheme of interpreta-
European family of nations, a persistent carryover of the
tion of religious ideas, usually a philosophy of religion
vitality of the Western powers, Western civilization, and
although sometimes a theology, was brought in to introduce
Western learning remained even in Asia and Africa until the
order and to adjudicate nebulous, confusing, and competing
end of World War II.
religious claims. The following statement succinctly express-
es the main concern of the ERE:
To many non-Western peoples, the year 1945 marked a
significant line of demarcation between two worlds of expe-
Whenever the ethical or moral value of activities or con-
rience. In their eyes, the Western colonial powers—even
ditions is questioned, the value of religion is involved;
when they meant well—had acted in the manner of parents
and all deep-stirring experiences invariably compel a
who refuse to allow their children to grow up by making all
reconsideration of the most fundamental ideas, whether
the important decisions for them. The years after World War
they are explicitly religious or not. Ultimately there
II witnessed not only the emergence of many new and inex-
arise problems of justice, human destiny, God, and the
perienced nations but, more important, a redefinition on a
universe; and these in turn involve problems of the rela-
tion between ‘religious’ and other ideas, the validity of
global scale of the dignity, value, and freedom of human
ordinary knowledge, and practicable conceptions of
beings, including non-Western peoples. While knowledge-
‘experience’ and ‘reality.’ (ibid., p. 662)
able Western scholars of the nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries saw non-Western peoples only as sources of reli-
Undeniably the ERE was an important embodiment of the
gious and cultural data for Western scholars to analyze with-
deep concerns of informed Western theologians and philoso-
in their own (i.e., Western) methodologies and frameworks,
phers with religion and ethics in the early twentieth century,
after World War II these same non-Western peoples rightly
and it represented a high standard, with contributions from
began to insist on participating in the global effort to devel-
many of the most erudite scholars of comparative religion at
op adequate interpretive schemes for apprehending the entire
the time.
religious experience of humankind, past and present, prehis-
toric to modern. Accordingly, the present encyclopedia has
Clearly, our encyclopedia of religion is the product of a
attempted to enlarge the mental world of contemporary
different time and a different sort of scholarship. The multi-
scholarship by drawing a large number of contributors from
dimensional scholarly style of Mircea Eliade, our editor in
the non-Western world. This has turned out to be a far more
chief, might best exemplify the character of our encyclopedia.
difficult approach—but a far more rewarding one—than a
Born in Romania, Eliade early aspired to be a physical scien-
primarily Western-based compendium modeled on the ERE
tist but was lured into the study of the philosophy of the
would have been.
Italian Renaissance during his college days. He studied
Indian philosophy and Yoga at the University of Calcutta and
During the early twentieth century, three major areas of
in the Himalayas. Once back in Romania, he taught at the
“scholarly” or “scientific” study of religion(s)—often called
University of Bucharest and also established his reputation as
“comparative religion” or the “comparative study of reli-
a creative writer. After serving as a cultural attache in both
gions”—were taken for granted. The first comprised a nar-
London and Lisbon, he taught and wrote in Paris as a self-
row historical and ethnological survey of a short series of par-
styled refugee. In 1956 he was invited to teach at the
ticular religions, conceived as the simple collection of “raw”
University of Chicago, and there he spent the next thirty
religious data—beliefs, practices, feelings, moods, atti-
years, until his death in 1986. While he taught the history of
tudes—often colored by an evolutionary ideology. Scholars
religions in the Divinity School and in the Committee of
were keenly aware, however, of the personal and corporate
Social Thought, he also collaborated often with philosopher
aspects and the immanental and transcendental dimensions
Paul Ricoeur and theologian Paul Tillich. His numerous
of religions. The second area aimed to classify religious data
writings include systematic works; historical studies; mono-
according to what Stanley A. Cook in the ERE called “certain
graphs on yoga, shamanism, folk religion, and alchemy;
persistent and prevalent notions of the ‘evolution’ of thought
autobiographies; drama; stories of the occult; and novels.
and … practices … in the history of culture” (ERE, vol. 10,
p. 664). The third area was usually reserved for the philoso-
Eliade hoped that the present encyclopedia would
phy of religion or sometimes for theology. In all three areas,
implement his lifelong vision of a “total hermeneutics,” a
scholars were conscious of the virtues of the comparative
coherent interpretive framework for the entire human expe-
method of inquiry—“the unbiased co-ordination of all com-
rience (called once by Wach “integral understanding”).
parable data irrespective of context or age”—which aims to
Eliade’s total hermeneutics was based on his understanding
break down “racial, social, intellectual, and psychical bound-
of the general scientific study of religions (allgemeine
aries, and to bring into relation all classes and races of men”
Religionswissenschaft ), known as the “history of religions” to
(ibid.). They were careful to point out, however, that “simi-
the international association of scholars of the discipline, and
lar practices can have different meanings or motives, and
was dependent as well on various social, physical, and bio-
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FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION
xxv
logical sciences; law; humanistic disciplines, especially the
Muslims but to the Muslims Islam is a religion of truth. Our
arts and literature; philosophy (more particularly the philos-
encyclopedia has made a serious effort on this account to bal-
ophy of religion); and theologies. It was Eliade’s conviction
ance the inner, theological, soteriological meanings and the
that all of these disciplines in combination must attempt to
outer, historical, sociological, anthropological, historical, and
decipher the meaning of human experience in this mysteri-
cultural meanings; but it is doubtful that our efforts will
ous universe. Indeed, from the dawn of history, human
completely satisfy those partisans who seek only the “inner”
beings have been working, discovering, and religious beings
or the “outer” meanings of religious phenomena. There are
simultaneously.
surely some people who think that their religious tradition
alone encompasses the whole and final truth. It is beyond the
The editors agreed with Eliade that the basic methodol-
scope of our encyclopedia to address this issue.
ogy underlying our encyclopedia should be that of the histo-
ry of religions (Religionswissenschaft ), which consists of two
Readers should, however, know what our stance toward
dimensions, historical and systematic. In this framework, the
religion(s) is. We have assumed that there is no such thing as
historical dimension depends upon a mutual interaction
a purely religious phenomenon. A religious phenomenon is a
between histories of individual religions—any of the prehis-
human phenomenon and thus is not only religious but also
toric, early historic, historic, premodern, modern, or con-
social, cultural, psychological, biological, and so on. Yet as
temporary “primitive” religions—and the history of religion-
Eliade rightly said, “To try to grasp the essence of such a
myths, symbols, rituals, and so on. The systematic task con-
phenomenon by means of physiology, psychology, sociology,
sists of phenomenological, comparative, sociological, and
economics, linguistics, art or any other study is false; it miss-
psychological studies of religions. (Eliade’s particular contri-
es the one unique and irreducible element in it—the element
bution here has been termed the “morphological” study of
of the sacred” (Patterns in Comparative Religion, London,
religion.)
1958, p. xi). Thus, throughout this encyclopedia we have
made every effort to avoid “reductionist” interpretations of
Eliade and the editors were convinced that with the
religion.
combination of the history of religions and all the other dis-
ciplines mentioned previously it would be possible to arrive
By the same token, we have avoided the currently fash-
at certain disciplined generalizations about the nature of reli-
ionable theory of dividing history into a simplistic formula of
gion, as well as a structuring of religious data, which would
tradition versus modern. We recall that from the time of the
increase our understanding of the meaning of human experi-
Enlightenment in Europe many scholars sought the “origin”
ence or the mode of being human in this universe.
of religion in order to understand the meaning of religions.
Accordingly, in the early planning stage, at least, we created
In their inquiry, they paid scant attention to the historical
three categories of articles. Our first broad category was
dimensions of religions because to them, history signified
planned to include historical and descriptive essays on par-
primarily the accretions of time and the process of degenera-
ticular religious communities and traditions, both the “great”
tion, presumably from the origin of religion. On the other
traditions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity,
hand, many scholars today are preoccupied with the con-
Islam) and the “small” (traditional African societies,
temporary manifestations of religions without adequate
Australian Aboriginal groups, Mesoamerican cultures, and
appreciation of the historical processes that impinge on the
others). Our second broad category was slated to cover top-
present. They often equate the traditional with an inherited
ics in the history of religion (e.g., “afterlife,” “alchemy,”
culture long identified with a stagnating society, and thus to
“myth,” “ritual,” “symbol,” and so on). Finally, our third
them what is not modern has the derogatory connotation of
broad category was planned to include examinations of the
tradition. It is our intention, therefore, to avoid both such a
relationships between religion and other areas of culture (e.g.,
facile use of history and the formula of tradition versus
law, science, the arts, and others).
modern.
Inevitably, there were bound to be duplications among
Our editor in chief sincerely appreciated the dedication
topics in different categories, as in the case of “ritual,” “ritu-
of the editors and the staff members who, over the years, cre-
ated entries; wrote up descriptions for articles; solicited con-
al studies,” and the rituals of individual religious traditions.
sultants, advisers, and contributors; read the submitted arti-
There are also, we found, some religious phenomena that
cles; made suggestions for revisions; and much more. Among
defy easy categorization. Thus, our three categories were
the editors, Charles J. Adams and Annemarie Schimmel
merely the framework on which we based our plans; we
made important contributions in the history of religion in
expanded and embellished it as need arose.
addition to their original assignment in the histories of reli-
In editing an encyclopedia on “religion,” we have had to
gions, Islam. Martin E. Marty, Richard P. McBrien, and
face many problems that editors of encyclopedias on other
Robert M. Seltzer handled not only their original assign-
subjects might easily avoid. One such problem involves what
ments of Protestantism, Catholicism, and Judaism, respec-
H. Richard Niebuhr called the “inner” and the “outer”
tively, but were also indispensable in formulating theories
meanings of religious phenomena. Wilfred Cantwell Smith
and frameworks. Seltzer’s assignment also included Israelite
once remarked that to outsiders Islam is a religion of the
religion as well as other religions of the ancient Near East.
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FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION
Jacob Needleman undertook the formidable task of relating
other Chicago colleagues, and Gregory D. Alles and Peter
religion to other areas of life. Eliade himself not only func-
Chemery, who served as Eliade’s research assistants, for gen-
tioned as our editor in chief but also acted as a supervising
erously offering their scholarship, their time, and their labor.
editor for archaic, primal religions (with Victor Turner and
All of the editors share Eliade’s sentiment, often
Lawrence E. Sullivan, our associate editor) and for Hinduism
expressed at various meetings, in recognizing the initiative of
(helped by William K. Mahony, our assistant editor). Turner,
Jeremiah Kaplan, president of Macmillan Publishing
of course, covered the vast area of anthropology, folklores,
Company, and of Charles E. Smith, vice-president and pub-
and folk religions; and I, besides collaborating on the history
lisher, for undertaking this gigantic and expensive enterprise,
of religion, was in charge of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese
and the efficiency and effectiveness of the project editors on
religions and of Buddhism. Sullivan worked with Eliade on
the history of religion and with Turner on primal religions;
the publisher’s staff in bringing this undertaking to a suc-
Mahoney worked with Eliade on Hinduism and with me on
cessful conclusion.
Buddhism. All of us enjoyed the help of the project editors
Of course, everyone involved in the realization of The
on the Macmillan staff.
Encyclopedia of Religion—editors, consultants, contributors,
We all witnessed Eliade’s deep grief at the news of Victor
and staff—laments the untimely death of Mircea Eliade. But
Turner’s death in 1983. Turner had at one time chaired the
we should recall the epitaph of Sir Christopher Wren at Saint
Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago,
Paul’s in London: “If you seek his monument, look around
a committee on which Eliade served for many years. In him
you.” In like vein, we can say about Mircea Eliade, who
were combined abundant energy and multidimensional
passed away before his encyclopedia came to full fruition, “If
interests and a broad learning, all of which he freely offered
you seek his monument, look in these volumes.” This ency-
to the encyclopedia. His death was a great blow to us all.
clopedia was his final undertaking, and he will remain alive
in the minds of its readers for decades to come.
Eliade wished to acknowledge publicly all the formal
and informal consultants, advisers, and contributors, many
I consider it a great privilege to have known and worked
of whom were friends, colleagues, and former students of the
with Mircea Eliade for more than three decades. I wish to
editors. This is an appropriate place to express our gratitude
express my personal gratitude to the Macmillan staff, to fel-
to Franklin I. Gamwell, dean of the Divinity School of the
low advisers, and to the contributors who made this encyclo-
University of Chicago, and to Bernard McGinn, program
pedia possible. Although the foregoing statement is largely
coordinator of the Institute for the Advanced Study of
mine, I hope that it expresses as well something of the senti-
Religion in the Divinity School, for providing facilities for
ments of my colleagues on the board of editors.
editorial meetings of the encyclopedia. We also wish to thank
JOSEPH M. KITAGAWA
Wendy D. O’Flaherty (on the study of Hinduism especially),
Chicago, August 1986
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I N T R O D U C T I O N T O T H E F I R S T E D I T I O N
During the early days of the development of this encyclope-
tended and encouraged to grow; some must be pinched back
dia, the board of editors and the senior members of the staff
to improve their shape, propped up to permit their develop-
met often, both formally and informally, to exchange ideas,
ment, or given extra nutriments to build their strength.
to decide editorial policies, and to discuss plans for the con-
Attention must constantly be paid, and the garden must be
tents of the work we had undertaken to produce. At first,
rid of noxious weeds and pernicious pests. This all done, and
given the enormous scope of our topic, and the great variety
given favorable atmospheric conditions, a garden may grow
of religious traditions and fields of study that it includes, it
and flourish.
seemed impossible that any coherent system of articles could
be devised that would limn the entire circle of current learn-
The end result may be much as the gardener had
ing on religion and that would, further, serve the purposes
planned, forming the orderly patterns of the original design
both of the general reader and of specialists in various areas
and exhibiting the structural symmetries, pleasing contrasts,
of religious studies. Soon, however, it became apparent that
and pretty juxtapositions that the gardener had first imag-
the conceptual scheme mapped out by Mircea Eliade, our
ined. But there will surely be some surprises along the way.
editor in chief, and the editorial formats and systems used by
Some seeds may fail to sprout; others may yield proliferous
Macmillan were extremely compatible. Indeed, quite early in
growth. A natural balance seems to obtain. Just as a few
our planning stage, we realized the possibilities of creating a
seedlings may be undersized, weak, and thin, some few early
work that would be both truly encyclopedic and widely use-
blossoms of disappointingly pallid hue, other plants may
ful. At the conclusion of the editorial meeting in which we
foliate and flower with unexpected vigor and splendor. For all
had reached this happy consensus, Victor Turner remarked,
a gardener’s careful planning, a garden grows as it will.
with evident delight, “And so, then, we shall let a thousand
Yet, if the conceptual scheme of a garden has been judi-
flowers bloom.”
ciously and imaginatively wrought and if the gardener works
As usual, Turner’s metaphor was apt. Not only did his
with skill and patience and knowledge of the needs of the
horticultural image echo Eliade’s particular interest in vege-
various plants, the garden may, in the end, be a wondrous
tative symbolism—from the Goethean notion of the primor-
thing. A thousand flowers may indeed one day bloom, to
dial plant to the widespread image of the cosmic tree—but it
enchant the eye, engage the mind, and enrich the spirit.
suggested a correspondence between editing and gardening
The present encyclopedia is a garden of nearly three
that I have long known to be true.
thousand flowers, grown from seeds sown in scholarly fields
The editor and the gardener do, in fact, have much in
around the globe and transplanted here to form this great
common. The one, just as the other, must know taxonomy,
collection of articles. The board of editors and the Macmillan
and he must plan his garden with care. He must consider the
staff have gladly labored in this large and elaborate plot dur-
genera and species of vegetal materials he wishes to include,
ing the seven years of its planning and cultivation, sharing
the size and shape of his plot, the number and arrangement
our chores with uncommon congeniality and good will. Now
of plants, their growing season and their heights and textures
that the season of bloom is upon us, it falls to me, as the sen-
and colors. Then the soil must be prepared, stones removed,
ior project editor on the Macmillan staff, to recapitulate
seeds sown and nourished. After a while, germination occurs
some of the editorial policies we established, some of the edi-
and plants emerge. With an eye toward the planned appear-
torial decisions we made, and some of the editorial practices
ance of the garden at maturity, individual plants must be
we followed in making our garden grow.
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INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION
To cover the vast territory outlined by our editor in chief
and as manuscripts began to arrive in our offices from all the
in his general plan for the encyclopedia, the editors under-
four corners of the earth, we soon saw that our encyclopedia
took to develop specific plans for articles in their various
would fulfill its promise. Our garden flourished from the
areas of specialization. Governed only by a general word
very beginning; almost every seed sprouted, and there were
allotment and suggestions for certain patterns of coverage,
remarkably few weeds.
each editor was given free rein to determine the number,
There were, however, many gardening tasks to be done.
kind, and length of articles for the area(s) assigned to him or
The arrival of manuscripts brought us finally and squarely
her. Staff members assigned to corresponding areas coordi-
face to face with certain editorial problems of writing style
nated and supplemented the editors’ plans for coverage but
that we had earlier anticipated, and with a few that we had
did not substantially alter them. Some parts of our plans were
not. We were confronted, of course, by problems of transla-
assigned to project editors on the Macmillan staff and were
tion, transliteration, and romanization of many foreign lan-
developed by them on the expert advice of special consult-
ants. Consequently, in the final conceptual scheme of things,
guages, which, given the international tenor of our contribu-
selection and arrangement of materials on the various reli-
tors and the pandemic scope of our project, we had fully
gious traditions and fields of study turned out to be general-
expected. But we were also confronted by some surprisingly
ly similar but particularly diverse, reflecting not only the dif-
thorny problems of vocabulary and orthography that arose
ferent states of current scholarship in different fields but also
from the need to coordinate various conventions employed
the personal judgments and emphases of the various super-
in different areas of religious studies and the need to establish
vising editors.
standards of writing style that would be both acceptable to
scholars and intelligible to nonspecialists.
Entries in the encyclopedia, it was early decided, would
be alphabetically arranged. To avoid the dilemma of “alpha-
Given that we had set out to produce an English-lan-
betization versus systematization,” however, we also planned
guage encyclopedia and that we had decided to invite contri-
to follow the admirable practice of earlier Macmillan ency-
butions from leading scholars around the globe, regardless of
clopedias in using “composite entries” to group two or more
their native languages, the specter of translation loomed large
articles under one heading, thus permitting systematic dis-
and early. Contributors who preferred to write their articles
cussion of various aspects of broad topics. As an aid to the
in languages other than English were encouraged to enlist the
reader, we planned to put a headnote to each composite entry
aid of a trusted colleague as translator. Many of them did so,
to explain its organization and, where appropriate, to offer a
and submitted their articles to us in English. Many more did
rationale for its partition. In developing composite entries, I
not, and submitted their articles to us in a great variety of
should note, we did not always strive for exhaustive system-
European and Asian languages. Drawing upon the talents of
atization; instead, we sometimes allowed ourselves to design
translators both here and abroad, as well as upon the lan-
pairs or groups of articles reflecting the idiosyncracies of cur-
guage skills of staff members, we undertook to put all these
rent scholarly interest in various topics.
articles into clear and accurate English. We hope that we have
successfully avoided an equation that Italians make—
Once our plans were laid, and details of the several parts
“Traduttore a traditore” (roughly, “Translation is treach-
of our conceptual scheme began to fall into place, contribu-
ery”)—and that we have everywhere been faithful to our con-
tors selected from the international community of scholars
tributors’ meanings. Translators are credited at the end of
were invited to undertake assignments in their special fields
each article that has been rendered into English.
of study. For each article, a length was specified and a brief
scope description was suggested. Except in terms of length,
Translation of prose does not, of course, lay to rest all
however, contributors were not restricted. On the contrary,
editorial problems with foreign languages. Many linguistic
as experts in their fields, they were encouraged to develop
issues hovered over us, awaiting resolution. As a general pol-
their articles according to their best judgment. We requested
icy, we had decided to restrict ourselves to the Latin alphabet,
that a selected bibliography accompany each article, to call
not venturing into such other alphabets as those of Sanskrit,
attention to some of the most useful publications on the top-
Hebrew, Greek, or Arabic or into such other writing systems
ics discussed, to make recommendations for further reading,
as those used to transcribe spoken Chinese, Japanese, or
and to indicate bibliographic resources. Our general aim was
Korean. Yet all these languages, and many more, are the stuff
to procure fresh, original articles from the best writers and
of religious studies, and we were obliged to deal with them
thinkers and scholars in the world, forming a collection that
sensibly within an English context. A multitude of names
would accurately reflect what we currently know—or, as one
and technical terms in all the world’s languages, couched in
distinguished contributor put it, what we think we know—
various alphabets and writing systems, demanded to be
about the particular histories of religions past and present,
appropriately spelled via transliteration or romanization into
great and small, as well as of the general history of religion
the Latin alphabet of English.
viewed on a universal scale.
Generally, we agreed to prefer the modern, scholarly
Our reach, we believe, did not exceed our grasp. The
spellings that most closely approximate the orthography
response to our invitations was overwhelmingly affirmative,
and/or pronunciation of the original language. Thus we
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INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION
xxix
decided to follow the transliteration and romanization sys-
torical figures who habitually spoke or wrote more than one
tems used by the United States Library of Congress. These,
language, we have transliterated their names from the lan-
by and large, are the traditional systems of scholarship in the
guage of their major works. Appropriate spelling of the
English-speaking world and are thus to be found in the
names of Jewish scholars—polyglots all, it seems—has
majority of secondary sources in Western libraries.
involved some particularly fine decisions, but, faced with sev-
eral choices, we have generally preferred to give them in
For languages for which the Library of Congress has
Hebrew.
issued no romanization table and for which no scholarly con-
sensus has yet clearly emerged, we have made decisions on
Common sense, of course, frequently overruled all our
romanization based on the most expert advice we could
editorial principles. Many names are too firmly embedded in
secure. The languages of many indigenous peoples of Africa,
the English language to bear alteration to more scholarly
the Americas, Australia, and Oceania, for example, have long
forms. Consequently, we have used latinized forms of most
been spoken but only recently written. For those for which
ancient Greek names (e.g., Athena, Plato, and Phidias, not
standard systems of romanization have been established (e.g.,
Athe¯ne¯, Platon, and Pheidias), and we have invariably used
Khoisan, Navajo), we have used them; for others, we have
englished names of biblical figures (e.g., Moses, Jeremiah, and
followed traditional practices. For languages for which schol-
Jesus, not Mosheh, Yirmiyahu, and Yeshuah). Otherwise, we
arly practices of romanization vary widely—as in transcrip-
have used commonly latinized or grecized names (e.g.,
tion of the languages of the ancient Near East—we have gen-
Confucius, Maimonides) followed by more accurate forms in
erally preferred the simplest system commonly used. For lan-
parentheses. Widely known place-names are given in eng-
guages on which scholarly preference seems to be about
lished forms (e.g., Tokyo, Vienna, and Rome, not To¯kyo¯, Wien,
equally divided between two standard systems of romaniza-
and Roma); less well known places are named in the language
tion (e.g., Tibetan), we have, realizing the impossibility of
of the locale.
pleasing everyone, chosen to please ourselves. Gardeners’
choice, as it were.
Appropriate spelling of names and terms in foreign lan-
guages was thus among our major editorial concerns, but no
The spelling systems we have followed employ a moder-
less so, and perhaps more so, was appropriate use of English
ate range of diacritical marks to indicate pronunciation in
terms. In devising our plans for the contents of the encyclo-
various languages. In addition to standard diacritics (e.g., the
pedia, and especially in choosing the terms under which arti-
acute accent, the grave accent, the macron, the circumflex,
cles would be entered into the overall alphabetical order, we
the tilde, et al.), we decided to use an apostrophe (’) to rep-
endeavored to be constantly attuned to the nuances of mean-
resent the hamzah in Arabic and the alef in Hebrew, a
ing, and to the limits of meaning, of the terms that we chose
reversed apostrophe (!) to represent !ayn in Arabic and !ayin
to employ. We have used English words, of course, as head-
in Hebrew, and a single quotation mark (‘) to indicate voiced
ings for many articles planned to present cross-cultural per-
consonants in Chinese. Besides these, we have used a few
spectives of broad topics. But in all instances where genuine
special characters (e.g., the thorn, the edh, et al.) in spelling
doubts about the suitability of an entry term could legiti-
Old English and Middle English, venerable ancestors of our
mately be raised with respect to a particular religious tradi-
modern language, and Old Norse, its ancient Germanic
tion, we planned to present a separate discussion under the
cousin.
idiom employed by the tradition itself. In all articles on cross-
Having made all these decisions regarding our prefer-
cultural topics, we encouraged contributors to speculate on
ences for scholarly usage of foreign languages, we found that
the usefulness of the entry term as an organizing principle in
personal names, both mythic and historical, continued to
the study of religion. We often urged them, too, to venture
give us editorial trouble. We wished, wherever possible, to
beyond their customary range of specialization and to take
spell names according to the transliteration and romanization
the broadest possible view of their topics, thus developing
systems we had chosen, thus establishing a harmonious edi-
rare hybrids of unusual texture and variegation.
torial consistency and, at the same time, restoring a certain
The plants in our garden, then, are named by terms
linguistic and cultural integrity to names whose origins had,
both English and non-English, and they are arranged in the
in Western scholarship, generally been englished or latinized
order of the Latin alphabet, strictly letter by letter.
or grecized beyond recognition. We wished, in short, to
Throughout the alphabetical order, articles are located under
name Greeks in Greek, Chinese in Chinese, Arabs in Arabic,
the terms that we hope will be first consulted by most read-
and so on.
ers, both specialists and nonspecialists. Entries under alter-
To a certain degree we have been successful in our
native spellings and synonyms give cross-references to the
attempts to spell proper names “properly.” Where our
actual location of articles. In addition, an extensive system of
spellings differ markedly from those to which English read-
cross-references within articles has been employed to direct
ers may be accustomed, we have usually given traditional
the reader to discussions of related topics. As final aids to the
forms in parentheses: Ibn Sı¯na¯ (Avicenna), Meng-tzu
reader, a synoptic outline of contents and a thorough topical
(Mencius), Ód˜inn (Odin), Zarathushtra (Zoroaster). For his-
index appear in volume 16, and it is there that curious
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eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page xxx
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INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION
researchers should turn for systematic references to the
used in the front of each of our volumes. In devising bibli-
names, the terms, and the topics they seek.
ographies, we offered our contributors two standard formats,
prose and list, and allowed them to choose the more appro-
Like mushrooms after rain, other issues of appropriate
priate to their articles. Regardless of format, our researchers
use of language sprang up all over our garden. Perhaps
have verified the accuracy of all bibliographic data, and we
nowhere more than in religious studies are conventions of
have taken pains to ensure that English-language editions are
writing style so bewilderingly diverse and thus so challenging
to editors intent on stylistic consistency. In establishing prin-
cited if they exist.
ciples of capitalization, italicization, and other such minutiae
All these editorial concerns, among numerous others,
of editorial style, we tried always to remain flexible, observ-
have entered into the care of our garden. We are happy at last
ing the scholarly shibboleths of various religious traditions
to see it in full flower, and we believe that it presents a splen-
and, wherever we could without generating confusion,
did array of great variety, worth, and interest. We trust that
accommodating contributors’ preferences. We have striven
Victor Turner would have been pleased.
for consistency, to be sure, but we have always let context be
our guide, varying details of style to suit content wherever
Thanks due from the Macmillan staff to the many peo-
necessary. Our chief aim in all our decisions has been to
ple who aided us in our gardening chores are expressed in a
make meaning clear.
special section of acknowledgments in volume 16. I cannot
close this introduction, however, without making a general
By no means, however, did we abandon all standards of
acknowledgment of our gratitude to the contributors, whose
writing style and let chaos reign. Editing, like all creative acts,
ready cooperation greatly eased our efforts; to the consult-
is a messy business, but, like gardening, it is also both an
ants, who lent us the conceptual tools and technical devices
orderly process and a process of establishing order.
that we needed; and to the board of editors, who shared our
Order, engendering clarity, is a consummation we have
labors and became our friends. Most of all, we are grateful to
devoutly wished. Through use of standard forms of names
have known and worked with Mircea Eliade, our editor in
and parenthetical notations of alternate forms, we have tried
chief. In all his dealings with us, his generosity of spirit was
to make sure that all persons and places mentioned are clear-
boundless, his sweetness, kindness, and gentleness never fail-
ly identified. We have standardized year dates to those of the
ing. His genius is represented in these volumes, and through
Gregorian calendar, generally cited in terms of the common
them it will live, in the words of Ben Jonson, as long as “we
era, but we have also given dates by other systems of chronol-
have wits to read, and praise to give.”
ogy wherever context demanded them. We have kept abbre-
CLAUDE CONYERS
viations to a minimum, and we have listed those we have
New York, October 1986
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page xxxi
L I S T O F A R T I C L E S
Articles included in the Encyclopedia are listed below in alphabetic order. Contributors’ names follow the article title;
first-edition contributors are indicated by (1987) and second-edition contributors are noted as (2005). Articles updated
or revised for the second edition have both dates listed. Revised Bibliography indicates that only the bibliography was
updated for this edition.
A
ABU
¯ AL-HUDHAYL AL-EALL A¯F
AEGEAN RELIGIONS
R. M. Frank (1987)
Olivier Pelon (1987)
AARON
Nanno Marinatos (2005)
Edward L. Greenstein (1987)
ABU
¯ BAKR
M. A. Zaki Badawi (2005)
AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL
ABBAHU
AESTHETICS
Robert Goldenberg (1987)
ABU
¯ H.ANI¯FAH
James Alfred Martin, Jr. (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Zafar Ishaq Ansari (1987)
2005)
ABULAFIA, MEDIR
ABBAYE
AESTHETICS: VISUAL AESTHTICS
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
Bernard Septimus (1987)
Rudolf Arnheim (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
AFFLICTION: AFRICAN CULTS OF
E
ABU
¯ YU¯SUF
ABD AL-JABBA
¯R
AFFLICTION
Alnoor Dhanani (2005)
Jeanette A. Wakin (1987)
John M. Janzen (1987 and 2005)
E
ACEHNESE RELIGION
ABD AL-RA
¯ ZIQ, EALI¯
AFFLICTION: AN OVERVIEW
Ibrahim I. Ibrahim (1987)
James T. Siegel (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Vieda Skultans (1987)
EABDUH, MUH.AMMAD
Revised Bibliography
Ali E. Hillal Dessouki (1987)
ADAD
Edward Lipin´ski (2005)
AFGHA
¯ NI¯, JAMA¯L AL-DI¯N AL-
ABELARD, PETER
Albert Hourani (1987)
Eileen F. Kearney (1987)
ADAM
Michael Fishbane (1987)
AFRICAN AMERICAN RELIGIONS: AN
ABHINAVAGUPTA
OVERVIEW
Alexis Sanderson (1987)
ADAMS, HANNAH
James Anthony Noel (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Thomas A. Tweed (2005)
AFRICAN AMERICAN RELIGIONS:
A
¯ DI GRANTH
ABLUTIONS
HISTORY OF STUDY
Han J. W. Drijvers (1987)
Surindar Singh Kohli (1987)
Tracey E. Hucks (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ADLER, FELIX
Dianne M. Stewart (2005)
Benny Kraut (1987)
ABRAHAM
AFRICAN AMERICAN RELIGIONS: MUSLIM
John Van Seters (1987)
ADONIS
MOVEMENTS
Revised Bibliography
Edward Lipin´ski (2005)
Albert J. Raboteau (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ABRAVANEL, ISAAC
ADRET, SHELOMOH BEN AVRAHAM
Norbert M. Samuelson (1987)
Marc Saperstein (1987)
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Benjamin C. Ray (1987)
xxxi

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xxxii
LIST OF ARTICLES
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
AGNON, SHEMUDEL YOSEF
EALAWI¯YU¯N
Vinigi Grottanelli (1987)
David C. Jacobson (2005)
Michel M. Mazzaoui (1987)
Robert M. Baum (2005)
AGNO
¯ STOS THEOS
A
¯ LAYA-VIJÑA¯NA
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC THEMES
Robert Turcan (1987 and 2005)
William S. Waldron (2005)
Evan M. Zuesse (1987)
AGO
¯ GE¯
Revised Bibliography
AL-AZHAR
Jan N. Bremmer (1987 and 2005)
Ismail K. Poonawala (2005)
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: NEW RELIGIOUS
AGRICULTURE
ALBERTUS MAGNUS
MOVEMENTS
Cristiano Grottanelli (1987)
Peter B. Clarke (2005)
James A. Weisheipl (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ALBO, YOSEF
AFRO-BRAZILIAN RELIGIONS
AGUDAT YISRADEL
Rachel E. Harding (2005)
Daniel J. Lasker (1987)
Gershon C. Bacon (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
AFRO-SURINAMESE RELIGIONS
2005)
Richard Price (1987)
ALCHEMY: AN OVERVIEW
AHIM
. SA¯
Mircea Eliade (1987)
AFTERLIFE: AFRICAN CONCEPTS
Colette Caillat (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Teresia Mbari Hinga (2005)
AHL AL-BAYT
ALCHEMY: CHINESE ALCHEMY
AFTERLIFE: AN OVERVIEW
Shafique N. Virani (2005)
Nathan Sivin (1987 and 2005)
Jane I. Smith (1987)
AH
. MADIYAH
Revised Bibliography
Yohanan Friedmann (2005)
ALCHEMY: HELLENISTIC AND MEDIEVAL
ALCHEMY
AFTERLIFE: AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
AHMAD KHAN, SAYYID
Henry Kahane (1987)
CONCEPTS
Christian W. Troll (1987)
Renée Kahane (1987)
John J. Bradley (2005)
AHURA MAZDA
¯ AND ANGRA MAINYU
Revised Bibliography
AFTERLIFE: CHINESE CONCEPTS
Almut Hintze (2005)
ALCHEMY: INDIAN ALCHEMY
Mu-chou Poo (2005)
AHURAS
David Gordon White (1987 and
AFTERLIFE: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
2005)
Hiroshi Obayashi (2005)
AINU RELIGION
ALCHEMY: ISLAMIC ALCHEMY
AFTERLIFE: GEOGRAPHIES OF DEATH
Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney (1987)
Habibeh Rahim (1987)
Th. P. van Baaren (1987)
AION
Revised Bibliography
ALCHEMY: RENAISSANCE ALCHEMY
Giovanni Casadio (2005)
Allison Coudert (1987)
AFTERLIFE: GERMANIC CONCEPTS
AIRYANA VAE¯JAH
Revised Bibliography
Lawrence P. Morris (2005)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
ALCUIN
AFTERLIFE: GREEK AND ROMAN
EA¯DISHAH BINT ABI¯ BAKR
Donald A. Bullough (1987)
CONCEPTS
Jane Dammen McAuliffe (1987)
Sarah Iles Johnston (2005)
ÁLFAR
A
¯ JI¯VIKAS
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
AFTERLIFE: ISLAMIC CONCEPTS
A. L. Basham (1987)
Feras Q. Hamza (2005)
ALFASI, YITSH
. AQ BEN YAEAQOV
AKAN RELIGION
Gerald J. Blidstein (1987)
AFTERLIFE: JEWISH CONCEPTS
Michelle Gilbert (1987)
David Stern (1987)
E
Revised Bibliography
ALI¯ IBN ABI¯ T.A¯LIB
Revised Bibliography
Reza Shah-Kazemi (2005)
AKBAR
AFTERLIFE: MESOAMERICAN CONCEPTS
Ainslie T. Embree (1987 and
ALINESITOUE
Ximena Chávez Balderas (2005)
2005)
Robert M. Baum (2005)
AFTERLIFE: OCEANIC CONCEPTS
E
AKHENATON
ALI¯ SHI¯R NAVA
¯ DI¯
Roy Wagner (2005)
James P. Allen (2005)
Eden Naby (1987)
AGA KHAN
AKITU
ALKALAI, YEHUDAH BEN SHELOMOH
Ali S. Asani (1987)
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
David Biale (1987)
Revised Bibliography
AGES OF THE WORLD
AKSAKOV, IVAN
Jonathan Z. Smith (1987)
Sergei Hackel (1987)
ALLEN, RICHARD
James Anthony Noel (2005)
AGNI
AKSUMITE RELIGION
Ellison Banks Findly (1987 and
William Y. Adams (1987)
ALL-FATHER
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Kenneth Maddock (1987)
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LIST OF ARTICLES
xxxiii
ALL FOOLS’ DAY
ANABAPTISM
ANISHINAABE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Leonard Norman Primiano (1987)
Cornelius J. Dyck (1987)
Lawrence W. Gross (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ANA
¯ HITA¯
ANNWN
ALMSGIVING
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Brynley F. Roberts (1987 and
Maria Heim (2005)
2005)
ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY
ALPHABETS
Frederick Ferré (1987)
ANSELM
Jon-Christian Billigmeier (1987
Revised Bibliography
James A. Weisheipl (1987)
and 2005)
ANAMNESIS
ANTHESTERIA
Pamela J. Burnham (2005)
Klaus-Peter Köpping (1987)
Noel Robertson (2005)
ALTAR
Revised Bibliography
ANTHONY OF PADUA
Carl-Martin Edsman (1987)
EANAN BEN DAVID
Lawrence S. Cunningham (1987)
A
¯ L.VA¯RS
Leon Nemoy (1987)
ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND
Friedhelm E. Hardy (1987)
Revised Bibliography
RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
A
¯ NANDAMAYI¯ MA¯
James A. Boon (1987 and 2005)
AMATERASU O
¯ MIKAMI
Neelima Shukla-Bhatt (2005)
ANTHROPOMORPHISM
Kakubayashi Fumio (1987 and
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
ANAT
2005)
Neal H. Walls (2005)
Revised Bibliography
AMAZONIAN QUECHUA RELIGIONS
ANTHROPOSOPHY
ANCESTORS: ANCESTOR WORSHIP
Norman E. Whitten, Jr. (1987)
Helen Hardacre (1987)
Robert A. McDermott (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
2005)
AMBEDKAR, B. R.
ANTICHRIST
ANCESTORS: BALTIC CULT OF
Eleanor Zelliot (1987 and 2005)
Bernard McGinn (1987 and 2005)
ANCESTORS
AMBROSE
Ru¯ta Muktupa¯vela (2005)
ANTICULT MOVEMENTS
Richard Crouter (1987)
Anson Shupe (2005)
ANCESTORS: MYTHIC ANCESTORS
AMEER ALI, SYED
Charles H. Long (1987)
ANTI-SEMITISM
David Lelyveld (1987)
Alan Davies (1987)
ANCHOR
Robert Chazan (2005)
AME NO KOYANE
Elaine Magalis (1987)
Ishida Ichiro¯ (1987)
ANUBIS
ANDRAE, TOR
M. Heerma van Voss (1987 and
AMESHA SPENTAS
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
2005)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
ANDROCENTRISM
APACHE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
AMITA
¯ BHA
Rosemary Radford Ruether (1987)
Enrique Maestas (2005)
Erik Zürcher (1987)
ANDROGYNES
APHRODITE
Revised Bibliography
Wendy Doniger (1987)
Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge (2005)
Mircea Eliade (1987)
AMOGHAVAJRA
APOCALYPSE: AN OVERVIEW
Charles D. Orzech (1987)
Revised Bibliography
John J. Collins (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
ANESAKI MASAHARU
Isomae Jun’ichi (2005)
APOCALYPSE: JEWISH APOCALYPTICISM
AMORAIM
TO THE RABBINIC PERIOD
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
ANGELS
John J. Collins (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Andrea Piras (2005)
APOCALYPSE: MEDIEVAL JEWISH
AMOS
ANGLICANISM
APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE
Yehoshua Gitay (1987)
Massey H. Shepherd, Jr. (1987)
Lawrence Fine (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Dale B. Martin (2005)
Revised Bibliography
AMULETS AND TALISMANS
ANI LOCHEN
APOCATASTASIS
Theodor H. Gaster (1987)
Hanna Havnevik (2005)
Robert Turcan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
ANIMALS
AMUN
Paul Waldau (2005)
APOLLINARIS OF LAODICEA
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
George S. Bebis (1987)
ANIMISM AND ANIMATISM
AN
Kees W. Bolle (1987)
APOLLO
Silvia Maria Chiodi (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Fritz Graf (2005)
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LIST OF ARTICLES
APOLOGETICS
ARMINIUS, JACOBUS
EA¯SHU¯RA¯D
Paul Bernabeo (1987)
Carl Bangs (1987)
Mahmoud M. Ayoub (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ART AND RELIGION
ASKLEPIOS
APOSTASY
Diane Apostolos-Cappadona
C. A. Meier (1987)
H. G. Kippenberg (1987 and
(2005)
Revised Bibliography
2005)
ARTEMIS
AS´OKA
APOSTLES
Fritz Graf (2005)
Jonathan S. Walters (2005)
Hans Dieter Betz (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ARTHUR
ASSASSINS
Brynley F. Roberts (1987 and
Azim Nanji (1987)
APOTHEOSIS
2005)
Robert Turcan (1987)
ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH AND
Chiara Ombretta Tommasi (2005)
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
ENLIGHTENMENT
Noreen L. Herzfeld (2005)
Phillip Charles Lucas (2005)
EAQIVAD BEN YOSEF
Gary G. Porton (1987)
ARVAL BROTHERS
ASTARTE
Revised Bibliography
John Scheid (1987 and 2005)
Tawny L. Holm (2005)
A
¯ RYADEVA
ARABIAN RELIGIONS
ASTROLOGY
Adel Allouche (1987 and 2005)
Mimaki Katsumi (1987)
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ARAMEAN RELIGION
ATAHUALLPA
Javier Teixidor (1987)
A
¯ RYA SAMA¯J
Joseph W. Bastien (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Thomas J. Hopkins (1987)
Revised Bibliography
2005)
ARCHAEOLOGY AND RELIGION
ATESHGAH
Arthur Andrew Demarest (1987)
ASAN
˙ GA
Hattori Masaaki (1987)
Jamsheed K. Choksy (2005)
ARCHETYPES
Revised Bibliography
ATHANASIUS
Beverly Moon (1987)
Charles Kannengiesser (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ASBURY, FRANCIS
Frank Baker (1987)
ATHAPASKAN RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS:
ARCHITECTURE
AN OVERVIEW
J. G. Davies (1987)
ASCENSION
Phyllis Ann Fast (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Chiara Ombretta Tommasi (2005)
ATHAPASKAN RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS:
ARCTIC RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
ASCETICISM
Åke Hultkrantz (1987)
Walter O. Kaelber (1987)
ATHAPASKAN CONCEPTS OF WIND AND
Revised Bibliography
POWER
ARCTIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
James Kale McNeley (2005)
Åke Hultkrantz (1987)
ASHEARI¯ AL-
R. M. Frank (1987)
ATHEISM
ARHAT
George Alfred James (1987 and
Donald K. Swearer (1987)
ASHEARI¯YAH
2005)
Revised Bibliography
R. M. Frank (1987)
ATHENA
ARIANISM
ASHER BEN YEH
. IDEL
Christine Downing (1987)
Charles Kannengiesser (1987)
Marc Saperstein (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Paola Ceccarelli (2005)
ARISTOTELIANISM
Seymour Feldman (1987)
ATHENAGORAS
ASHES
Revised Bibliography
Richard W. Thurn (1987)
Charles Kannengiesser (1987)
ATHIRAT
ARISTOTLE
ASHI
Seymour Feldman (1987)
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
Edward Lipin´ski (2005)
Franco Ferrari (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ATI¯S´A
ARJUNA
ASHKENAZIC HASIDISM
Leslie S. Kawamura (1987)
Alf Hiltebeitel (1987)
Ivan G. Marcus (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
ATONEMENT: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
ARMENIAN CHURCH
ASHRAM
William J. Wolf (1987)
Tiran Nersoyan (1987)
Judith G. Martin (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ARMENIAN RELIGION
ASHUR
ATONEMENT: JEWISH CONCEPTS
J. R. Russell (1987)
Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1987)
Walter S. Wurzburger (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Pietro Mander (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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ATRAHASIS
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS:
BACON, FRANCIS
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
MYTHIC THEMES [FURTHER
R. I. G. Hughes (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS]
EAT.T.A¯R, FARI¯D AL-DI¯N
Ute Eickelkamp (2005)
BACON, ROGER
Leonard Lewisohn (2005)
A. George Molland (1987)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS:
ATTENTION
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
BA
¯ DARA¯YAN.A
Philip Novak (1987 and 2005)
Heather McDonald (2005)
Edwn Gerow (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD: CHRISTIAN
AUTHORITY
CONCEPTS
Manabu Waida (1987)
BAECK, LEO
William J. Hill (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Jack Wertheimer (1987)
Revised Bibliography
AUTOBIOGRAPHY
BAHA
¯ DI¯S
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD: ISLAMIC
John D. Barbour (2005)
Manfred Hutter (2005)
CONCEPTS
AVALOKITES´VARA
BAH
. YE IBN PAQUDA
Georges C. Anawati (1987)
Raoul Birnbaum (1987)
Raymond P. Scheindlin (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD: JEWISH CONCEPTS
2005)
Louis Jacobs (1987)
AVATA
¯ RA
BAKHTIN, M. M.
Revised Bibliography
David Kinsley (1987)
Peter Slater (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ATUA
BALARA
¯ MA
Judith Macdonald (2005)
AVESTA
Velcheru Narayana Rao (1987)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
ATUM
Revised Bibliography
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
AVIDYA¯
Purushottama Bilimoria (2005)
BALDR
AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY
John Lindow (2005)
H. McKennie Goodpasture (1987)
AVRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIÈRES
Isadore Twersky (1987)
BALINESE RELIGION
AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO
Revised Bibliography
J. Stephen Lansing (1987)
Warren Thomas Smith (1987)
Revised Bibliography
AVVAKUM
AUGUSTUS
Sergei Hackel (1987)
BALLGAMES: MESOAMERICAN
J. Rufus Fears (1987)
BALLGAMES
AXIS MUNDI
Revised Bibliography
Heather S. Orr (2005)
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
AUM SHINRIKYO
¯
Revised Bibliography
BALLGAMES: NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN
Manabu Watanabe (2005)
BALLGAMES
A
¯ YURVEDA
Mitchell G. Weiss (1987)
Michael J. Zogry (2005)
AUROBINDO GHOSE
June O’Connor (1987)
Revised Bibliography
BALTIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
AZTEC RELIGION
Haralds Biezais (1987)
Davíd Carrasco (1987)
Sigma Ankrava (2005)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS:
Revised Bibliography
ABORIGINAL CHRISTIANITY
BALTIC RELIGION: HISTORY OF STUDY
Anne Pattel-Gray (2005)
B
Janı¯na Kursı¯te (2005)
BALTIC RELIGION: NEW RELIGIOUS
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS:
BAAL
MOVEMENTS
AN OVERVIEW
Neal H. Walls (2005)
Deane Fergie (2005)
Valdis Muktupa¯vels (2005)
BAAL, JAN VAN
W. Hofstee (2005)
BALTIC SANCTUARIES
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS:
Janı¯na Kursı¯te (2005)
HISTORY OF STUDY [FIRST EDITION]
BAEAL SHEM TOV
Kenneth Maddock (1987)
Joseph Dan (1987 and 2005)
BAMBARA RELIGION
Dominique Zahan (1987)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS:
BABA YAGA
Revised Bibliography
HISTORY OF STUDY [FURTHER
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
BANARAS
Rodney Lucas (2005)
BA
¯ BI¯S
Diana L. Eck (1987)
Manfred Hutter (2005)
Revised Bibliography
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS:
MYTHIC THEMES [FIRST EDITION]
BACHOFEN, J. J.
BAPTISM
Catherine H. Berndt (1987)
Alessandro Stavru (2005)
Michel Meslin (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
BAPTIST CHURCHES
BENDIS
BHAGAVADGI¯TA
¯
Edwin S. Gaustad (1987)
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
Eliot Deutsch (1987)
Bill Leonard (2005)
Cicerone Poghirc (1987)
Lee Siegel (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
BARDAISAN
Alberto Camplani (2005)
BENEDICT, RUTH
BHAIS.AJYAGURU
Judith S. Modell (1987)
Raoul Birnbaum (1987)
BAR-ILAN, MEDIR
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
David Biale (1987)
Revised Bibliography
BENEDICTINES
BHAKTI
R. Kevin Seasoltz (1987)
John B. Carman (1987)
BARLAAM OF CALABRIA
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Theodore Zissis (1987)
BENEDICT OF NURSIA
BHA
¯ VAVIVEKA
BARTH, KARL
R. Kevin Seasoltz (1987)
Nathan Katz (1987)
James B. Torrance (1987)
BENGALI RELIGIONS
BHAVE, VINOBA
BASILICA, CATHEDRAL, AND CHURCH
Rachel Fell McDermott (2005)
Ishwar C. Harris (1987)
J. G. Davies (1987)
Revised Bibliography
BENNETT, JOHN G.
BIANCHI, UGO
Bruce W. Monserud (2005)
Giovanni Casadio (2005)
BASIL OF CAESAREA
BIBLICAL EXEGESIS: CHRISTIAN VIEWS
David L. Balás (1987)
BERBER RELIGION
Norman A. Stillman (1987)
Christopher Rowland (2005)
BATAK RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
BIBLICAL EXEGESIS: JEWISH VIEWS
Susan Rodgers (1987)
Shalom Carmy (1987)
Revised Bibliography
BERDIAEV, NIKOLAI
Carnegie Samuel Calian (1987)
BIBLICAL LITERATURE: APOCRYPHA AND
BATHS
PSEUDEPIGRAPHA
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
BERENGAR OF TOURS
Geoffrey Wainwright (1987 and
James H. Charlesworth (1987)
BAUBO
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Maurice Olender (1987)
BERGSON, HENRI
BIBLICAL LITERATURE: HEBREW
Revised Bibliography
Darrell Jodock (1987 and 2005)
SCRIPTURES
Nahum M. Sarna (1987)
BAUER, BRUNO
BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX
Van A. Harvey (1987 and 2005)
Jean Leclercq (1987)
BIBLICAL LITERATURE: NEW
TESTAMENT
BAUR, F. C.
BERNDT, CATHERINE H.
B. A. Gerrish (1987)
Dale C. Allison, Jr. (2005)
Diane Bell (2005)
Revised Bibliography
BIBLICAL TEMPLE
BERNDT, RONALD
Baruch A. Levine (1987)
BAYD
. A
¯ WI¯, AL-
John E. Stanton (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Andrew Rippin (1987)
BERSERKERS
BINDING
BEARS
John Lindow (1987 and 2005)
Giulia Piccaluga (1987)
Leon Chartrand (2005)
BERTHOLET, ALFRED
BIOETHICS
BEAUTY
Günter Lanczkowski (1987)
Thomas A. Shannon (2005)
Pamela Sue Anderson (2005)
BERURYAH
BIOGRAPHY
BEDE
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
William R. Lafleur (1987)
Paul Meyvaert (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
BEIT HILLEL AND BEIT SHAMMAI
BESANT, ANNIE
BIRDS
Stuart S. Miller (1987)
Catherine Wessinger (2005)
Manabu Waida (1987)
BELLARMINO, ROBERTO
Revised Bibliography
BETH, KARL
Marvin R. O’Connell (1987)
Willem A. Bijlefeld (1987)
BIRTH
Rita M. Gross (1987 and 2005)
BEMBA RELIGION
BEVERAGES
Audrey I. Richards (1987)
Bruce Lincoln (1987)
BI¯RU
¯ NI¯, AL-
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Bruce B. Lawrence (1987)
BENCHO
¯
BEZA, THEODORE
BIST.A¯MI¯, ABU¯ YAZI¯D AL-
Bando Sho¯jun (1987)
Jill Raitt (1987)
Leonard Lewisohn (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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BLACK ELK
BONAVENTURE
BROWNE, ROBERT
Joseph Epes Brown (1987)
Zachary Hayes (1987)
Daniel Jenkins (1987)
Suzanne J. Crawford (2005)
BONES
BRUNNER, EMIL
BLACKFEET RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Michael J. Puett (2005)
Charles W. Kegley (1987)
Nimachia Hernandez (2005)
BONHOEFFER, DIETRICH
BRUNO, GIORDANO
BLACK THEOLOGY
Eberhard Bethge (1987)
Lewis W. Spitz (1987)
Matthew V. Johnson, Sr. (2005)
BONIFACE
BUBER, MARTIN
BLADES
Stephen C. Neill (1987)
Laurence J. Silberstein (1987 and
Richard W. Thurn (1987)
BONIFACE VIII
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Francis Oakley (1987)
BUCER, MARTIN
BLASPHEMY: CHRISTIAN CONCEPT
BOOTH, WILLIAM
James M. Kittelson (1987)
Leonard W. Levy (1987)
Edward H. McKinley (1987 and
BUDDHA
BLASPHEMY: ISLAMIC CONCEPT
2005)
Carl W. Ernst (1987)
Frank E. Reynolds (1987)
BORNEAN RELIGIONS
Charles Hallisey (1987)
BLASPHEMY: JEWISH CONCEPT
Peter Metcalf (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Daniel J. Lasker (2005)
Revised Bibliography
BUDDHADA
¯ SA
BLAVATSKY, H. P.
BORROMEO, CARLO
Donald K. Swearer (2005)
Robert S. Ellwood (2005)
Marvin R. O’Connell (1987)
BUDDHAGHOSA
BLEEKER, C. JOUCO
BRAHMA
¯
John Ross Carter (1987)
M. Heerma van Voss (1987)
Wendy Doniger (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
BLESSING
Prapod Assavavirulhakarn (2005)
BUDDHAPA
¯ LITA
BRAHMAN
Jan C. Heesterman (1987)
Mimaki Katsumi (1987)
BLONDEL, MAURICE
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Alec Vidler (1987)
BRA
¯ HMAN
BUDDHAS AND BODHISATTVAS:
. AS AND A
¯ RAN.YAKAS
BLOOD
Jan C. Heesterman (1987)
CELESTIAL BUDDHAS AND
Jean-Paul Roux (1987)
BODHISATTVAS
Revised Bibliography
BRA
¯ HMO SAMA¯J
David L. Snellgrove (1987)
Thomas J. Hopkins (1987)
BOAS, FRANZ
Revised Bibliography
BUDDHAS AND BODHISATTVAS: ETHICAL
Douglas Cole (1987)
PRACTICES ASSOCIATED WITH
Revised Bibliography
BRAINWASHING (DEBATE)
David G. Bromley (2005)
BUDDHAS AND BODHISATTVAS
BOATS
Karen Derris (2005)
Carl-Martin Edsman (1987)
BRANCH DAVIDIANS
Eugene V. Gallagher (2005)
BUDDHISM: AN OVERVIEW
BOCHICA
Frank E. Reynolds (1987)
Elizabeth P. Benson (1987)
BRANDON, S. G. F.
Charles Hallisey (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN CENTRAL ASIA
BODHIDHARMA
BREAD
Jens-Uwe Hartmann (2005)
Bernard Faure (1987)
James E. Latham (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN CHINA
Stephen F. Teiser (2005)
BODHISATTVA PATH
BREATH AND BREATHING
Paul Williams (2005)
Ellison Banks Findly (1987 and
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN INDIA
2005)
Luis O. Gómez (1987)
BODILY MARKS
Victor Turner (1987)
Revised Bibliography
BRELICH, ANGELO
Edith Turner (2005)
Ugo Bianchi (1987)
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN JAPAN
BOEHME, JAKOB
BREUIL, HENRI
Brian O. Ruppert (2005)
Peter C. Erb (1987)
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN KOREA
BOETHIUS
BRIDGES
Robert Evans Buswell, Jr. (1987
A. Rand Sutherland (1987)
Carl-Martin Edsman (1987)
and 2005)
BON
BRIGHID
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN MONGOLIA
Per Kvaerne (1987 and 2005)
Catherine McKenna (2005)
Christopher P. Atwood (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN SOUTHEAST
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS: RITUAL
BUSHNELL, HORACE
ASIA
USES OF BOOKS
Donald A. Crosby (1987 and
Donald K. Swearer (1987)
Natalie Gummer (2005)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS:
BU STON
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN THE WEST
TRANSLATION
Janice D. Willis (1987)
Martin Baumann (2005)
Natalie Gummer (2005)
Revised Bibliography
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN TIBET
BUDDHIST ETHICS
BUTLER, JOSEPH
Matthew T. Kapstein (2005)
Maria Heim (2005)
P. Allan Carlsson (1987)
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: CHINESE
BUDDHIST MEDITATION: EAST ASIAN
C
BUDDHISM
BUDDHIST MEDITATION
John R. McRae (2005)
Clarke Hudson (2005)
CABASILAS, NICHOLAS
Panagiotis C. Christou (1987)
BUDDHIST MEDITATION: TIBETAN
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: EARLY
BUDDHIST MEDITATION
CAIN AND ABEL
DOCTRINAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM
David Germano (2005)
Michael Fishbane (1987)
André Bareau (1987)
Gregory A. Hillis (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY
CAITANYA
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: EAST ASIAN
Malcolm David Eckel (2005)
Joseph T. O’Connell (2005)
BUDDHISM
Mark Dennis (2005)
BUDDHIST RELIGIOUS YEAR
CAKRAS
Donald K. Swearer (1987)
André Padoux (1987)
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: HIMALAYAN
Revised Bibliography
Hugh B. Urban (2005)
BUDDHISM
Franz-Karl Ehrhard (2005)
BUDDHIST STUDIES
CAKRASAMVARA
Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (2005)
David B. Gray (2005)
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: JAPANESE
BUGIS RELIGION
CAKRAVARTIN
BUDDHISM
William K. Mahony (1987)
Michio Araki (1987)
Christian Pelras (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
BUKHA
¯ RI¯, AL-
CALENDARS: AN OVERVIEW
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: MAHA
¯ YA¯NA
Bruce Fudge (2005)
Giulia Piccaluga (1987)
PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS OF
BUDDHISM
BULGAKOV, SERGEI
CALENDARS: MESOAMERICAN
John D. Dunne (2005)
Stanley Samuel Harakas (1987)
CALENDARS
Anthony F. Aveni (2005)
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: TANTRIC
BULL-ROARERS
RITUAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM [FIRST
Klaus-Peter Köpping (1987)
CALENDARS: SOUTH AMERICAN
EDITION]
Revised Bibliography
CALENDARS
Alex Wayman (1987)
R. Tom Zuidema (1987)
BULTMANN, RUDOLF
Schubert M. Ogden (1987)
CALIPHATE
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: TANTRIC
Herbert L. Bodman, Jr. (1987)
RITUAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM
BUNYAN, JOHN
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Richard L. Greaves (1987)
CALLIGRAPHY: AN OVERVIEW
Matthew T. Kapstein (2005)
Albertine Gaur (2005)
BURCKHARDT, TITUS
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: TIBETAN AND
Jean-Pierre Laurant (2005)
CALLIGRAPHY: CHINESE AND JAPANESE
MONGOLIAN BUDDHISM
CALLIGRAPHY
BURIAT RELIGION
Matthew T. Kapstein (2005)
Faubion Bowers (1987)
Roberte Hamayon (1987)
Revised Bibliography
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS: CANON
Revised Bibliography
AND CANONIZATION
CALLIGRAPHY: HEBREW MICROGRAPHY
BURMESE RELIGION
Lewis R. Lancaster (1987 and
Miriam Rosen (1987)
Frederic K. Lehman (Chit Hlaing)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
(1987)
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS: CANON
Revised Bibliography
CALLIGRAPHY: ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
AND CANONIZATION—VINAYA
BURNOUF, EUGÈNE
Paul K. Nietupski (2005)
G. R. Welbon (1987 and 2005)
CALVERT, GEORGE
John D. Krugler (1987)
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS: EXEGESIS
BUSHIDO
¯
AND HERMENEUTICS
Joyce Ackroyd (1987)
CALVIN, JOHN
Luis O. Gómez (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Brian G. Armstrong (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER
CASSIRER, ERNST
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY,
David Edwin Harrell, Jr. (1987)
Donald Phillip Verene (1987)
John C. Godbey (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CAMPBELL, JOSEPH
CHANTEPIE DE LA SAUSSAYE,
Mark W. MacWilliams (2005)
CASTRATION
P. D.
Dario M. Cosi (1987 and 2005)
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
CANAANITE RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Alan M. Cooper (1987)
CASTRÉN, MATTHIAS ALEXANDER
Revised Bibliography
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
CHANTING
Johanna Spector (1987)
CANAANITE RELIGION: THE LITERATURE
CASUISTRY
Revised Bibliography
Michael D. Coogan (1987 and
Albert R. Jonsen (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
CHAOS
Norman J. Girardot (1987)
CANDRAKI¯RTI
CATHARI
Mimaki Katsumi (1987)
Gordon Leff (1987)
CHAOS THEORY
Revised Bibliography
John Polkinghorne (2005)
CATHARSIS
Robert Turcan (1987 and 2005)
CHARISMA
CANISIUS, PETER
Jill Raitt (1987)
George L. Scheper (2005)
CATHERINE OF SIENA
Suzanne Noffke (1987)
CHARITY
CANNIBALISM
Demetrios J. Constantelos (1987
Paula Brown (1987)
CATS
and 2005)
Beth A. Conklin (2005)
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CHARLEMAGNE
CANON
Donald A. Bullough (1987)
Gerald T. Sheppard (1987)
CATTLE
Revised Bibliography
Bruce Lincoln (1987)
CHASTITY
Revised Bibliography
Kate Cooper (2005)
CAO DAI
Robert S. Ellwood (1987 and
CAVES
CHENG HAO
2005)
Doris Heyden (1987)
Deborah Sommer (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
2005)
CAPPS, WALTER
David Chidester (2005)
CAYCE, EDGAR
CHENG YI
Robert S. Ellwood (2005)
Deborah Sommer (1987 and
CARDS
2005)
Richard W. Thurn (1987)
CELIBACY
Revised Bibliography
Daniel Gold (1987 and 2005)
CHEROKEE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Michelene E. Pesantubbee (2005)
CELTIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
CARGO CULTS [FIRST EDITION]
Proinsias Mac Cana (1987 and
Peter Lawrence (1987)
CHILD
2005)
Wallace B. Clift (1987)
CARGO CULTS [FURTHER
CELTIC RELIGION: HISTORY OF STUDY
CHILD, LYDIA MARIA
CONSIDERATIONS]
Joseph F. Nagy (2005)
Lori Kenschaft (2005)
Martha Kaplan (2005)
CENTER OF THE WORLD
CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
CARIBBEAN RELIGIONS: AFRO-CARIBBEAN
Mircea Eliade (1987)
David S. Nivison (1987 and 2005)
RELIGIONS
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
George Eaton Simpson (1987)
CHINESE RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Daniel L. Overmyer (1987)
CARIBBEAN RELIGIONS: PRE-COLUMBIAN
CENTRAL BANTU RELIGIONS
Joseph A. Adler (2005)
RELIGIONS
Elizabeth Colson (1987)
Stephen D. Glazier (1987)
CHINESE RELIGION: HISTORY OF STUDY
Revised Bibliography
Norman J. Girardot (1987)
CARNIVAL
CEREMONY
Terry F. Kleeman (2005)
Maria Julia Goldwasser (1987)
Bobby C. Alexander (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
CHINESE RELIGION: MYTHIC THEMES
2005)
Norman J. Girardot (1987)
CARROLL, JOHN
CERULARIOS, MICHAEL
Revised Bibliography
Thomas O’Brien Hanley (1987)
John Travis (1987)
CHINESE RELIGION: POPULAR RELIGION
CA
¯ RVA¯KA
CHAN
Vincent Goossaert (2005)
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1987)
John R. McRae (2005)
CHINESE RELIGIOUS YEAR
CASSIAN, JOHN
CHANCE
Laurence G. Thompson (1987)
Panagiotis C. Christou (1987)
Michiko Yusa (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
CHINGGIS KHAN
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
CIRCLE
Klaus Sagaster (1987)
CARIBBEAN REGION
David E. Aune (2005)
Revised Bibliography
George Eaton Simpson (1987)
CIRCUMAMBULATION
CHINUL
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
Diana L. Eck (1987)
Robert Evans Buswell, Jr. (1987
MIDDLE EAST
Revised Bibliography
and 2005)
Andrea Pacini (2005)
CIRCUMCISION
CHINVAT BRIDGE
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
T. O. Beidelman (1987 and 2005)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
PACIFIC ISLANDS [FIRST EDITION]
CISTERCIANS
CH’O
˘ NDOGYO
Charles W. Forman (1987)
M. Basil Pennington (1987)
Yong-choon Kim (1987)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
PACIFIC ISLANDS [FURTHER
CITIES
CHO
˘ NG YAGYONG
CONSIDERATIONS]
James Heitzman (2005)
Michael C. Kalton (1987)
Garry W. Trompf (2005)
Smriti Srinivas (2005)
Revised Bibliography
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
CIVIL RELIGION
CHRISTENSEN, ARTHUR
WESTERN EUROPE
Jes P. Asmussen (1987)
Carole Lynn Stewart (2005)
Jaroslav Pelikan (1987)
CLASSIFICATION OF RELIGIONS
CHRISTIAN ETHICS
Revised Bibliography
Charles E. Curran (1987 and
Harry B. Partin (1987)
CHRISTIAN LITURGICAL YEAR
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Thomas J. Talley (1987)
CHRISTIAN IDENTITY MOVEMENT
Revised Bibliography
CLEMEN, CARL
Michael Barkun (2005)
Christoph Elsas (1987)
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE
CHRISTIANITY: AN OVERVIEW
Stephen Gottschalk (1987)
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA
Jaroslav Pelikan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Elizabeth A. Clark (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
2005)
CHRISTIAN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN ASIA
Max L. Stackhouse (1987 and
CLEMENT OF ROME
Stephen C. Neill (1987)
2005)
James F. McCue (1987)
Mark R. Mullins (2005)
CHRISTMAS
CLITORIDECTOMY
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
John F. Baldovin (1987)
Carol P. MacCormack (1987)
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
Revised Bibliography
Colin Brown (1987 and 2005)
CHRONOLOGY
Giulia Piccaluga (1987)
CLOTHING: CLOTHING AND RELIGION
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
IN THE EAST
EASTERN EUROPE
CHRYSOSTOM
John E. Vollmer (2005)
Stanley Samuel Harakas (1987 and
F. Van Ommeslaeghe (1987)
2005)
CLOTHING: CLOTHING AND RELIGION
CHURCH: CHURCH MEMBERSHIP
IN THE WEST
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN LATIN
Avery Dulles (1987 and 2005)
Susan O. Michelman (2005)
AMERICA
CHURCH: CHURCH POLITY
Sidney H. Rooy (1987)
CLOTHING: DRESS AND RELIGION IN
John E. Lynch (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
AMERICA’S SECTARIAN COMMUNITIES
CHURCH: ECCLESIOLOGY
Linda B. Arthur (2005)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN NORTH
Lewis S. Mudge (2005)
AFRICA
CLOTILDA
Aziz Suryal Atiya (1987)
CHURCHES OF CHRIST
H. McKennie Goodpasture (1987)
Douglas A. Foster (2005)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN NORTH
CLOWNS
AMERICA
CHURCH UNIVERSAL AND TRIUMPHANT
Don Handelman (1987 and 2005)
Catherine L. Albanese (1987)
Phillip Charles Lucas (2005)
Revised Bibliography
COATLICUE
CHUVASH RELIGION
Davíd Carrasco (1987)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN SUB-
András Róna-Tas (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SAHARAN AFRICA [FIRST EDITION]
Revised Bibliography
Adrian Hastings (1987)
COCKS
CICERO
Manabu Waida (1987)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN SUB-
Lucio Troiani (2005)
Revised Bibliography
SAHARAN AFRICA [FURTHER
CONSIDERATIONS]
CIJI
CODES AND CODIFICATION
Akintunde E. Akinade (2005)
C. Julia Huang (2005)
H. G. Kippenberg (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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CODRINGTON, R. H.
CONFUCIANISM IN JAPAN
COSMOLOGY: AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
George W. Stocking, Jr. (1987 and
Peter Nosco (1987 and 2005)
COSMOLOGY
2005)
John J. Bradley (2005)
CONFUCIANISM IN KOREA
COHEN, ARTHUR A.
JaHyun Kim Haboush (1987)
COSMOLOGY: BUDDHIST COSMOLOGY
David Stern (2005)
Revised Bibliography
W. Randolph Kloetzli (1987)
Revised Bibliography
COHEN, HERMANN
CONFUCIUS
Steven S. Schwarzschild (1987)
Julia Ching (1987)
COSMOLOGY: HINDU COSMOLOGY
Robert S. Schine (2005)
Revised Bibliography
W. Randolph Kloetzli (1987)
Laurie Louise Patton (2005)
COKE, THOMAS
CONGREGATIONALISM
Frank Baker (1987)
Daniel Jenkins (1987)
COSMOLOGY: INDIGENOUS NORTH AND
Revised Bibliography
MESOAMERICAN COSMOLOGIES
COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR
J. Robert Barth (1987 and 2005)
CONSCIENCE
Gerardo Aldana (2005)
Michel Despland (1987)
COSMOLOGY: JAIN COSMOLOGY
COLONIALISM AND POSTCOLONIALISM
Revised Bibliography
David Chidester (2005)
Paul Dundas (2005)
CONSCIOUSNESS, STATES OF
COLORS
COSMOLOGY: OCEANIC COSMOLOGIES
Eugene Taylor (2005)
Philip P. Arnold (2005)
Garry W. Trompf (2005)
CONSECRATION
COMENIUS, JOHANNES AMOS
COSMOLOGY: SCIENTIFIC COSMOLOGIES
Daniel Gold (1987 and 2005)
Wayne R. Rood (1987)
John Polkinghorne (2005)
CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM
COMMUNITY
Pamela S. Nadell (2005)
COSMOLOGY: SOUTH AMERICAN
George Weckman (1987)
COSMOLOGIES
Revised Bibliography
CONSTANTINE
Robin M. Wright (2005)
John W. Eadie (1987)
COMPARATIVE-HISTORICAL METHOD
COUNCILS: BUDDHIST COUNCILS
CONSTANTINIANISM
[FIRST EDITION]
Charles S. Prebish (1987)
E. Glenn Hinson (1987)
Ninian Smart (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CONTARINI, GASPARO
COMPARATIVE-HISTORICAL METHOD
COUNCILS: CHRISTIAN COUNCILS
Elisabeth G. Gleason (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Brian E. Daley (1987)
John P. Burris (2005)
CONVERSION
Revised Bibliography
Lewis R. Rambo (1987 and 2005)
COMPARATIVE MYTHOLOGY
COUVADE
Charles E. Farhadian (2005)
Helmer Ringgren (1987)
Rita M. Gross (1987)
Revised Bibliography
COOMARASWAMY, ANANDA
COVENANT
Roger Lipsey (1987)
COMPARATIVE RELIGION
Eckart Otto (2005)
Revised Bibliography
William E. Paden (2005)
CRANMER, THOMAS
COPERNICUS, NICOLAUS
COMTE, AUGUSTE
Massey H. Shepherd, Jr. (1987)
Peter M. J. Hess (2005)
Angèle Kremer-Marietti (1987)
CREEDS: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
COPTIC CHURCH
Aziz Suryal Atiya (1987)
R. Marston Speight (1987)
CONALL CERNACH
Mark N. Swanson (2005)
CREEDS: CHRISTIAN CREEDS
Proinsias Mac Cana (1987 and
B. A. Gerrish (1987)
2005)
CORBIN, HENRY
Charles J. Adams (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CONFESSION OF SINS
Revised Bibliography
CREEDS: ISLAMIC CREEDS
Ugo Bianchi (1987)
W. Montgomery Watt (1987)
René Gothóni (2005)
CORDOVERO, MOSHEH
Lawrence Fine (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CONFUCIANISM: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
CREOLIZATION
Mark Csikszentmihalyi (2005)
COSMOGONY
Leslie G. Desmangles (2005)
CONFUCIANISM: HISTORY OF STUDY
Charles H. Long (1987)
CRESCAS, H
. ASDAI
Lionel M. Jensen (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Warren Zev Harvey (1987 and
CONFUCIANISM: THE CLASSICAL CANON
COSMOLOGY: AFRICAN COSMOLOGIES
2005)
Mark Csikszentmihalyi (2005)
Barry Hallen (2005)
CREUZER, G. F.
CONFUCIANISM: THE IMPERIAL CULT
COSMOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW
Burton Feldman (1987)
Thomas A. Wilson (2005)
Kees W. Bolle (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
CROSSROADS
CYRUS II
DAO’AN
George R. Elder (1987)
Edward L. Greenstein (1987 and
Mark D. Cummings (1987)
2005)
CROWLEY, ALEISTER
DAO AND DE
Hugh B. Urban (2005)
D
Livia Kohn (2005)
CROWN
DAOCHUO
DACIAN RIDERS
Elaine Magalis (1987)
David W. Chappell (1987 and
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
Revised Bibliography
2005)
Cicerone Poghirc (1987)
DAOISM: AN OVERVIEW
CRUMMELL, ALEXANDER
Revised Bibliography
Stephen R. Bokenkamp (2005)
James Anthony Noel (2005)
DADDY GRACE
Marie W. Dallam (2005)
DAOISM: DAOIST LITERATURE
CRUSADES: CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE
Judith Magee Boltz (1987 and
Karlfried Froehlich (1987)
DAGAN
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Gonzalo Rubio (2005)
DAOISM: HISTORY OF STUDY
CRUSADES: MUSLIM PERSPECTIVE
DAINAS
T. H. Barrett (1987 and 2005)
Donald P. Little (1987)
Haralds Biezais (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DAOISM: THE DAOIST RELIGIOUS
CULIANU, IOAN PETRU
COMMUNITY
Eugen Ciurtin (2005)
DAIVAS
John Lagerwey (1987)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
CULT OF SAINTS
DAOSHENG
Patrick J. Geary (1987)
DAI ZHEN
Mark D. Cummings (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Judith A. Berling (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CULTS AND SECTS
DAKHMA
DA
¯ RA¯ SHIKO¯H, MUH.AMMAD
Massimo Introvigne (2005)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Perwaiz Hayat (2005)
CULTURE
DALAI LAMA
DARWI¯SH
Roger Ivar Lohmann (2005)
Turrell V. Wylie (1987)
Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1987 and
2005)
DAMIAN, PETER
CULTURE HEROES
Jerome H. Long (1987)
J. Joseph Ryan (1987)
DASAM GRANTH
Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
DANCE: DANCE AND RELIGION
CUMONT, FRANZ
Judith Lynne Hanna (1987 and
(2005)
Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin
2005)
DAVID [FIRST EDITION]
(1987)
John Van Seters (1987)
Corinne Bonnet (2005)
DANCE: POPULAR AND FOLK DANCE
[FIRST EDITION]
DAVID [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
CUNA RELIGION
LeeEllen Friedland (1987)
Tawny L. Holm (2005)
Alexander Moore (1987)
DANCE: POPULAR AND FOLK DANCE
DAEWAH
CURSING
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Frederick Mathewson Denny
George Scheper (2005)
Diane Apostolos-Cappadona
(1987)
CYBELE
(2005)
DAY, DOROTHY
Lynn E. Roller (2005)
DANCE: THEATRICAL AND LITURGICAL
William D. Miller (1987)
CYBERNETICS
DANCE [FIRST EDITION]
DAYANANDA SARASVATI
Noreen L. Herzfeld (2005)
Suzanne Youngerman (1987)
Thomas J. Hopkins (1987)
CYPRIAN
DANCE: THEATRICAL AND LITURGICAL
DAY OF THE DEAD
Panagiotis C. Christou (1987)
DANCE [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Hugo G. Nutini (2005)
Diane Apostolos-Cappadona
CYRIL AND METHODIUS
(2005)
DAZHBOG
H. McKennie Goodpasture (1987)
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
DAN FODIO, USUMAN
Revised Bibliography
CYRIL I
Mervyn Hiskett (1987)
Kallistos Ware (1987)
DEA DIA
DANIEL
J. Rufus Fears (1987)
CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA
Michael Fishbane (1987)
John Scheid (2005)
Charles Kannengiesser (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DEAD SEA SCROLLS
CYRIL OF JERUSALEM
DANTE ALIGHIERI
Lawrence H. Schiffman (1987)
Panagiotis C. Christou (1987)
Peter S. Hawkins (1987)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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DEATH
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE
Gary L. Ebersole (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Donald F. Duclow (1987)
DECONSTRUCTION
DEVA
¯ NAM.PIYATISSA
DIONYSOS
John D. Caputo (2005)
George D. Bond (1987)
Marcel Detienne (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DEIFICATION
Revised Bibliography
Robert Turcan (1987)
DEVILS
DISCIPLESHIP
Martin S. Jaffee (2005)
DEISM
Arvind Sharma (1987)
Allen W. Wood (1987)
DEVOTION
DISCIPLES OF CHRIST
David Edwin Harrell, Jr. (1987)
DEITY
David Kinsley (1987)
Raimundo Panikkar (1987)
Vasudha Narayanan (2005)
DISMEMBERMENT
Revised Bibliography
DGE LUGS PA
Bruce Lincoln (1987)
DELITZSCH, FRIEDRICH
Paul Jeffrey Hopkins (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
James Barr (1987)
2005)
DI¯VA
¯ LI¯
Revised Bibliography
DHAMMAKA
¯ YA MOVEMENT
Marie-Louise Reiniche (1987)
DELORIA, ELLA CARA
Edwin Zehner (2005)
DIVINATION: AN OVERVIEW
Raymond J. DeMallie (2005)
DHARMA: BUDDHIST DHARMA AND
Evan M. Zuesse (1987)
DELPHI
DHARMAS
Revised Bibliography
Jan N. Bremmer (1987 and 2005)
Tadeusz Skorupski (1987)
DIVINATION: GREEK AND ROMAN
Revised Bibliography
DE MARTINO, ERNESTO
DIVINATION
Pietro Angelini (2005)
DHARMA: HINDU DHARMA
Sarah Iles Johnston (2005)
Ariel Glucklich (2005)
DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE
DJAN’KAWU
Giulia Sfameni Gasparro (2005)
DHARMAKI¯RTI
Ronald M. Berndt (1987)
Ernst Steinkellner (1987)
Ian Keen (2005)
DEMIÉVILLE, PAUL
Robert G. Henricks (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DOCETISM
Revised Bibliography
DHARMAPA
¯ LA
Iain Gardner (2005)
Richard S. Y. Chi (1987)
DEMIURGE
DOCTRINE
Ugo Bianchi (1987)
Revised Bibliography
W. Richard Comstock (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DHIKR
DO
¯ GEN
William C. Chittick (1987)
DEMONS: AN OVERVIEW
William M. Bodiford (2005)
Walter Stephens (2005)
DIALOGUE OF RELIGIONS
DOGMA
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
DEMONS: PSYCHOLOGICAL
Adolf Darlap (1987)
PERSPECTIVES
DIAMOND
Karl Rahner (1987)
Alfred Ribi (1987)
Elaine Magalis (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
DOGON RELIGION
DENOMINATIONALISM
DIANA
Geneviève Calame-Griaule (1987)
Winthrop S. Hudson (1987)
Robert Schilling (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Sabino Perea Yébenes (2005)
DOGS
DEPROGRAMMING
DIETERICH, ALBRECHT
David Gordon White (2005)
Anson Shupe (2005)
Robert Turcan (1987)
DOLGAN RELIGION
DESCARTES, RENÉ
Revised Bibliography
Boris Chichlo (1987 and 2005)
Leszek Kolakowski (1987)
DIETERLEN, GERMAINE
DÖLLINGER, JOHANN
DESCENT INTO THE UNDERWORLD
Laura S. Grillo (2005)
Ronald Burke (1987)
Anna-Leena Siikala (1987)
DIGNA
¯ GA
Francisco Diez de Velasco (2005)
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: CHINESE
Hattori Masaaki (1987)
PRACTICES
DESERTS
Revised Bibliography
Stevan Harrell (1987)
Xavier De Planhol (1987)
DILTHEY, WILHELM
Revised Bibliography
DESIRE
Guy Oakes (1987)
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: CHRISTIAN
Roland A. Delattre (1987)
Revised Bibliography
PRACTICES
DEUS OTIOSUS
DIOLA RELIGION
Sam Mackintosh (1987)
Mircea Eliade (1987)
Robert M. Baum (1987)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: HINDU
DRAMA: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN RITUAL
DUALISM
PRACTICES
DRAMA [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Ugo Bianchi (1987)
Brenda E. F. Beck (1987)
Gonzalo Rubio (2005)
Yuri Stoyanov (2005)
Revised Bibliography
DRAMA: BALINESE DANCE AND DANCE
DU GUANGTING
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: JAPANESE
DRAMA
Franciscus Verellen (2005)
PRACTICES
James A. Boon (1987)
Robert J. Smith (1987)
DUMÉZIL, GEORGES
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
C. Scott Littleton (2005)
DRAMA: DRAMA AND RELIGION
DUMUZI
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: JEWISH
E. J. Westlake (2005)
Pietro Mander (2005)
PRACTICES
Shlomo Deshen (1987)
DRAMA: EAST ASIAN DANCE AND
DUNS SCOTUS, JOHN
Revised Bibliography
THEATER
Allan B. Wolter (1987)
James R. Brandon (1987)
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: MUSLIM
DURGA
¯ HINDUISM
PRACTICES
DRAMA: EUROPEAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA
David N. Lorenzen (1987)
Anne H. Betteridge (1987)
[FIRST EDITION]
Revised Bibliography
O. B. Hardison, Jr. (1987)
DOMINIC
DURKHEIM, ÉMILE
Thomas McGonigle (1987)
DRAMA: EUROPEAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA
Ivan Strenski (2005)
DOMINICANS
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
DUSHUN
Thomas McGonigle (1987)
Clifford Davidson (2005)
Kimura Kiyotaka (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
DRAMA: INDIAN DANCE AND DANCE
DUT.T.HAGA¯MAN.I¯
DÖMÖTÖR, TEKLA
DRAMA
Charles Hallisey (1987)
Vilmos Voigt (2005)
Kapila Vatsyayan (1987)
Frank E. Reynolds (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DONATISM
Revised Bibliography
W. H. C. Frend (1987)
DRAMA: JAVANESE WAYANG
DVERGAR
DONG ZHONGSHU
James L. Peacock (1987 and 2005)
Lotte Motz (1987)
Joachim Gentz (2005)
DRAMA: MESOAMERICAN DANCE AND
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
DÖNMEH
DRAMA
DWIGHT, TIMOTHY
Marc David Baer (2005)
Karl Taube (2005)
Stephen E. Berk (1987)
Harris Lenowitz (2005)
Rhonda Taube (2005)
DYBBUK
DONNER, KAI
DRAMA: MIDDLE EASTERN NARRATIVE
J. H. Chajes (2005)
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
TRADITIONS
DYING AND RISING GODS
William L. Hanaway Jr. (1987)
DOSTOEVSKY, FYODOR
Jonathan Z. Smith (1987)
Sergei Hackel (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DYNAMISM
DOUBLENESS
DRAMA: MODERN WESTERN THEATER
Gregory D. Alles (1987)
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
Tom F. Driver (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Rex Deverell (2005)
DZOGCHEN
David Germano (2005)
DOUBT AND BELIEF
DRAMA: NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN
Geddes MacGregor (1987)
DANCE AND DRAMA
E
Revised Bibliography
William K. Powers (1987)
EAGLES AND HAWKS
DOV BER OF MEZHIRICH
DREAMING, THE
S. J. M. Gray (1987)
Arthur Green (1987)
Diane Bell (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
EARTH
DREAMS
DRAGONS
Barbara Tedlock (1987 and 2005)
Mircea Eliade (1987)
Cristiano Grottanelli (1987)
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
DRUIDS
Revised Bibliography
Bernhard Maier (2005)
DRAMA: AFRICAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA
EARTH FIRST!
Daniel P. Biebuyck (1987)
DRUMS
Bron Taylor (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Ter Ellingson (1987)
EAST AFRICAN RELIGIONS:
Revised Bibliography
DRAMA: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN RITUAL
AN OVERVIEW
DRAMA [FIRST EDITION]
DRUZE
John Middleton (1987)
Theodor H. Gaster (1987)
Samy Swayd (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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EAST AFRICAN RELIGIONS: ETHIOPIAN
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
EL
RELIGIONS
JAINISM
Neal H. Walls (2005)
William A. Shack (1987)
Christopher Key Chapple (2005)
ELEAZAR BEN EAZARYAH
Revised Bibliography
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
David Kraemer (1987)
EAST AFRICAN RELIGIONS: NORTHEAST
JUDAISM
Revised Bibliography
BANTU RELIGIONS
Hava Tirosh-Samuelson (2005)
ELEAZAR BEN PEDAT
Benjamin C. Ray (1987)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
Robert Goldenberg (1987)
Revised Bibliography
NATURE RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
EASTER
Bron Taylor (2005)
ELECTION
John F. Baldovin (1987)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
Ellen M. Umansky (1987)
Revised Bibliography
EASTERN CHRISTIANITY
SHINTO
¯
Thomas E. FitzGerald (2005)
Bernhard Scheid (2005)
ELEPHANTS
Manabu Waida (1987)
EBIONITES
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION:
Robert L. Wilken (1987)
ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, WORLD
ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES
Revised Bibliography
RELIGIONS, AND ECOLOGY
Fritz Graf (1987)
J. Baird Callicott (2005)
Revised Bibliography
EBLAITE RELIGION
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: SCIENCE,
ELIADE, MIRCEA [FIRST EDITION]
RELIGION, AND ECOLOGY
Joseph M. Kitagawa (1987)
ECCLESIASTES
William Grassie (2005)
Carol A. Newsom (2005)
ELIADE, MIRCEA [FURTHER
ECONOMICS AND RELIGION
CONSIDERATIONS]
ECK, JOHANN
Roland Robertson (1987)
Bryan S. Rennie (2005)
Walter L. Moore (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ELIEEZER BEN HYRCANUS
ECKANKAR
ECSTASY
David Kraemer (1987)
David Christopher Lane (2005)
Arvind Sharma (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ECKHART, JOHANNES
ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT
ELIJAH
Thomas F. O’Meara (1987)
Robert McAfee Brown (1987)
John Van Seters (1987)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION:
Revised Bibliography
EDDAS
AN OVERVIEW
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
ELIJAH MUHAMMAD
Mary Evelyn Tucker (2005)
Lawrence H. Mamiya (1987 and
EDDY, MARY BAKER
John A. Grim (2005)
Diane Treacy-Cole (2005)
2005)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
EDO RELIGION
ELIMELEKH OF LIZHENSK
BUDDHISM
Paula Ben-Amos (1987)
Arthur Green (1987)
Donald K. Swearer (2005)
Flora Edouwaye S. Kaplan (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
ELISHA
EDWARDS, JONATHAN
CHRISTIANITY
Stephen J. Stein (1987)
John Van Seters (1987)
John B. Cobb, Jr. (2005)
Revised Bibliography
EGG
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
Venetia Newall (1987)
ELISHAE BEN AVUYAH
CONFUCIANISM
Gary G. Porton (1987 and 2005)
Mary Evelyn Tucker (2005)
EGYPTIAN RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
ELIXIR
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
Allison Coudert (1987)
DAOISM
EGYPTIAN RELIGION: HISTORY OF STUDY
Charles S. J. White (2005)
James Miller (2005)
Willeke Wendrich (2005)
ELIYYAHU BEN SHELOMOH ZALMAN
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
EGYPTIAN RELIGION: THE LITERATURE
Michael Stanislawski (1987)
Donald B. Redford (1987)
HINDUISM
Revised Bibliography
Vasudha Narayanan (2005)
EIGHTFOLD PATH
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO
Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2005)
David Sassian (1987)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
INDIGENOUS TRADITIONS
EINSTEIN, ALBERT
EMPEDOCLES
John A. Grim (2005)
Ravi Ravindra (1987)
Fritz Graf (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY AND
EMPEROR’S CULT
ISLAM
EISAI
J. Rufus Fears (1987)
Richard C. Foltz (2005)
Martin Collcutt (1987)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
EMPIRICISM
EREMITISM
EUSEBIUS
Nelson Pike (1987)
Juan Manuel Lozano (1987)
Robert M. Grant (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
EUTYCHES
ENCHIN
ERIUGENA, JOHN SCOTTUS
Theodore Zissis (1987)
Allan G. Grapard (1987)
John J. O’Meara (1987)
EVAGRIOS OF PONTUS
ENCYCLOPEDIAS
ERLIK
Demetrios J. Constantelos (1987)
Kocku von Stuckrad (2005)
Klaus Sagaster (1987)
EVANGELICAL AND FUNDAMENTAL
Revised Bibliography
ENGAGED BUDDHISM
CHRISTIANITY
Christopher S. Queen (2005)
EROS
George M. Marsden (1987 and
M. L. West (1987)
2005)
ENKI
Eleonora Cavallini (2005)
William L. Svelmoe (2005)
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
ESCHATOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW
EVANS, ARTHUR
ENLIGHTENMENT
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
A. W. H. Adkins (1987)
William K. Mahony (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
2005)
ESCHATOLOGY: ISLAMIC ESCHATOLOGY
EVANS-PRITCHARD, E. E.
ENLIGHTENMENT, THE
Marilyn Robinson Waldman
John Middleton (1987)
Allen W. Wood (1987)
(1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
EVE
ENLIL
ESHMUN
Michael Fishbane (1987)
David Marcus (1987)
Corinne Bonnet (2005)
EVIL
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
ESOTERICISM
Paul Ricoeur (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ENNIN
Antoine Faivre (1987 and 2005)
Paul L. Swanson (1987)
ESSENES
EVOLA, JULIUS
Hans Thomas Hakl (2005)
EN NO GYO
¯ JA
Lawrence H. Schiffman (1987)
J. H. Kamstra (1987)
Revised Bibliography
EVOLUTION: EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS
Revised Bibliography
Paul Lawrence Farber (2005)
ESTHER
ENOCH
Michael Fishbane (1987)
EVOLUTION: EVOLUTIONISM
Steven D. Fraade (1987)
James Waller (1987)
ETERNITY
Revised Bibliography
Peter Manchester (1987)
Mary Edwardsen (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Martinez Hewlett (2005)
ENTHUSIASM
James D. G. Dunn (1987)
EVOLUTION: THE CONTROVERSY WITH
ETHICAL CULTURE
Benny Kraut (1987)
CREATIONISM
ENUMA ELISH
Martinez Hewlett (2005)
Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1987)
ETHIOPIAN CHURCH
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
Getatchew Haile (1987)
EXCOMMUNICATION
James H. Provost (1987)
EPHRAEM OF SYRIA
ETHNOASTRONOMY
Theodore Stylianopoulos (1987)
Gary Urton (1987 and 2005)
EXILE
Ellen M. Umansky (1987 and
EPICS
ETHOLOGY OF RELIGION
2005)
David M. Knipe (1987)
Ina Wunn (2005)
EXISTENTIALISM
Revised Bibliography
ETRUSCAN RELIGION
John Macquarrie (1987)
EPIPHANY
Dominique Briquel (2005)
Revised Bibliography
John F. Baldovin (1987)
EUCHARIST
EXORCISM
EPISTEMOLOGY
Monika K. Hellwig (1987)
Nancy Caciola (2005)
Henry Le Roy Finch (1987)
EUCLID
EXPULSION
Revised Bibliography
Michael A. Kerze (1987)
James B. Wiggins (2005)
Revised Bibliography
EPONA
EYE
Françoise le Roux (1987)
EUGENICS
Michel Meslin (1987)
Christian-J. Guyonvarc’h (1987)
Nathan J. Hallanger (2005)
EZEKIEL
ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS
EUHEMERUS AND EUHEMERISM
Moshe Greenberg (1987)
B. A. Gerrish (1987)
Kees W. Bolle (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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EZRA
FEET
FICTION: NATIVE AMERICAN FICTION
John Van Seters (1987)
Elaine Magalis (1987)
AND RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
Laura Furlan Szanto (2005)
FEINSTEIN, MOSHE
F
Rod M. Glogower (1987)
FICTION: OCEANIC FICTION AND
Revised Bibliography
RELIGION
FACKENHEIM, EMIL
Kevin Hart (2005)
Michael L. Morgan (2005)
FEMININE SACRALITY
Nancy Auer Falk (1987 and 2005)
FICTION: SOUTHEAST ASIAN FICTION
FAIRIES
AND RELIGION
Venetia Newall (1987)
FEMINISM: FEMINISM, GENDER STUDIES,
Harry Aveling (2005)
Revised Bibliography
AND RELIGION
Teri Shaffer Yamada (2005)
Sîan Hawthorne (2005)
FAITH
FICTION: THE WESTERN NOVEL AND
Jaroslav Pelikan (1987)
FEMINISM: FRENCH FEMINISTS ON
RELIGION
RELIGION
FALL, THE
Robertson Davies (1987)
Judith L. Poxon (2005)
Julien Ries (1987)
Eric Ziolkowski (2005)
Revised Bibliography
FEMINIST THEOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW
Rita M. Gross (2005)
FIDES
FALSAFAH
Gérard Freyburger (1987)
Michael E. Marmura (1987)
FEMINIST THEOLOGY: CHRISTIAN
Revised Bibliography
FEMINIST THEOLOGY
FALUN GONG
FILARET OF MOSCOW
David Ownby (2005)
Tina Beattie (2005)
Sergei Hackel (1987)
FÉNELON, FRANÇOIS
FAMILY
FILLMORE, CHARLES AND MYRTLE
Kathryn Allen Rabuzzi (1987)
E. Gerhard Carroll (1987)
Dell deChant (2005)
Revised Bibliography
FERGHUS MAC ROICH
Gail M. Harley (2005)
Proinsias Mac Cana (1987 and
FAMILY, THE
FILM AND RELIGION
William Sims Bainbridge (2005)
2005)
S. Brent Plate (2005)
FESTSCHRIFTEN
FANGSHI
FINNISH RELIGIONS
Harold D. Roth (1987 and 2005)
Kocku von Stuckrad (2005)
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
FA
¯ RA¯BI¯, AL-
FETISHISM
FINNO-UGRIC RELIGIONS:
S. Nomanul Haq (2005)
Jay Geller (2005)
AN OVERVIEW
FAREL, GUILLAUME
FEUERBACH, LUDWIG
Lauri Honko (1987)
John H. Leith (1987)
Van A. Harvey (1987 and 2005)
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
FASTI
FICHTE, JOHANN GOTTLIEB
FINNO-UGRIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
John Scheid (1987)
Garrett Green (1987)
STUDY
Jörg Rüpke (2005)
Mihály Hoppál (1987)
FICINO, MARSILIO
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
FASTING
Lewis W. Spitz (1987)
Rosemary Rader (1987)
FIRE
FICTION: AFRICAN FICTION AND
Revised Bibliography
David M. Knipe (2005)
RELIGION
FATE
George Joseph (2005)
FIRTH, RAYMOND
Kees W. Bolle (1987 and 2005)
Judith Macdonald (2005)
FICTION: AUSTRALIAN FICTION AND
FATHER DIVINE
RELIGION
FISH
Robert Weisbrot (2005)
Elaine Lindsay (2005)
Ann Dunnigan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
FA
¯ T.IMAH BINT MUH.AMMAD
FICTION: CHINESE FICTION AND
Asma Afsaruddin (2005)
RELIGION
FLACIUS, MATTHIAS
Richard G. Wang (2005)
Robert Kolb (1987)
FAUST
Allison Coudert (1987)
FICTION: HISTORY OF THE NOVEL
FLAMEN
Revised Bibliography
Margaret Anne Doody (2005)
Francisco Marco Simón (2005)
FAXIAN
FICTION: JAPANESE FICTION AND
FLIGHT
Jan Yün-hua (1987)
RELIGION
William K. Mahony (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Angela Yiu (2005)
Revised Bibliography
FAZANG
FICTION: LATIN AMERICAN FICTION AND
FLOOD, THE
Kimura Kiyotaka (1987)
RELIGION
Jean Rudhardt (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Julia Cuervo Hewitt (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
FLORENSKII, PAVEL
FRANCIS OF ASSISI
FROBENIUS, LEO
Thomas Hopko (1987)
Raymond J. Bucher (1987)
Otto Zerries (1987)
Revised Bibliography
FLOWERS
FRANCKE, AUGUST HERMANN
Pamela R. Frese (1987)
F. Ernest Stoeffler (1987)
FROGS AND TOADS
Revised Bibliography
Manabu Waida (1987)
FRANK, JACOB
Revised Bibliography
FLOW EXPERIENCE
Harris Lenowitz (2005)
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1987)
FRYE, NORTHROP
Revised Bibliography
FRANKEL, ZACHARIAS
Robert D. Denham (2005)
Ismar Schorsch (1987)
FOGUANGSHAN
Revised Bibliography
FUDO
¯
Stuart Chandler (2005)
Richard K. Payne (2005)
FRANKFORT, HENRI
FOLKLORE
Thorkild Jacobsen (1987)
FUJIWARA SEIKA
Patrick B. Mullen (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Kate Wildman Nakai (1987)
Revised Bibliography
FOLK RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
FRASHO
¯ KERETI
William A. Christian, Jr. (1987
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
FULBE RELIGION
and 2005)
David Robinson (1987)
FRAVASHIS
Revised Bibliography
FOLK RELIGION: FOLK BUDDHISM
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Donald K. Swearer (1987)
FUNCTIONALISM
Revised Bibliography
FRAZER, JAMES G.
Roland Robertson (1987)
Robert Ackerman (1987)
Revised Bibliography
FOLK RELIGION: FOLK ISLAM
Revised Bibliography
Margaret A. Mills (2005)
FUNERAL RITES: AN OVERVIEW
FREEMASONS
Louis-Vincent Thomas (1987)
FOLK RELIGION: FOLK JUDAISM
Raphael Patai (1987)
William H. Stemper, Jr. (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Guy L. Beck (2005)
FUNERAL RITES: MESOAMERICAN
FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM
FUNERAL RITES
FOMHOIRE
Elizabeth A. Gray (2005)
Ileana Marcoulesco (1987)
Ximena Chávez Balderas (2005)
Revised Bibliography
FUSTEL DE COULANGES, N. D.
FON AND EWE RELIGION
Michelle Gilbert (1987)
FREE WILL AND PREDESTINATION: AN
S. C. Humphreys (1987)
Revised Bibliography
OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Dewey D. Wallace, Jr. (1987 and
FYLGJUR
FOOD
2005)
James E. Latham (1987)
John Lindow (1987 and 2005)
Peter Gardella (2005)
FREE WILL AND PREDESTINATION:
G
CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
FORTUNA
C. T. McIntire (1987 and 2005)
Arnaldo Momigliano (1987)
GADJERI
Ronald M. Berndt (1987)
Charles Guittard (2005)
FREE WILL AND PREDESTINATION:
ISLAMIC CONCEPTS
GAGE, MATILDA JOSLYN
FOUCHER, ALFRED
Sally Roesch Wagner (2005)
Hubert Durt (1987)
W. Montgomery Watt (1987)
Asma Afsaruddin (2005)
GAIA
FOUNTAIN
Anne Primavesi (2005)
Richard W. Thurn (1987)
FRENZY
Revised Bibliography
Vincent Crapanzano (1987)
GALEN
Revised Bibliography
Gary B. Ferngren (1987)
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
John Ross Carter (1987)
FREUD, SIGMUND
GALILEO GALILEI
Revised Bibliography
Peter Homans (1987 and 2005)
Ravi Ravindra (1987)
Revised Bibliography
FOX, GEORGE
FREYJA
Hugh Barbour (1987)
Edgar C. Polomé (1987)
GALLICANISM
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
Joseph N. Moody (1987)
FOXES
Manabu Waida (1987)
FREYR
GAMBLING
Revised Bibliography
Edgar C. Polomé (1987)
Alf Hiltebeitel (1987)
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
Revised Bibliography
FRANCISCANS
Dominic V. Monti (1987 and
FRICK, HEINRICH
GAMES
2005)
Martin Kraatz (1987 and 2005)
John J. MacAloon (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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GAMLIDEL OF YAVNEH
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
David Kraemer (1987)
ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN RELIGIONS
ZOROASTRIANISM
Revised Bibliography
Mary Joan Winn Leith (2005)
Jamsheed K. Choksy (2005)
GAMLI’EL THE ELDER
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GENDER AND RELIGION: HISTORY OF
Stuart S. Miller (1987 and 2005)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS
STUDY
Diane Bell (2005)
Sîan Hawthorne (2005)
GA
¯ N.APATYAS
Paul B. Courtright (1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GENDER ROLES
BUDDHISM
Fiona Bowie (2005)
GANDHI, MOHANDAS
Mark Juergensmeyer (1987 and
Rita M. Gross (2005)
GENEALOGY
2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
Irving Goldman (1987)
CELTIC RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
GAN
. ES´A
Paul B. Courtright (1987)
Juliette Wood (2005)
GENETICS AND RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
Laurie Zoloth (2005)
GANGES RIVER
CHINESE RELIGIONS
GENNEP, ARNOLD VAN
Indira Viswanathan Peterson
Victoria Cass (2005)
Nicole Belmont (1987)
(1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
Revised Bibliography
GANJIN
CHRISTIANITY
GENSHIN
James C. Dobbins (1987)
Tina Beattie (2005)
Allan A. Andrews (1987)
GARDENS: AN OVERVIEW
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GEOGRAPHY
John Prest (1987 and 2005)
HINDUISM
Richard F. Townsend (1987)
Julia Leslie (2005)
Revised Bibliography
GARDENS: GARDENS IN INDIGENOUS
TRADITIONS
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GEOMANCY
Mary N. MacDonald (2005)
ISLAM
Erika Bourguignon (1987)
Nelly van Doorn-Harder (2005)
GARDENS: ISLAMIC GARDENS
Revised Bibliography
Azim Nanji (2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GEOMETRY
JAINISM
GARIFUNA RELIGION
Ernest G. McClain (1987)
Nalini Balbir (2005)
Paul Christopher Johnson (2005)
Revised Bibliography
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GARVEY, MARCUS
GERMANIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
James Anthony Noel (2005)
JAPANESE RELIGIONS
Edgar C. Polomé (1987)
Kawahashi Noriko (2005)
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
GASTER, THEODOR H.
Robert A. Segal (2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GERMANIC RELIGION: HISTORY OF
JUDAISM
STUDY
GAUD
. APA
¯ DA
Melissa Raphael (2005)
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1987)
Revised Bibliography
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GERSHOM BEN YEHUDAH
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS
Gerald J. Blidstein (1987)
GE HONG
Christine Eber (2005)
T. H. Barrett (1987)
Christine Kovic (2005)
GERSONIDES
Revised Bibliography
Norbert M. Samuelson (1987 and
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
2005)
GEIGER, ABRAHAM
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIOUS
David Ellenson (1987)
GESAR
TRADITIONS
Revised Bibliography
Kathleen Dugan (2005)
Françoise Robin (2005)
GE MYTHOLOGY
GETO-DACIAN RELIGION
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
Anthony Seeger (1987)
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
OCEANIC RELIGIONS
Cicerone Poghirc (1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Mary N. MacDonald (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Ursula King (2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GHAYBAH
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
SIKHISM
Douglas S. Crow (1987)
AFRICAN RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
Oyeronke Olajubu (2005)
(2005)
GHAZA
¯ LI, ABU¯ H.A¯MID AL-
W. Montgomery Watt (1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN RELIGIONS
SOUTH AMERICAN RELIGIONS
GHOST DANCE
Deborah F. Sawyer (2005)
Susan Fitzpatrick Behrens (2005)
Åke Hultkrantz (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
GHOSTS
GOD: AFRICAN SUPREME BEINGS
GOOD, THE
Geoffrey Parrinder (1987)
David Ògúngbilé (2005)
Leszek Kolakowski (1987)
Revised Bibliography
GIBBONS, JAMES
GOD: GOD IN ISLAM
Joseph M. McShane (1987)
Vincent J. Cornell (2005)
GOODENOUGH, ERWIN R.
Robert M. Grant (1987)
GIFT GIVING
GOD: GOD IN POSTBIBLICAL
Revised Bibliography
Charles S. J. White (1987 and
CHRISTIANITY
2005)
John B. Cobb, Jr. (1987)
GORA
¯ KHNA¯TH
Revised Bibliography
David N. Lorenzen (1987)
GILGAMESH
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
GOD: GOD IN POSTBIBLICAL JUDAISM
GÖRRES, JOSEPH VON
Louis Jacobs (1987 and 2005)
Burton Feldman (1987)
GILLEN, FRANCIS JAMES, AND BALDWIN
Revised Bibliography
SPENCER
GOD: GOD IN THE HEBREW SCRIPTURES
John Morton (2005)
S. David Sperling (1987 and 2005)
GOS´A
¯ LA
Colette Caillat (1987 and 2005)
GILSON, ÉTIENNE
GOD: GOD IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
Linus J. Thro (1987)
Reginald H. Fuller (1987 and
GOSPEL
2005)
Raymond F. Collins (1987)
GIMBUTAS, MARIJA
Revised Bibliography
Julia Iwersen (2005)
GODDESS WORSHIP: AN OVERVIEW
James J. Preston (1987)
GOZAN ZEN
GINA
¯ N
Martin Collcutt (1987)
Ali S. Asani (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
GINZA
GODDESS WORSHIP: GODDESS WORSHIP
Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley (1987)
IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST
GRACE
Thomas F. O’Meara (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Joan Goodnick Westenholz (2005)
Revised Bibliography
GINZBERG, ASHER
GODDESS WORSHIP: GODDESS WORSHIP
Steven J. Zipperstein (2005)
IN THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
GRAEBNER, FRITZ
Giulia Sfameni Gasparro (2005)
Joseph Henninger (1987)
GLASENAPP, HELMUTH VON
Revised Bibliography
Glenn Wallis (2005)
GODDESS WORSHIP: THE HINDU
GODDESS
GRAIL, THE
GLOBALIZATION AND RELIGION
Rachel Fell McDermott (2005)
Henry Kahane (1987)
Peter Beyer (2005)
Renée Kahane (1987)
GODDESS WORSHIP: THEORETICAL
Revised Bibliography
GLOSSOLALIA
PERSPECTIVES
Felicitas D. Goodman (1987)
James J. Preston (1987)
GRAIL MOVEMENT
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Janet Kalven (2005)
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM AS A
GODS AND GODDESSES
GRANET, MARCEL
CHRISTIAN HERESY
Theodore M. Ludwig (1987 and
Norman J. Girardot (1987)
Pheme Perkins (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM FROM ITS
GÖKALP, ZI˙YAM
GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH
ORIGINS TO THE MIDDLE AGES [FIRST
Niyazi Berkes (1987)
Stanley Samuel Harakas (1987)
EDITION]
Revised Bibliography
Gilles Quispel (1987)
GREEK RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
Jean-Pierre Vernant (1987)
GOLD AND SILVER
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM FROM ITS
David Carpenter (1987)
GREEK RELIGION [FURTHER
ORIGINS TO THE MIDDLE AGES
Revised Bibliography
CONSIDERATIONS]
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Jan N. Bremmer (2005)
Aldo Magris (2005)
GOLDEN AGE
Jonathan Z. Smith (1987)
GREGORY I
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM FROM THE
Paul Meyvaert (1987)
MIDDLE AGES TO THE PRESENT
GOLDEN RULE
Julia Iwersen (2005)
Andrew H. Plaks (2005)
GREGORY VII
Robert Somerville (1987 and
GNOSTICISM: HISTORY OF STUDY
GOLDENWEISER, ALEXANDER A.
2005)
Ezio Albrile (2005)
Roy Wagner (1987)
Revised Bibliography
GREGORY OF CYPRUS
GOBLET D’ALVIELLA, EUGÈNE
John Travis (1987)
Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin
GOLDZIHER, IGNÁCZ
(1987)
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
GREGORY OF DATEV
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Avak Asadourian (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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GREGORY OF NAREK
H
HARNACK, ADOLF VON
Avak Asadourian (1987)
David W. Lotz (1987)
HAAVIO, MARTTI
Revised Bibliography
GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
Donald F. Winslow (1987)
HARRIS, WILLIAM WADE
HADES
Sheila S. Walker (1987)
GREGORY OF NYSSA
Jan N. Bremmer (2005)
Richard A. Norris (1987)
HARRISON, JANE E.
H
. ADI¯TH
A. W. H. Adkins (1987)
GREGORY OF SINAI
Mohammad Hashim Kamali
Revised Bibliography
George S. Bebis (1987)
(2005)
HARTLAND, E. SIDNEY
GREGORY PALAMAS
H
. A
¯ FIZ. SHI¯RA¯ZI¯
Kenneth Maddock (1987)
Georgios I. Mantzaridis (1987)
G. M. Wickens (1987)
HARVA, UNO
GREGORY THE ILLUMINATOR
HAIDA RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Veikko Anttonen (2005)
Krikor H. Maksoudian (1987)
Carolyn Bereznak Kenny (2005)
H
. ASAN AL-BAS.RI¯
H’AI GAON
GRIAULE, MARCEL
Hasan Qasim Murad (1987)
Gerald J. Blidstein (1987)
Laura S. Grillo (2005)
HASIDISM: AN OVERVIEW
HAIR
Joseph Dan (1987)
GRIMM BROTHERS
Christopher R. Hallpike (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Hilda R. Ellis Davidson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
HAKUIN
HASIDISM: HABAD HASIDISM
Philip Yampolsky (1987)
Arthur Green (1987)
GROOT, J. J. M. DE
Revised Bibliography
Shaul Magid (2005)
Robert G. Henricks (1987)
HALAKHAH: HISTORY OF HALAKHAH
HASIDISM: SATMAR HASIDISM
GROTIUS, HUGO
Gerald J. Blidstein (1987)
Arthur Green (1987)
Anne Clarke (1987)
Revised Bibliography
HALAKHAH: STRUCTURE OF HALAKHAH
GRUNDTVIG, NIKOLAI FREDERIK
David Novak (1987)
HASTINGS, JAMES
SEVERIN
F. Stanley Lusby (1987)
HALL, G. STANLEY
Synnøve Heggem (2005)
John W. Newman (1987)
Revised Bibliography
GUÉNON, RENÉ
Revised Bibliography
HAT.HAYOGA
Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1987 and
David N. Lorenzen (1987)
H
. ALLA
¯ J, AL-
2005)
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
Revised Bibliography
GUHYASAMA
¯ JA
HATHOR
HALLOWEEN
David B. Gray (2005)
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
Leonard Norman Primiano (1987)
HAWAIIAN RELIGION
GUN
. AS
H
. ANA
¯ BILAH
Katharine Luomala (1987)
Karl H. Potter (1987)
George Makdisi (1987)
Malcolm Na¯ea Chun (2005)
GUO XIANG
HANDS
HAWZAH
Isabelle Robinet (1987)
Frederick Mathewson Denny
Muhammad Kazem Shaker (2005)
(1987)
GURDJIEFF, G. I.
HAYASHI RAZAN
Judy D. Saltzman (2005)
HANDSOME LAKE
Kate Wildman Nakai (1987 and
Donald P. St. John (1987)
2005)
GURU
¯
Catherine Cornille (2005)
HAN FEI ZI
HAYDON, A. EUSTACE
Scott Cook (2005)
F. Stanley Lusby (1987)
GURU
¯ GRANTH SA¯HIB
H
Revised Bibliography
Eleanor Nesbitt (2005)
. ANUKKAH
Louis Jacobs (1987)
HEAD: SYMBOLISM AND RITUAL USE
GU YANWU
HANUMA
¯ N
Michel Meslin (1987)
Judith A. Berling (1987)
Velcheru Narayana Rao (1987)
Revised Bibliography
HEAD: THE CELTIC HEAD CULT
Revised Bibliography
Proinsias Mac Cana (1987 and
GYNOCENTRISM
HAOMA
2005)
Sîan Hawthorne (2005)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: ALTERNATIVE
GYO
¯ GI
H
. ARAM AND H
. AWT.AH
MEDICINE IN THE NEW AGE
J. H. Kamstra (1987)
R. B. Serjeant (1987)
Robert C. Fuller (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
HEALING AND MEDICINE: AN OVERVIEW
HEART
HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA
Lawrence E. Sullivan (2005)
Michel Meslin (1987)
Fritz A. Rothschild (1987)
Susan Sered (2005)
Revised Bibliography
HEAVEN AND HELL
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
Linda M. Tober (1987)
HESIOD
MEDICINE IN AFRICA
F. Stanley Lusby (1987)
M. L. West (1987)
Brian M. du Toit (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
HEAVEN’S GATE
HESTIA
MEDICINE IN A
¯ YURVEDA AND SOUTH
Robert W. Balch (2005)
Christine Downing (1987)
ASIA
Revised Bibliography
Dagmar Benner (2005)
HEDGEHOGS
Manabu Waida (1987)
HEVAJRA
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
Revised Bibliography
David B. Gray (2005)
MEDICINE IN CHINA
TJ Hinrichs (2005)
HEGEL, G. W. F.
HIERODOULEIA
Quentin Lauer (1987)
Frédérique Apffel-Marglin (1987
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
HEIDEGGER, MARTIN
and 2005)
MEDICINE IN CHRISTIANITY
Gary B. Ferngren (2005)
Michael E. Zimmerman (1987)
HIEROPHANY
Darrel W. Amundsen (2005)
HEILER, FRIEDRICH
Mircea Eliade (1987)
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
Revised Bibliography
MEDICINE IN GREECE AND ROME
HEIMDALLR
Gary B. Ferngren (2005)
Edgar C. Polomé (1987)
HIEROS GAMOS
Darrel W. Amundsen (2005)
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
Kees W. Bolle (1987)
Revised Bibliography
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
HEKATE
MEDICINE IN INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIA
Sarah Iles Johnston (2005)
HIJIRI
Janice Reid (2005)
J. H. Kamstra (1987)
HELLENISTIC RELIGIONS
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
J. Gwyn Griffiths (1987)
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN
MEDICINE IN ISLAMIC TEXTS AND
Fiona Bowie (2005)
TRADITIONS
HENOTHEISM
Oliver Davies (2005)
Nancy Gallagher (2005)
Michiko Yusa (1987 and 2005)
HILDESHEIMER, ESRIEL
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
HERA
David Ellenson (1987)
MEDICINE IN JAPAN
Jan N. Bremmer (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney (2005)
HERAKLES
HILLEL
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
Fritz Graf (2005)
Stuart S. Miller (1987 and 2005)
MEDICINE IN JUDAISM
HERDER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED
David L. Freeman (2005)
Friedhelm K. Radandt (1987 and
H
. ILLI¯, AL-
Mahmoud M. Ayoub (1987)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
2005)
MEDICINE IN THE AFRICAN DIASPORA
HERESY: AN OVERVIEW
HINCMAR
Karen McCarthy Brown (2005)
Kurt Rudolph (1987)
Paul Meyvaert (1987)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
Revised Bibliography
HINDI RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
MEDICINE IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST
HERESY: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
John Stratton Hawley (1987 and
Pietro Mander (2005)
Thomas A. Robinson (2005)
2005)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING AND
HERMENEUTICS
HINDUISM
MEDICINE IN TIBET
Van A. Harvey (1987 and 2005)
Alf Hiltebeitel (1987)
Geoffrey Samuel (2005)
Revised Bibliography
HERMES
HEALING AND MEDICINE: POPULAR
Attilio Mastrocinque (2005)
HINDUISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
HEALING PRACTICES IN MIDDLE
Vasudha Narayanan (2005)
EASTERN CULTURES
HERMES TRISMEGISTOS
Marcia C. Inhorn (2005)
Jean-Pierre Mahé (1987)
HINDU RELIGIOUS YEAR
Revised Bibliography
Marie-Louise Reiniche (1987)
HEALTH AND RELIGION
Harold G. Koenig (2005)
HERMETISM
HINDU TANTRIC LITERATURE
Antoine Faivre (1987 and 2005)
Sanjukta Gupta (1987 and 2005)
HEALTHY, HAPPY, HOLY ORGANIZATION
(3HO)
HEROES
HIPPOCRATES
Constance W. Elsberg (2005)
Robert A. Segal (2005)
Gary B. Ferngren (1987 and 2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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liii
HIRATA ATSUTANE
HOLY ORDER OF MANS
HUAYAN
Ueda Kenji (1987)
Phillip Charles Lucas (2005)
Robert M. Gimello (1987)
Revised Bibliography
HIRSCH, SAMSON RAPHAEL
HOME
David Ellenson (1987)
Kathryn Allen Rabuzzi (1987)
HUBBARD, L. RON
Revised Bibliography
HOMER
J. Gordon Melton (2005)
HISTORIOGRAPHY: AN OVERVIEW
Fritz Graf (2005)
HÜGEL, FRIEDRICH VON
Ernst Breisach (1987)
HOMO RELIGIOSUS
John J. Heaney (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Gregory D. Alles (1987)
HUGH OF SAINT-VICTOR
HISTORIOGRAPHY: WESTERN STUDIES
Revised Bibliography
Grover A. Zinn, Jr. (1987)
[FIRST EDITION]
HOMOSEXUALITY
Arnaldo Momigliano (1987)
Gilbert Herdt (1987)
HUICHOL RELIGION
Peter T. Furst (1987 and 2005)
HISTORIOGRAPHY: WESTERN STUDIES
Revised Bibliography
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS ]
HO
¯ NEN
HUINENG
Giovanni Casadio (2005)
Allan A. Andrews (1987)
Philip Yampolsky (1987)
HISTORY: CHRISTIAN VIEWS
Revised Bibliography
John R. McRae (2005)
C. T. McIntire (1987 and 2005)
HONJISUIJAKU
HUITZILOPOCHTLI
HISTORY: JEWISH VIEWS
Allan G. Grapard (1987)
Davíd Carrasco (1987)
Robert M. Seltzer (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
HONKO, LAURI
HUIYUAN
HISTORY OF RELIGIONS
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
Kenneth Tanaka (1987)
Ugo Bianchi (1987)
HOOKER, RICHARD
Revised Bibliography
HITTITE RELIGION
Massey H. Shepherd, Jr. (1987)
HUJWI¯RI¯, AL-
Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. (1987)
HOOKER, THOMAS
M. Athar Ali (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Frank Shuffelton (1987)
HUMAN BODY: HUMAN BODIES,
HOBBES, THOMAS
HOPE
RELIGION, AND ART
Roberto Farneti (2005)
Peter Slater (1987)
Diane Apostolos-Cappadona
HOCKING, WILLIAM ERNEST
(2005)
Leroy S. Rouner (1987)
HOPKINS, EMMA CURTIS
Gail M. Harley (2005)
HUMAN BODY: HUMAN BODIES,
HOFFMANN, DAVID
RELIGION, AND GENDER
David Ellenson (1987)
HORNER, I. B.
Grace G. Burford (2005)
Beverley Clack (2005)
Revised Bibliography
HORNS
HUMAN BODY: MYTHS AND SYMBOLISM
H
. OKHMAH
Allison Coudert (1987)
Bruce Lincoln (1987)
Murray H. Lichtenstein (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Claudia V. Camp (2005)
HORSES
Wendy Doniger (1987)
HUMANISM
HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL
Revised Bibliography
David Ellenson (1987)
Lewis W. Spitz (1987)
Revised Bibliography
HORUS
Revised Bibliography
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
HOLI¯
HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGION
Marie-Louise Reiniche (1987)
HOSEA
Liam Gearon (2005)
Yehoshua Gitay (1987)
HOLINESS MOVEMENT
HUMAN SACRIFICE: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Melvin E. Dieter (2005)
Kay A. Read (1987 and 2005)
HOSPITALITY
HOLOCAUST, THE: HISTORY
John Koenig (1987 and 2005)
HUMAN SACRIFICE: AZTEC RITES
Christopher R. Browning (1987
Davíd Carrasco (1987 and 2005)
and 2005)
HOWITT, A. W.
Kenneth Maddock (1987)
HUME, DAVID
HOLOCAUST, THE: JEWISH THEOLOGICAL
Revised Bibliography
Nelson Pike (1987)
RESPONSES
Steven T. Katz (1987)
HROTSVIT
HUMOR AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Robert Potter (2005)
Richard A. Gardner (2005)
HOLY, IDEA OF THE
HUANGDI
HUMOR AND RELIGION: HUMOR AND
Willard G. Oxtoby (1987)
Anna Seidel (1987)
ISLAM
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Sabra J. Webber (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
HUMOR AND RELIGION: HUMOR AND
IBN BA
¯ JJAH
ICONOGRAPHY: ICONOGRAPHY AS
RELIGION IN EAST ASIAN CONTEXTS
L. E. Goodman (1987)
VISIBLE RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
Richard A. Gardner (2005)
H. G. Kippenberg (1987)
IBN DAUD, AVRAHAM
Scott Davis (2005)
Norbert M. Samuelson (1987)
ICONOGRAPHY: ICONOGRAPHY AS
HUMOR AND RELIGION: HUMOR, IRONY,
Revised Bibliography
VISIBLE RELIGION [FURTHER
AND THE COMIC IN WESTERN
CONSIDERATIONS]
IBN EEZRAD, AVRAHAM
THEOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY
Diane Apostolos-Cappadona
John Lippitt (2005)
Marc Saperstein (1987 and 2005)
(2005)
IBN GABIROL, SHELOMOH
HUNAD
ICONOGRAPHY: ISLAMIC ICONOGRAPHY
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
Norbert M. Samuelson (1987 and
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
Revised Bibliography
2005)
ICONOGRAPHY: JEWISH ICONOGRAPHY
HUNGARIAN RELIGION
IBN H
. AZM
[FIRST EDITION]
Vilmos Voigt (2005)
Roger Arnaldez (1987)
Moshe Barasch (1987)
HUN RELIGION
IBN KHALDU
¯ N
ICONOGRAPHY: JEWISH ICONOGRAPHY
Denis Sinor (1987)
Franz Rosenthal (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Steven Fine (2005)
HURRIAN RELIGION
IBN RUSHD
William J. Fulco (1987)
Majid Fakhry (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY: MESOAMERICAN
Alberto Bernabé (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY
IBN SI¯NA
¯
H. B. Nicholson (1987)
HUS, JAN
William E. Gohlman (1987 and
John C. Godbey (1987)
2005)
ICONOGRAPHY: MESOPOTAMIAN
ICONOGRAPHY
H
. USAYN IBN EALI¯, AL-
IBN TAYMI¯YAH
Dominique Collon (1987)
Sajjad H. Rizvi (2005)
George Makdisi (1987)
ICONOGRAPHY: NATIVE NORTH
HUSSERL, EDMUND
ICONOCLASM: AN OVERVIEW
AMERICAN ICONOGRAPHY
Douglas Allen (1987 and 2005)
Diane Apostolos-Cappadona
Armin W. Geertz (1987)
(2005)
HUTCHINSON, ANNE
ICONOGRAPHY: TRADITIONAL AFRICAN
Emery J. Battis (1987)
ICONOCLASM: ICONOCLASM IN THE
ICONOGRAPHY
HUTTERIAN BRETHREN
BYZANTINE TRADITION
John Pemberton III (1987 and
William M. Kephart (1987)
Charles Barber (2005)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
ICONOGRAPHY: AUSTRALIAN
ICONS
HYPOSTASIS
ABORIGINAL ICONOGRAPHY
Virgil Cândea (1987)
Birger A. Pearson (1987)
Howard Morphy (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
ICONOGRAPHY: BUDDHIST
IDEALISM
I
ICONOGRAPHY
Leroy S. Rouner (1987)
Jacob N. Kinnard (2005)
Revised Bibliography
I AM
ICONOGRAPHY: CHRISTIAN
J. Gordon Melton (2005)
IDOLATRY
ICONOGRAPHY
Julien Ries (1987)
IBA
¯ D.IYYA
John W. Cook (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Alan Jones (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY: CONFUCIAN
IGBO RELIGION
IBERIAN RELIGION
ICONOGRAPHY
Francis A. Arinze (1987)
Francisco Marco Simón (2005)
Deborah Sommer (2005)
Ogbu Kalu (2005)
IBN EABD AL-WAHHA¯B, MUH.AMMAD
ICONOGRAPHY: DAOIST ICONOGRAPHY
IGNATIUS LOYOLA
John O. Voll (1987 and 2005)
Ursula-Angelika Cedzich (2005)
John F. Broderick (1987)
IBN AL-EARABI¯
ICONOGRAPHY: EGYPTIAN
IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH
Stephen Hirtenstein (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY
George S. Bebis (1987)
IBN AL-FA
¯ RID.
Karol Mysliwiec (1987)
IEJA¯Z
Issa J. Boullata (1987 and 2005)
Issa J. Boullata (1987)
ICONOGRAPHY: GRECO-ROMAN
IBN EAT.A¯D ALLA¯H
ICONOGRAPHY
I
¯JI¯, EAD.UD AL-DI¯N AL-
Victor Danner (1987)
Tamara M. Green (1987)
Josef van Ess (1987)
IBN BA
¯ BAWAYHI
ICONOGRAPHY: HINDU ICONOGRAPHY
IJMA
¯ E
Etan Kohlberg (1987)
Stella Kramrisch (1987)
Bernard G. Weiss (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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IJTIH A
¯ D
INDO-EUROPEAN RELIGIONS: AN
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR KRISHNA
Bernard G. Weiss (1987)
OVERVIEW
CONSCIOUSNESS
Bruce Lincoln (1987)
Larry D. Shinn (1987 and 2005)
IKHWA
¯ N AL-S.AFA¯D
Revised Bibliography
Ismail K. Poonawala (1987)
INTI
INDO-EUROPEAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY
Elizabeth P. Benson (1987)
IKKYU
¯ SO¯JUN
OF STUDY
James Hugh Sanford (1987)
INTUITION
C. Scott Littleton (1987 and 2005)
Ileana Marcoulesco (1987)
Revised Bibliography
INDRA
Revised Bibliography
ILMARINEN
Wendy Doniger (1987)
INUIT RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Matti Kuusi (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Inge Kleivan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
INDUS VALLEY RELIGION
IMAGES: IMAGES, ICONS, AND IDOLS
Thomas J. Hopkins (1987)
INVISIBLE RELIGION
John E. Cort (2005)
Alf Hiltebeitel (1987)
Carlo Prandi (2005)
IMAGES: VENERATION OF IMAGES
Revised Bibliography
IOANN OF KRONSTADT
Richard H. Davis (2005)
INITIATION: AN OVERVIEW
Thomas Hopko (1987)
Mircea Eliade (1987)
IMAMATE
IPPEN
Wilfred Madelung (1987)
INITIATION: MEN’S INITIATION
James H. Foard (1987 and 2005)
Walter O. Kaelber (1987)
I
¯MA¯N AND ISLA¯M
IQBAL, MUHAMMAD
Jane I. Smith (1987)
INITIATION: WOMEN’S INITIATION
Fazlur Rahman (1987)
Bruce Lincoln (1987)
Revised Bibliography
IMPLICIT RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
Arnaldo Nesti (2005)
IRANIAN RELIGIONS
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
INNER ASIAN RELIGIONS
INANNA
Ruth I. Meserve (1987)
IRENAEUS
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E. Glenn Hinson (1987)
INCANTATION
INNOCENT I
IROQUOIS RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Theodore M. Ludwig (1987)
Paul Meyvaert (1987)
Donald P. St. John (1987)
INCA RELIGION
INNOCENT III
IRVING, EDWARD
Pierre Duviols (1987)
Kenneth Pennington (1987)
Timothy P. Weber (1987)
Revised Bibliography
INNOKENTII VENIAMINOV
ISAAC
INCARNATION
James J. Stamoolis (1987)
Frederick E. Greenspahn (1987
Manabu Waida (1987)
and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
INQUISITION, THE: THE INQUISITION IN
THE NEW WORLD
ISAAC THE SYRIAN
INCENSE
Scott Sessions (2005)
Theodore Stylianopoulos (1987)
Habibeh Rahim (1987)
ISAIAH
INQUISITION, THE: THE INQUISITION IN
Yehoshua Gitay (1987)
INDIAN PHILOSOPHIES
THE OLD WORLD
Revised Bibliography
Anuradha Veeravalli (2005)
William Monter (2005)
ISHIDA BAIGAN
INDIAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
INSECTS
Haga Noboru (1987)
Jan Gonda (1987)
Manabu Waida (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
ISHMAEL
INDIAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
INSPIRATION
Frederick E. Greenspahn (1987
Wilhelm Halbfass (1987)
David Carpenter (1987)
and 2005)
Arjun Appadurai (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ISHRA
¯ QI¯YAH
Revised Bibliography
INTELLECTUALS
Toshihiko Izutsu (1987)
INDIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC THEMES
Edward Shils (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Wendy Doniger (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ISIDORE OF SEVILLE
Revised Bibliography
INTELLIGENT DESIGN
Manuel C. Díaz y Díaz (1987 and
William A. Dembski (2005)
2005)
INDIAN RELIGIONS: RURAL TRADITIONS
Pupul Jayakar (1987)
INTERLACUSTRINE BANTU RELIGIONS
ISIS
Revised Bibliography
John Beattie (1987)
Sarolta A. Takács (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
ISLAM: AN OVERVIEW [FIRST EDITION]
ISRAELITE LAW: PERSONAL STATUS AND
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Fazlur Rahman (1987)
FAMILY LAW
Joseph M. Kitagawa (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1987)
Gary L. Ebersole (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ISLAM: AN OVERVIEW [FURTHER
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: POPULAR
CONSIDERATIONS]
ISRAELITE LAW: PROPERTY LAW
RELIGION
Azim Nanji (2005)
David Marcus (1987)
Alan L. Miller (1987 and 2005)
Abdou Filali-Ansary (2005)
Revised Bibliography
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: RELIGIOUS
ISLAM: ISLAM IN ANDALUSIA
ISRAELITE LAW: STATE AND JUDICIARY
DOCUMENTS
Maribel Fierro (2005)
LAW
H. Paul Varley (1987)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN CENTRAL ASIA
Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1987)
Maureen H. Donovan (2005)
Shirin Akiner (2005)
Revised Bibliography
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: THE STUDY OF
ISLAM: ISLAM IN CHINA
ISRAELITE RELIGION
MYTHS
Michael Dillon (2005)
Ronald S. Hendel (2005)
Isomae Jun’ichi (2005)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN MODERN EUROPE
ISSERLES, MOSHEH
JASPERS, KARL
Jørgen S. Nielsen (2005)
Michael Stanislawski (1987)
Leszek Kolakowski (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ISLAM: ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA
JAVANESE RELIGION
AbdAlla¯h Laroui (1987)
I
¯S´VARA
R. M. Koentjaraningrat (1987)
Lloyd W. Pflueger (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SOUTH ASIA
Ali S. Asani (2005)
ITO
¯ JINSAI
JAYADEVA
Joseph J. Spae (1987)
Barbara Stoler Miller (1987)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
Revised Bibliography
A. H. Johns (1987 and 2005)
IUPITER DOLICHENUS
Nicole Belayche (2005)
JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
David L. Weddle (2005)
Nehemia Levtzion (1987)
IZANAGI AND IZANAMI
Abdin Chande (2005)
Matsumae Takeshi (1987)
JENSEN, ADOLF E.
Otto Zerries (1987)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN THE AMERICAS
J
Aminah Beverly McCloud (2005)
Alessandra Ciattini (2005)
JACOB
JEREMIAH
ISLAM: ISLAM IN THE CAUCASUS AND
Frederick E. Greenspahn (1987
S. David Sperling (1987)
THE MIDDLE VOLGA
Alexandre Bennigsen (1987)
and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Fanny E. Bryan (1987)
JADE
JEREMIAS II
David Carpenter (1987)
Theodore Zissis (1987)
ISLAMIC LAW: PERSONAL LAW
M. Hashim Kamali (1987)
Karl Taube (2005)
JEROME
JAEFAR AL-S
John Buckler (1987)
ISLAMIC LAW: SHARI¯EAH
.A
¯ DIQ
Ann Elizabeth Mayer (1987 and
Arzina R. Lalani (2005)
JERUSALEM: AN OVERVIEW
2005)
JAGUARS
F. E. Peters (1987)
Nicholas J. Saunders (2005)
ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS YEAR
Revised Bibliography
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
JAINISM
JERUSALEM: JERUSALEM IN JUDAISM,
ISLAMIC STUDIES [FIRST EDITION]
Paul Dundas (2005)
CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
Reuven Firestone (2005)
JAMA
¯ EAT-I ISLA¯MI¯
ISLAMIC STUDIES [FURTHER
Charles J. Adams (1987)
JESUITS
CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
John F. Broderick (1987)
Azim Nanji (2005)
Revised Bibliography
JAMES, E. O.
EIS.MAH
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
JESUS
L. Clarke (2005)
Dale C. Allison, Jr. (2005)
JAMES, WILLIAM
ISRAELITE LAW: AN OVERVIEW
Jacques Barzun (1987)
JESUS MOVEMENT
Eckart Otto (2005)
Ann Taves (2005)
James T. Richardson (2005)
ISRAELITE LAW: CRIMINAL LAW
JANUS
JEVONS, F. B.
Samuel Greengus (1987)
Robert Schilling (1987)
Garry W. Trompf (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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JEWISH PEOPLE
JOAN OF ARC
JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ DE ASBAJE Y
Robert M. Seltzer (1987 and
Anne Llewellyn Barstow (1987)
RAMIREZ
2005)
Michelle A. Gonzalez (2005)
JOB
JEWISH RELIGIOUS YEAR
Carol A. Newsom (2005)
JUDAISM: AN OVERVIEW
Louis Jacobs (1987)
Michael Swartz (2005)
JO
¯ DO SHINSHU¯
JEWISH RENEWAL MOVEMENT
Hase Sho¯to¯ (1987)
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN ASIA
Shaul Magid (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Nathan Katz (2005)
JEWISH STUDIES: JEWISH STUDIES FROM
JO
¯ DOSHU¯
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN NORTHEAST
1818 TO 1919
Fujiyoshi Jikai (1987)
AFRICA
Ismar Schorsch (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Steven Kaplan (2005)
Revised Bibliography
JOHN OF DAMASCUS
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN NORTHERN AND
JEWISH STUDIES: JEWISH STUDIES SINCE
Stanley Samuel Harakas (1987)
EASTERN EUROPE SINCE 1500
1919
Steven J. Zipperstein (1987)
JOHN OF THE CROSS
Michael Brenner (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Sandra M. Schneiders (1987 and
JEWISH THOUGHT AND PHILOSOPHY:
2005)
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN NORTHERN AND
JEWISH ETHICAL LITERATURE
EASTERN EUROPE TO 1500
JOHN THE BAPTIST
Joseph Dan (1987)
Ivan G. Marcus (1987)
Walter Wink (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
JOHN THE EVANGELIST
JEWISH THOUGHT AND PHILOSOPHY:
D. Moody Smith (1987 and 2005)
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST
MODERN THOUGHT
AND NORTH AFRICA SINCE 1492
Paul R. Mendes-Flohr (1987 and
JOHN XXIII
Jane S. Gerber (1987 and 2005)
2005)
Francis X. Murphy (1987)
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST
JEWISH THOUGHT AND PHILOSOPHY:
JONAH
AND NORTH AFRICA TO 1492
PREMODERN PHILOSOPHY
Michael Fishbane (1987)
Mark R. Cohen (1987)
Seymour Feldman (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
JONAS, HANS
JUDGE, WILLIAM Q.
JIAO
Christian Wiese (2005)
Judy D. Saltzman (2005)
Laurence G. Thompson (1987)
JONES, ABSALOM
JUDGMENT OF THE DEAD
Revised Bibliography
James Anthony Noel (2005)
Helmer Ringgren (1987)
JIEN
Revised Bibliography
JONES, JIM
Delmer M. Brown (1987)
Rebecca Moore (2005)
JULIAN OF HALICARNASSUS
JIHA
¯ D
Demetrios J. Constantelos (1987)
JONESTOWN AND PEOPLES TEMPLE
Rudolph Peters (1987)
David Chidester (2005)
JULIAN OF NORWICH
Barbara Bishop (1987)
JIMMU
JOSEPH
Kakubayashi Fumio (1987 and
Frederick E. Greenspahn (1987
JUNAYD, AL-
2005)
and 2005)
Alexander Knysh (2005)
JINGO
¯
JOSEPH OF VOLOKOLAMSK
JUNG, C. G.
J. H. Kamstra (1987)
Sergei Hackel (1987)
Peter Homans (1987)
Robert A. Segal (2005)
JINGTU
JOSEPHUS FLAVIUS
David W. Chappell (1987 and
David Altshuler (1987)
JUNO
2005)
Robert Schilling (1987)
JOSHUA
Revised Bibliography
JI¯VANMUKTI
Edward L. Greenstein (1987 and
Sanjukta Gupta (1987)
2005)
JUPITER
Revised Bibliography
Robert Schilling (1987)
JOSIAH
Charles Guittard (2005)
JIZANG
John Van Seters (1987)
Aaron K. Koseki (1987)
Revised Bibliography
JUSTIFICATION
Revised Bibliography
Ian A. McFarland (2005)
JÖTNAR
JÑA
¯ NA
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
JUSTINIAN I
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1987)
George Every (1987)
JOURNALISM AND RELIGION
JOACHIM OF FIORE
Ruel W. Tyson, Jr. (1987)
JUSTIN MARTYR
Marjorie E. Reeves (1987)
Revised Bibliography
E. Glenn Hinson (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
K
KARMAN: BUDDHIST CONCEPTS
KIERKEGAARD, SØREN
Dennis Hirota (2005)
Mark C. Taylor (1987)
KAEBAH
Gordon D. Newby (2005)
KARMAN: HINDU AND JAIN CONCEPTS
KIMBANGU, SIMON
William K. Mahony (1987)
Bennetta Jules-Rosette (1987)
KABERRY, PHYLLIS M.
KIMH
Sandy Toussaint (2005)
KARMA PAS
. I, DAVID
Kurtis R. Schaeffer (2005)
Frank Talmage (1987)
KABI¯R
Revised Bibliography
Charlotte Vaudeville (1987)
KARO, YOSEF
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
KING, MARTIN LUTHER, JR.
Revised Bibliography
Albert J. Raboteau (1987)
KARUN
. A
¯
KAGAN, YISRADEL MEDIR
Taitetsu Unno (1987)
KINGDOM OF GOD
Shaul Stampfer (1987)
Revised Bibliography
John Pairman Brown (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
KASHRUT
KAGAWA TOYOHIKO
David Novak (1987 and 2005)
KINGSHIP: AN OVERVIEW
John F. Howes (1987)
Gaetano Riccardo (2005)
KAUFMANN, YEH
. EZKEL
KAIBARA EKKEN
Laurence J. Silberstein (1987)
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN EAST ASIA
Mary Evelyn Tucker (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Manabu Waida (1987)
Revised Bibliography
KALA
¯ BA¯DHI¯, AL-
KEIZAN
Gerhard Böwering (1987)
William M. Bodiford (2005)
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN MESOAMERICA
AND SOUTH AMERICA
KA
¯ LACAKRA
KEMPE, MARGERY
Davíd Carrasco (1987 and 2005)
Vesna A. Wallace (2005)
Louise Collis (1987)
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN SUB-SAHARAN
KALA
¯ M
KENYON, KATHLEEN
AFRICA
Georges C. Anawati (1987)
Kathleen S. Nash (2005)
Wyatt MacGaffey (1987 and 2005)
KALISCHER, TSEVI HIRSCH
KEPLER, JOHANNES
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN THE ANCIENT
Jody Elizabeth Myers (1987 and
Ravi Ravindra (1987)
MEDITERRANEAN WORLD
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Cristiano Grottanelli (1987)
KAMALAS´I¯LA
Pietro Mander (2005)
KERÉNYI, KÁROLY
Sara L. McClintock (2005)
William McGuire (1987)
KINJIKITILE
KAMI
Aldo Magris (2005)
Marcia Wright (1987)
Michio Araki (2005)
KEYS
KINSHIP
Claudia Gross (2005)
KAMO NO MABUCHI
Elaine Magalis (1987)
Haga Noboru (1987)
Revised Bibliography
KIREEVSKII, IVAN
Revised Bibliography
KHA
¯ NAGA¯H
Sergei Hackel (1987)
KANG YUWEI
Bruce B. Lawrence (1987)
KITAGAWA, JOSEPH M.
Hao Chang (1987 and 2005)
KHANTY AND MANSI RELIGION
H. Byron Earhart (2005)
KANT, IMMANUEL
Eva Schmidt (1987)
KLIMKEIT, HANS-JOACHIM
T. K. Seung (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Michael Stausberg (2005)
KAPLAN, MORDECAI
KHA
¯ RIJI¯S
KLONG CHEN RAB ‘BYAMS PA
Richard L. Libowitz (1987 and
John Alden Williams (1987)
(LONGCHENPA)
2005)
David Germano (2005)
KHMER RELIGION
Anne Hansen (2005)
Gregory A. Hillis (2005)
KARAITES
Leon Nemoy (1987)
KNEES
KHOI AND SAN RELIGION
Daniel Frank (2005)
Edwin N. Wilmsen (1987)
Frederick Mathewson Denny
Revised Bibliography
(1987)
KARBALA
Syed Akbar Hyder (2005)
KNOTS
KHOMIAKOV, ALEKSEI
Giulia Piccaluga (1987)
Sergei Hackel (1987)
KARDECISM
Revised Bibliography
Lisias Noguera Negra¯o (1987)
KHUSRAW, AMI¯R
Revised Bibliography
KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE
Saleem Kidwai (1987)
Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin
KARELIAN RELIGION
KHVARENAH
(1987)
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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lix
KNOX, JOHN
KR.S.N.AISM
LAKES
John H. Leith (1987)
Friedhelm E. Hardy (1987)
Richard F. Townsend (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
KO
¯ BEN
Leo M. Pruden (1987)
KS.ITIGARBHA
LAKOTA RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Miriam Levering (1987)
William K. Powers (1987)
KOHLER, KAUFMANN
Revised Bibliography
James Garrett (2005)
Benny Kraut (1987)
Kathleen J. Martin (2005)
KUBRA
¯ , NAJM AL-DI¯N
KOKUGAKU
Muhammad Isa Waley (2005)
LAMOTTE, ÉTIENNE
Ishida Ichiro¯ (1987)
Hubert Durt (1987 and 2005)
Peter Nosco (2005)
KUIJI
Alan Sponberg (1987)
LANDVÆTTIR
KOMI RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
John Lindow (1987 and 2005)
Nikolai Konakov (2005)
KULTURKREISELEHRE
LANG, ANDREW
KONGO RELIGION
Kurt Rudolph (1987)
Benjamin C. Ray (1987)
John M. Janzen (1987)
Alessandra Ciattini (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
KUMA
¯ RAJI¯VA
LANGER, SUSANNE
KONG SPRUL BLO GROS MTHA’ YAS
Dale Todaro (1987)
Arabella Lyon (2005)
(KONGTRUL LODRO TAYE)
LANGUAGE: BUDDHIST VIEWS OF
E. Gene Smith (2005)
KUMAZAWA BANZAN
I. J. McMullen (1987)
LANGUAGE
KONKO
¯ KYO¯
Luis O. Gómez (1987)
Helen Hardacre (1987)
KUMBHA MELA
¯
Revised Bibliography
William S. Sax (1987)
KOOK, AVRAHAM YITSH
. AQ
Revised Bibliography
LANGUAGE: SACRED LANGUAGE
Benjamin Ish-Shalom (2005)
Wade T. Wheelock (1987)
KUN
. D
. ALINI¯
KOREAN RELIGION
LAO RELIGION
Hugh B. Urban (2005)
Francisca Cho (2005)
Georges Condominas (1987)
KUROZUMIKYO
¯
Revised Bibliography
KORESH, DAVID
Hirota Masaki (1987)
James D. Tabor (2005)
LAOZI
Revised Bibliography
Judith Magee Boltz (1987)
KOSMAS AITOLOS
KURUKS.ETRA
Nomikos Michael Vaporis (1987)
LARES
Alf Hiltebeitel (1987)
Attilio Mastrocinque (2005)
KOTLER, AHARON
KUSHITE RELIGION
Shaul Stampfer (1987)
LAS CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE
William Y. Adams (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Sidney H. Rooy (1987)
Revised Bibliography
LA VALLÉE POUSSIN, LOUIS DE
KOU QIANZHI
KU
¯ YA
Hubert Durt (1987)
Richard B. Mather (1987)
Edward Kamens (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
KRAEMER, HENDRIK
LAW, WILLIAM
Willem A. Bijlefeld (1987)
L
Erwin P. Rudolph (1987)
Revised Bibliography
LABYRINTH
Lima de Freitas (1987)
LAW AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
KRAMRISCH, STELLA
Winnifred Fallers Sullivan (2005)
Michael W. Meister (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Robert A. Yelle (2005)
LADY OF THE ANIMALS
KRISHNAMURTI, JIDDU
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND NEW
Charles S. J. White (1987 and
Carol P. Christ (1987 and 2005)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
2005)
LAESTADIUS, LARS LEVI
James T. Richardson (2005)
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
KRISTENSEN, W. BREDE
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND RELIGION
John B. Carman (1987)
LA
¯ HORI¯, MUH.AMMAD EALI¯
IN BUDDHISM
Revised Bibliography
Sajida S. Alvi (1987 and 2005)
Rebecca R. French (2005)
KROCHMAL, NAH
. MAN
LAIMA
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND RELIGION
Robert M. Seltzer (1987)
Haralds Biezais (1987)
IN CHINESE RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Laura A. Skosey (2005)
KRS.N.A
LAITY
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND RELIGION
John Stratton Hawley (1987 and
F. Stanley Lusby (1987)
IN HINDUISM
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Richard W. Lariviere (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND RELIGION
LEGITIMATION
LIELE, GEORGE
IN INDIGENOUS CULTURES
James Luther Adams (1987)
James Anthony Noel (2005)
Greg Johnson (2005)
Thomas Mikelson (1987)
LIFE
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND RELIGION
LEHMANN, EDVARD
J. Bruce Long (1987)
IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE
Jes P. Asmussen (1987)
Laurie Louise Patton (2005)
Laurent Mayali (2005)
LEIBNIZ, GOTTFRIED WILHELM
LIGHT AND DARKNESS
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND RELIGION
R. C. Sleigh, Jr. (1987)
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
IN THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN
Julia Iwersen (2005)
LEMMINKÄINEN
WORLD
Matti Kuusi (1987)
LI¯LA
¯
Hans Kippenberg (2005)
Norvin Hein (1987)
LENSHINA, ALICE
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION, AND
Revised Bibliography
George Clement Bond (1987)
CRITICAL THEORY
LILITH
Peter Goodrich (2005)
LEO I
Rebecca M. Lesses (2005)
Robert Somerville (1987 and
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
2005)
LIMINALITY
AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Edith Turner (2005)
Rosalind I. J. Hackett (2005)
LEO XIII
Joseph M. McShane (1987)
LINJI
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
Thomas Cleary (1987)
AND LITERATURE
LEONTIUS OF BYZANTIUM
Richard A. Rosengarten (2005)
David B. Evans (1987)
LIONS
Kathryn Hutton (1987)
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
LESBIANISM
Revised Bibliography
AND MORALITY
Carol S. Anderson (2005)
Michael Kessler (2005)
LI SHAOJUN
LESSING, G. E.
T. H. Barrett (1987)
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
L. P. Wessell, Jr. (1987)
Revised Bibliography
AND PUNISHMENT
Robert A. Yelle (2005)
LEUBA, JAMES H.
LITERATURE: CRITICAL THEORY AND
Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi (1987)
RELIGIOUS STUDIES
LAWRENCE, PETER
Revised Bibliography
David Jasper (2005)
Mary N. MacDonald (2005)
LÉVI, SYLVAIN
LITERATURE: LITERATURE AND RELIGION
LEACH, EDMUND
G. R. Welbon (1987 and 2005)
Anthony C. Yu (1987)
Mac Linscott Ricketts (2005)
LEVITES
Larry D. Bouchard (2005)
LEADERSHIP
Baruch A. Levine (1987)
LITERATURE: RELIGIOUS DIMENSIONS OF
Gillian Lindt (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MODERN WESTERN LITERATURE [FIRST
Revised Bibliography
LEVI YITSH
EDITION]
. AQ OF BERDICHEV
LEAVEN
Arthur Green (1987)
Nathan A. Scott, Jr. (1987)
James E. Latham (1987)
Revised Bibliography
LITERATURE: RELIGIOUS DIMENSIONS OF
LEE, ANN
MODERN WESTERN LITERATURE
LÉVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN
Lawrence Foster (1987 and 2005)
Claude Rivière (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Kevin Hart (2005)
LEENHARDT, MAURICE
LEWIS, C. S.
James Clifford (1987)
Walter Hooper (1987)
LITURGY
Revised Bibliography
Lawrence A. Hoffman (2005)
LI
LEESER, ISAAC
David S. Nivison (1987)
LIU AN
Abraham J. Karp (1987)
Harold D. Roth (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
LIANG WUDI
Miyakawa Hisayuki (1987)
LIU DEREN
LEEUW, GERARDUS VAN DER
Kubo Noritada (1987)
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
LIBATION
LOCKE, JOHN
Revised Bibliography
Hans Dieter Betz (1987)
John C. Higgins-Biddle (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
LEFT AND RIGHT
2005)
Richard C. Martin (1987)
LIBERATION
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Kenneth Surin (2005)
LOGIC
LEGALISM
LIBERATION THEOLOGY
R. M. Martin (1987)
Karen Turner (2005)
Elsa Tamez (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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lxi
LOGICAL POSITIVISM
LURIA, SHELOMOH
MAGIC: MAGIC IN MEDIEVAL AND
Frederick Ferré (1987)
Michael Stanislawski (1987)
RENAISSANCE EUROPE
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Richard Kieckhefer (2005)
LOGOS
LUSTRATIO
MAGIC: MAGIC IN SOUTH ASIA
Jean Pépin (1987)
John Scheid (1987)
Ariel Glucklich (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
MAGIC: THEORIES OF MAGIC
LOISY, ALFRED
LUTHER, MARTIN
John Middleton (1987 and 2005)
Richard J. Resch (1987)
Hans J. Hillerbrand (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MAHA
¯ BHA¯RATA
LUTHERANISM
Alf Hiltebeitel (1987)
LOKI
Eric W. Gritsch (1987)
Revised Bibliography
John Lindow (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MAHA
¯ MUDRA¯
LONERGAN, BERNARD
LU XIUJING
Roger R. Jackson (2005)
Frederick E. Crowe (1987 and
Catherine M. Bell (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
MAHA
¯ SA¯M.GHIKA
Luis O. Gómez (1987)
LÖNNROT, ELIAS
LU XIANGSHAN
Revised Bibliography
Felix J. Oinas (1987)
On-cho Ng (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MAHA
¯ SIDDHAS
M
Reginald Ray (1987)
LORD OF THE ANIMALS
Revised Bibliography
Otto Zerries (1987)
MABINOGION
Brynley F. Roberts (1987 and
MAHA
¯ VAIROCANA
LORD’S PRAYER
2005)
Charles D. Orzech (1987)
Geoffrey Wainwright (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
2005)
MADHHAB
M. Hashim Kamali (1987)
MAHA
¯ VI¯RA
LOTUS
Colette Caillat (1987)
Joel P. Brereton (1987)
MADHVA
Karl H. Potter (1987)
MAID OF LUDMIR
LÖW, YEHUDAH BEN BETSALDEL OF
Ada Rapoport-Albert (2005)
PRAGUE
MA
¯ DHYAMIKA
Byron L. Sherwin (1987)
Kajiyama Yu¯ichi (1987)
MAIMONIDES, ABRAHAM
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Paul B. Fenton (2005)
LOWIE, ROBERT H.
MADRASAH
MAIMONIDES, MOSES
Raymond D. Fogelson (1987)
Richard W. Bulliet (1987)
Isadore Twersky (1987)
Revised Bibliography
LUBA RELIGION
MA GCIG LAB SGRON (MACHIG
J. A. Theuws (1987)
LABDRON)
MAITREYA
Revised Bibliography
Janet Gyatso (2005)
Lewis R. Lancaster (1987)
Revised Bibliography
LUDI SAECULARES
MAGEN DAVID
John Scheid (1987)
Joseph Gutmann (1987)
MAJLISI¯, AL-
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Etan Kohlberg (1987)
LUGBARA RELIGION
MAGI
MAKARIOS OF EGYPT
John Middleton (1987)
Albert de Jong (2005)
Theodore Zissis (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MAGIC: MAGIC IN EAST ASIA
MALALASEKERA, G. P.
LUGH
Donald Harper (1987)
N. A. Jayawickrama (1987)
Elizabeth A. Gray (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MAGIC: MAGIC IN EASTERN EUROPE
LUKE THE EVANGELIST
Ionna Andreesco-Miereanu (1987)
MALBIM
D. Moody Smith (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
A. Stanley Dreyfus (1987)
LULL, RAMÓN
MAGIC: MAGIC IN GRECO-ROMAN
MALCOLM X
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
ANTIQUITY
Lawrence H. Mamiya (1987)
Hans Dieter Betz (1987)
LUPERCALIA
MA
¯ LIK IBN ANAS
Robert Schilling (1987)
MAGIC: MAGIC IN INDIGENOUS
Susan A. Spectorsky (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SOCIETIES
Devin J. Stewart (2005)
Donald R. Hill (1987)
LURIA, ISAAC
MALINOWSKI, BRONISLAW
Lawrence Fine (1987)
MAGIC: MAGIC IN ISLAM
Michael A. Baenen (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Toufic Fahd (1987)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
MAMI WATA
MAORI RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
MARRANOS
Kathleen O’Brien Wicker (2005)
F. Allan Hanson (1987)
Daniel M. Swetschinski (1987)
Renée Levine Melammed (2005)
MANA
MAORI RELIGION [FURTHER
Roy Wagner (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS]
MARRIAGE
Edith Turner (1987)
MANCO CAPAC AND MAMA OCLLO
Jean E. Rosenfeld (2005)
Elizabeth P. Benson (1987)
Pamela R. Frese (1987)
MAPONOS
MANDA D’HIIA
Françoise le Roux (1987)
MARS
Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley (1987)
Christian-J. Guyonvarc’h (1987)
Robert Schilling (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Charles Guittard (2005)
MAPPO
¯
MANDAEAN RELIGION
Taitetsu Unno (1987)
MARSILIUS OF PADUA
Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Alan Gewirth (1987)
Ezio Albrile (2005)
MAPUCHE RELIGION
MARTIAL ARTS: AN OVERVIEW
MAN
Michael Maliszewski (1987)
. D
. ALAS: BUDDHIST MAN
. D
. ALAS
Miguel Angel Olivera (1987)
Gudrun Bühnemann (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
MAN
. D
. ALAS: HINDU MAN
. D
. ALAS
MA
¯ RA
MARTIAL ARTS: CHINESE MARTIAL ARTS
Peter Gaeffke (1987)
John S. Strong (2005)
Meir Shahar (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MARTINEAU, JAMES
MA
¯ RA (AND GREAT MOTHERS)
MANI
Janı¯na Kursı¯te (2005)
R. K. Webb (1987)
Andrea Piras (2005)
MARTYRDOM
MARANKE, JOHN
MANICHAEISM: AN OVERVIEW
Bennetta Jules-Rosette (1987)
Samuel Z. Klausner (1987)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MARATHI RELIGIONS
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM AND
Eleanor Zelliot (1987 and 2005)
MARX, KARL
CHRISTIANITY
Louis Dupré (1987)
Anne Feldhaus (1987 and 2005)
Johannes van Oort (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MARCION
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM IN
MARY: AN OVERVIEW
Robert L. Wilken (1987)
CENTRAL ASIA AND CHINA
John Reumann (1987 and 2005)
Samuel N. C. Lieu (2005)
MARCIONISM
MARY: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES
Robert L. Wilken (1987)
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM IN IRAN
Tina Beattie (2005)
Manfred Hutter (2005)
MARDUK
MARY MAGDALENE
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM IN THE
Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1987)
Diane Treacy-Cole (2005)
ROMAN EMPIRE
Revised Bibliography
Samuel N. C. Lieu (2005)
MASCULINE SACRALITY
MARDU RELIGION
M. H. Klaiman (1987)
MA
¯ N.IKKAVA¯CAKAR
Robert Tonkinson (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Glenn E. Yocum (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
MASHTOTSE, MESROP
MARETT, R. R.
Krikor H. Maksoudian (1987)
MANISM
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MASKS
Henry Pernet (2005)
MANITOU
MARI AND MORDVIN RELIGION
James B. Jeffries (2005)
Juha Pentikäinen (1987)
MAS.LAH.AH
Susan A. Spectorsky (1987)
MAÑJUS´RI¯
MARIE DE L’INCARNATION
Raoul Birnbaum (1987)
Raymond Brodeur (2005)
MASPERO, HENRI
Revised Bibliography
Anna Seidel (1987)
MARITAIN, JACQUES
MANNHARDT, WILHELM
James C. Livingston (1987)
MASSIGNON, LOUIS
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MARK OF EPHESUS
Revised Bibliography
Panagiotis C. Christou (1987)
MANTRA
MATERIALISM
Frederick M. Smith (2005)
MARK THE EVANGELIST
Ernan McMullin (1987)
D. Moody Smith (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
MANU
Ludo Rocher (1987)
MAR PA
MATHER FAMILY
Revised Bibliography
Hubert Decleer (2005)
Robert Middlekauff (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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MATRES
MEGALITHIC RELIGION: PREHISTORIC
MERIT: BUDDHIST CONCEPTS
Françoise le Roux (1987)
EVIDENCE
John S. Strong (1987)
Christian-J. Guyonvarc’h (1987)
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MATTHEW THE EVANGELIST
MEHER BABA
MERIT: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
D. Moody Smith (1987 and 2005)
Charles C. Haynes (1987 and
Michael Pye (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MA
¯ TURI¯DI¯, AL-
2005)
R. Marston Speight (1987)
MEDIR
MERLIN
Ibrahim Kalin (2005)
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
Brynley F. Roberts (1987 and
MA
¯ UI
Revised Bibliography
2005)
Katharine Luomala (1987)
MEDIR BEN BARUKH OF ROTHENBURG
MERTON, THOMAS
MAURICE, FREDERICK DENISON
Gerald J. Blidstein (1987)
Anthony Padovano (1987)
Olive J. Brose (1987)
MELANCHTHON, PHILIPP
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: CLASSIC
MAUSS, MARCEL
Clyde L. Manschreck (1987)
CULTURES
Marcel Fournier (2005)
Doris Heyden (1987)
MELANESIAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
MA
¯ WARDI¯, AL-
Ann Chowning (1987)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: COLONIAL
Donald P. Little (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CULTURES
Veronica Gutiérrez (2005)
MAWDU
¯ DI¯, SAYYID ABU¯ AL-AELA¯
MELANESIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
Matthew Restall (2005)
Sheila McDonough (1987)
THEMES
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS:
MAWLID
Fitz John Porter Poole (1987)
Dale F. Eickelman (1987)
Revised Bibliography
CONTEMPORARY CULTURES
Robert S. Carlsen (2005)
MAWU-LISA
MELQART
James S. Thayer (1987)
Corinne Bonnet (2005)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: FORMATIVE
CULTURES
MAXIMÓN
MEMORIZATION
Hasso von Winning (1987)
Vincent Stanzione (2005)
Phillipe Borgeaud (1987 and
2005)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
MAXIMOS THE CONFESSOR
STUDY
Nicholas Karazafiris (1987)
MENDELSSOHN, MOSES
Yolotl González Torres (1987 and
Robert M. Seltzer (1987)
MA
¯ YA¯
2005)
Teun Goudriaan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
MAYA RELIGION
MENDICANCY
THEMES
David Stuart (2005)
Rosemary Rader (1987)
Doris Heyden (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Yolotl González Torres (2005)
MAZDAKISM
Davíd Carrasco (2005)
Ehsan Yarshater (2005)
MENGZI
Philip J. Ivanhoe (2005)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS:
MBONA
J. Matthew Schoffeleers (1987)
POSTCLASSIC CULTURES
MENNONITES
H. B. Nicholson (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Cornelius J. Dyck (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: PRE-
MCPHERSON, AIMEE SEMPLE
Robert Mapes Anderson (1987)
COLUMBIAN RELIGIONS
MEN’S STUDIES IN RELIGION
Björn Krondorfer (2005)
Miguel Léon-Portilla (1987 and
MEAD, MARGARET
2005)
Paul Shankman (2005)
Philip Culbertson (2005)
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS: AN
MENSTRUATION
MEDIA AND RELIGION
OVERVIEW [FIRST EDITION]
Stewart M. Hoover (2005)
Melissa Raphael (2005)
Thorkild Jacobsen (1987)
MEDICAL ETHICS
MERCIER, DÉSIRÉ JOSEPH
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS: AN
Lisa Soleymani Lehmann (2005)
Gary Lease (1987)
OVERVIEW [FURTHER
MEDITATION
MEREZHKOVSKII, DMITRII
CONSIDERATIONS]
Frederic B. Underwood (1987)
Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal (1987
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
and 2005)
MEGALITHIC RELIGION: HISTORICAL
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
CULTURES
MERIT: AN OVERVIEW
STUDY
J. Stephen Lansing (1987)
Michael Pye (1987)
Thorkild Jacobsen (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Pietro Mander (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
MESSIANISM: AN OVERVIEW
MILLENARIANISM: CHINESE
MODERNITY
Helmer Ringgren (1987)
MILLENARIAN MOVEMENTS
John F. Wilson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Richard Shek (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
MESSIANISM: JEWISH MESSIANISM
MI¯MA
¯ M.SA¯
MOGGALIPUTTATISSA
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1987)
George D. Bond (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
MESSIANISM: MESSIANISM IN THE
MINERVA
MOHILEVER, SHEMUDEL
MUSLIM TRADITION
Jean-Louis Girard (1987)
David Biale (1987)
Kamran Scot Aghaie (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
MESSIANISM: SOUTH AMERICAN
MINISTRY
MÖHLER, JOHANN ADAM
Joseph Fitzer (1987)
MESSIANISM
Robert S. Paul (1987)
Juan M. Ossio (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MOKOSH
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
METALS AND METALLURGY
MIQVEH
Mircea Eliade (1987)
Judith R. Baskin (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MIRABAI
MOKS
METAPHYSICS
.A
Cornel West (1987)
Nancy M. Martin (2005)
A. M. Esnoul (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
MIRACLES: AN OVERVIEW
Manabu Waida (1987)
MONASTERY
METEOROLOGICAL BEINGS
Revised Bibliography
Karen Kingsley (1987)
Peter C. Chemery (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
MIRACLES: MODERN PERSPECTIVES
Morton Kelsey (1987)
MONASTICISM: AN OVERVIEW
METHODIST CHURCHES
Revised Bibliography
George Weckman (1987)
Frank Baker (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
MIERA¯J.
Gerhard Böwering (1987)
MONASTICISM: BUDDHIST
MEYKAN
. T.A
¯ R
MONASTICISM
Glenn E. Yocum (1987)
MIRIAM
Paul K. Nietupski (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Edward L. Greenstein (1987 and
2005)
MONASTICISM: CHRISTIAN
MICAH
MONASTICISM
Yehoshua Gitay (1987)
MIRRORS
Lutz Kaelber (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Sabine Melchior-Bonnet (2005)
MONEY
MISHNAH AND TOSEFTA
MICRONESIAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
David Carpenter (1987)
William A. Lessa (1987)
Jacob Neusner (1987)
Jay Dobbin (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MONGKUT
Frank E. Reynolds (1987)
MISSIONS: BUDDHIST MISSIONS
MICRONESIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
Revised Bibliography
Jonathan S. Walters (2005)
THEMES
MONGOL RELIGIONS
Katharine Luomala (1987)
MISSIONS: CHRISTIAN MISSIONS
Walther Heissig (1987)
Michael A. Rynkiewich (2005)
Stephen C. Neill (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MIDRASH AND AGGADAH [FIRST
MISSIONS: MISSIONARY ACTIVITY
MONISM
EDITION]
Max L. Stackhouse (1987 and
Robert A. McDermott (1987)
Judah Goldin (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
MIDRASH AND AGGADAH [FURTHER
MITHRA
MONKEYS
CONSIDERATONS]
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Philip Lutgendorf (2005)
Burton L. Visotzky (2005)
MITHRAISM
MONOPHYSITISM
MIGRATION AND RELIGION
Richard Gordon (2005)
W. H. C. Frend (1987)
William H. McNeill (1987)
MOABITE RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Tawny L. Holm (2005)
MONOTHEISM
MI LA RAS PA (MILAREPA)
MODERNISM: CHRISTIAN MODERNISM
Theodore M. Ludwig (1987 and
Andrew Quintman (2005)
Bernard M. G. Reardon (1987 and
2005)
2005)
MILLENARIANISM: AN OVERVIEW
MONSTERS
Hillel Schwartz (1987)
MODERNISM: ISLAMIC MODERNISM
Theodor H. Gaster (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Omid Safi (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
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MONTAGU, LILY
MUISCA RELIGION
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN SOUTH
Ellen M. Umansky (1987)
Pita Kelekna (1987)
AMERICA
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade
(2005)
MONTANISM
MULLA
¯ S.ADRA¯
Kurt Aland (1987)
Fazlur Rahman (1987)
Deise Lucy Oliveira Montardo
Revised Bibliography
(2005)
MONTANUS
Kurt Aland (1987)
MÜLLER, F. MAX
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
Jon R. Stone (2005)
SOUTHEAST ASIA
MOODY, DWIGHT L.
David Harnish (2005)
James F. Findlay (1987)
MÜLLER, KARL O.
Burton Feldman (1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN SUB-
MOON
SAHARAN AFRICA
Jean Rhys Bram (1987)
Revised Bibliography
J. H. Kwabena Nketia (1987)
Revised Bibliography
MÜNTZER, THOMAS
Revised Bibliography
Eric W. Gritsch (1987)
MOORE, GEORGE FOOT
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN THE
F. Stanley Lusby (1987)
MU
¯ RTI
Steven Fine (2005)
MIDDLE EAST
Gary Michael Tartakov (1987)
Amnon Shiloah (1987)
MORALITY AND RELIGION
MURUKAN
Ronald M. Green (1987)
¯
MUSIC: RELIGIOUS MUSIC IN THE WEST
Fred W. Clothey (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Frank Burch Brown (2005)
MUSAR MOVEMENT
MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD
MORAVIANS
Gershon C. Bacon (1987 and
David A. Schattschneider (1987)
Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyud Marsot (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
MUSO
¯ SO¯SEKI
MUSES
MORMONISM
Jeannie Carlier (1987)
Martin Collcutt (1987)
Klaus J. Hansen (1987 and 2005)
Silvia Milanezi (1987)
MUETAZILAH
Revised Bibliography
MORRISON, ROBERT
Josef van Ess (1987)
Paul V. Martinson (1987)
MUSEUMS AND RELIGION
MYERHOFF, BARBARA G.
MORTIFICATION
Crispin Paine (2005)
Riv-Ellen Prell (1987 and 2005)
Dario Sabbatucci (1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION
MYSTERY RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
Ter Ellingson (1987)
Kurt Rudolph (1987)
MOSES
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
John Van Seters (1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN CHINA,
MYSTICAL UNION IN JUDAISM,
MOSQUE: ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS
KOREA, AND TIBET
CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM
Hasan-Uddin Khan (2005)
Isabel Wong (1987)
Bernard McGinn (2005)
MOSQUE: HISTORY AND TRADITION
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
MYSTICISM [FIRST EDITION]
Syed Gulzar Haider (2005)
GREECE, ROME, AND BYZANTIUM
Louis Dupré (1987)
Eric Werner (1987)
MOTOORI NORINAGA
Revised Bibliography
MYSTICISM [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Ueda Kenji (1987)
Peter Moore (2005)
Revised Bibliography
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN INDIA
Philip V. Bohlman (2005)
MYTH: AN OVERVIEW
MOUNTAINS
Kees W. Bolle (1987 and 2005)
Diana L. Eck (1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIA
MYTH: MYTH AND HISTORY
MOVEMENT FOR THE RESTORATION OF
Elizabeth Mackinlay (2005)
Paul Ricoeur (1987)
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF GOD
John J. Bradley (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Massimo Introvigne (2005)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN JAPAN
MYTH AND RITUAL SCHOOL
MOZI
Kishibe Shigeo (1987)
Walter Harrelson (1987 and 2005)
John Makeham (2005)
Ogi Mitsuo (2005)
MUDRA¯
N
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
Sanjukta Gupta (2005)
MESOAMERICA
NABATEAN RELIGION
MUH
. AMMAD
Arnd Adje Both (2005)
John F. Healey (2005)
Karen Armstrong (2005)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
NABU
MUH
. AMMAD AH
. MAD
OCEANIA
Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1987)
John O. Hunwick (1987)
Richard M. Moyle (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
NA
¯ GA¯RJUNA
NATURALISM
NEOPLATONISM
John D. Dunne (2005)
Jeffrey Stout (1987)
Mary T. Clark (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
NA
¯ GAS AND YAKS.AS
NERGAL
Lowell W. Bloss (1987 and 2005)
NATURE: RELIGIOUS AND
David Marcus (1987)
PHILOSOPHICAL SPECULATIONS
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
NAG HAMMADI
Antoine Faivre (1987 and 2005)
David Brakke (2005)
NERSE¯S OF CLA
NATURE: WORSHIP OF NATURE
Avak Asadourian (1987)
NAHMANIDES, MOSES
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
David Berger (1987)
Revised Bibliography
NERSE¯S THE GREAT
Revised Bibliography
Krikor H. Maksoudian (1987)
NAVAJO RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
NAH
. MAN OF BRATSLAV
Louise Lamphere (1987)
NESTORIAN CHURCH
Arthur Green (1987)
Marilyn Notah Verney (2005)
Matti Moosa (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
NAVARA
¯ TRI
NAHUATL RELIGION
Marie-Louise Reiniche (1987)
NESTORIANISM
John M. Ingham (1987)
Robert L. Wilken (1987)
Revised Bibliography
NAZ.Z.A¯M, AL-
David R. Vishanoff (2005)
NESTORIUS
NAKAE TO
¯ JU
Robert L. Wilken (1987)
Mary Evelyn Tucker (1987)
NDEMBU RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
Edith Turner (1987)
NEUMANN, ERICH
Revised Bibliography
William McGuire (1987)
NAKAYAMA MIKI
Revised Bibliography
Mark W. MacWilliams (2005)
NECROMANCY
Erika Bourguignon (1987 and
NEUROSCIENCE AND RELIGION: AN
NAMES AND NAMING
2005)
OVERVIEW
Frederick Mathewson Denny
Gregory R. Peterson (2005)
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
(1987)
Kirk Endicott (1987 and 2005)
NEUROSCIENCE AND RELIGION:
NA
¯ NAK
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: NEGRITOS OF THE
NEUROEPISTEMOLOGY
Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
ANDAMAN ISLANDS
Eugene G. d’Aquili (1987)
(2005)
Pranab Ganguly (1987)
Andrew B. Newberg (2005)
NANJO
¯ BUNYU¯
Revised Bibliography
NEUROSCIENCE AND RELIGION:
Mayeda Sengaku (1987)
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: NEGRITOS OF THE
NEUROTHEOLOGY
NANNA
MALAY PENINSULA
Andrew B. Newberg (2005)
David Marcus (1987)
Kirk Endicott (1987)
NEW AGE MOVEMENT
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Wouter J. Hanegraaff (2005)
NA
¯ RO PA
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: NEGRITOS OF THE
NEW CALEDONIA RELIGION
Reginald Ray (1987)
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
Jean Guiart (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Thomas N. Headland (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
NA
¯ S.IR-I KHUSRAW
NEW GUINEA RELIGIONS [FIRST
Nazir Arabzoda (2005)
NEHEMIAH
John Van Seters (1987)
EDITION]
NATHAN
Revised Bibliography
Peter Lawrence (1987)
John Van Seters (1987)
NEW GUINEA RELIGIONS [FURTHER
Revised Bibliography
NEOLIN
Donald P. St. John (1987 and
CONSIDERATIONS]
NATION OF ISLAM
2005)
Mary N. MacDonald (2005)
Anthony B. Pinn (2005)
NEOLITHIC RELIGION
NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY
NATIVE AMERICAN CHRISTIANITIES
Dragoslav Srejovic´ (1987)
J. H. Walgrave (1987)
Michael D. McNally (2005)
Revised Bibliography
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: AN
NATIVE AMERICAN SCIENCE
NEOORTHODOXY
OVERVIEW
Maria Catalina (2005)
John D. Godsey (1987)
Catherine Wessinger (2005)
Revised Bibliography
NATS
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: HISTORY
Manning Nash (1987)
NEOPAGANISM
OF STUDY
Revised Bibliography
Sarah M. Pike (2005)
J. Gordon Melton (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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lxvii
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
NICHIREN
NOAH
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND
Watanabe Ho¯yo¯ (1987)
Michael Fishbane (1987)
CHILDREN
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Charlotte E. Hardman (2005)
NICHIRENSHU
¯
NOCK, ARTHUR DARBY
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Jacqueline I. Stone (2005)
Robert M. Grant (1987)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND
NICHOLAS OF CUSA
Revised Bibliography
MILLENNIALISM
Donald F. Duclow (1987 and
NOMINALISM
Catherine Wessinger (2005)
2005)
James A. Weisheipl (1987)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
NIEBUHR, REINHOLD
Revised Bibliography
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND
Roger Lincoln Shinn (1987 and
NONVIOLENCE
VIOLENCE
2005)
Mark Juergensmeyer (1987 and
David G. Bromley (2005)
NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH
2005)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Richard Schacht (1987)
NORITO
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND WOMEN
NIGHTINGALE, FLORENCE
Ueda Kenji (1987)
Mary Farrell Bednarowski (2005)
Val Webb (2005)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIONS:
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
NIKEPHOROS
AN OVERVIEW
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN EUROPE
John Travis (1987)
Åke Hultkrantz (1987)
Eileen Barker (1987 and 2005)
NIKEPHOROS KALLISTOS
NORTH AMERICAN [INDIAN] RELIGIONS:
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Demetrios J. Constantelos (1987)
HISTORY OF STUDY
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN
NIKKO
¯
Raymond D. Fogelson (1987)
Robert S. Ellwood (1987)
Murano Senchu (1987)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIONS:
Shimazono Susumu (2005)
NIKODIMOS OF THE HOLY MOUNTAIN
MYTHIC THEMES
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
George S. Bebis (1987)
Dennis F. Kelley (2005)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN LATIN
NIKON
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIONS:
AMERICA
Sergei Hackel (1987)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
Miguel C. Leatham (2005)
Duane Champagne (2005)
NILSSON, MARTIN P.
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Willem A. Bijlefeld (1987)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE
Revised Bibliography
CALIFORNIA AND THE
UNITED STATES
INTERMOUNTAIN REGION
Timothy Miller (2005)
NIMBA
¯ RKA
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1987)
Thomas Buckley (1987)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS:
NIMBUS
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
SCRIPTURES OF NEW RELIGIOUS
Elaine Magalis (1987)
THE FAR NORTH
MOVEMENTS
Revised Bibliography
Werner Muller (1987)
Eugene V. Gallagher (2005)
Phyllis Ann Fast (2005)
NINHURSAGA
NEW THOUGHT MOVEMENT
Thorkild Jacobsen (1987)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
Dell deChant (2005)
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
THE NORTHEAST WOODLANDS
John A. Grim (1987 and 2005)
NEWTON, ISAAC
NINURTA
Ravi Ravindra (1987)
Donald P. St. John (1987 and
Giovanni Pettinato (2005)
Revised Bibliography
2005)
NIRVA
¯ N.A
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
NEW YEAR FESTIVALS
Thomas P. Kasulis (1987)
Joseph Henninger (1987)
Revised Bibliography
THE NORTHWEST COAST [FIRST
Peter Antes (2005)
EDITION]
NISHIDA KITARO
¯
Stanley Walens (1987)
NEZ PERCE (NIIMÍIPUU) RELIGIOUS
Michiko Yusa (2005)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
TRADITIONS
NIZ.A¯M AL-DI¯N AWLIYA¯D
Phillip Cash Cash (2005)
THE NORTHWEST COAST [FURTHER
Azra Alavi (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS]
NGUKURR RELIGION
NIZ.A¯M AL-MULK
Bernard C. Perley (2005)
John Bern (1987)
Neguin Yavari (2005)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
NIANFO
NJO
¸ RD
¯ R
THE PLAINS
Fujiwara Ryo¯setsu (1987)
Edgar C. Polomé (1987)
William K. Powers (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
Kathleen J. Martin (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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lxviii
LIST OF ARTICLES
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
O
O
¯ MOTOKYO¯
THE SOUTHEAST WOODLANDS
Murakami Shigeyoshi (1987)
Michael J. Zogry (2005)
OBEDIENCE
Shimazono Susumu (2005)
Arvind Sharma (1987 and 2005)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
ONGON
THE SOUTHWEST
OCCASIONALISM
Roberte Hamayon (1987)
Peter M. Whiteley (1987)
Majid Fakhry (1987)
Revised Bibliography
NOWRU
¯ Z
OCCULTISM
ONMYO
¯ DO¯
Ehsan Yarshater (1987 and 2005)
Antoine Faivre (1987 and 2005)
Edward Kamens (1987)
NOYES, JOHN HUMPHREY
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
ONTOLOGY
Lawrence Foster (1987 and 2005)
Jean Guiart (2005)
Richard A. Norris (1987)
Revised Bibliography
NUBU
¯ WAH
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
Marilyn Robinson Waldman
[FIRST EDITION]
ORACLES
(1987)
Dan W. Jorgensen (1987)
David E. Aune (1987)
Bruce B. Lawrence (2005)
Revised Bibliography
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
NUDITY
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
ORAL TORAH
Liz Wilson (2005)
Garry W. Trompf (2005)
Martin S. Jaffee (2005)
NUER AND DINKA RELIGION
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: MISSIONARY
ORAL TRADITION
John Middleton (1987)
MOVEMENTS
Margaret A. Mills (1987)
Jean Guiart (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
NUM
Robert Austerlitz (1987)
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: NEW RELIGIOUS
ORDEAL
Dario Sabbatucci (1987)
MOVEMENTS
NUMBERS: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
Philip Gibbs (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ORDINATION
OCEANS
David Konstan (1987)
Theodore M. Ludwig (1987 and
NUMBERS: BINARY SYMBOLISM
2005)
Michael A. Kerze (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
ORGY: AN OVERVIEW
ÓD
¯ INN
Michel Maffesoli (2005)
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
NUMEN
Robert Schilling (1987)
ORGY: ORGY IN ASIA
OGYU
¯ SORAI
Revised Bibliography
Francis V. Tiso (2005)
Samuel Hideo Yamashita (1987)
ORGY: ORGY IN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN
NUM-TU
¯ REM
OKINAWAN RELIGION
Louise Bäckman (1987)
EUROPE
Charles H. Hambrick (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Chiara Ombretta Tommasi (2005)
Sunao Taira (2005)
ORGY: ORGY IN THE ANCIENT
NUNS: AN OVERVIEW
O
¯ KUNINUSHI NO MIKOTO
Ursula King (2005)
MEDITERRANEAN WORLD
Michiko Yamaguchi Aoki (1987)
Chiara Ombretta Tommasi (2005)
NUNS: BUDDHIST NUNS
OLAF THE HOLY
Martine Batchelor (2005)
ORIENTALISM
John Weinstock (1987)
Hent de Vries (2005)
NUNS: CHRISTIAN NUNS AND SISTERS
OLCOTT, HENRY STEEL
Catherine M. Mooney (2005)
ORIENTATION
Stephen Prothero (2005)
Mircea Eliade (1987)
NU
¯ R MUH.AMMAD
OLDENBERG, HERMANN
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
G. R. Welbon (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
NUWAUBIANS
OLMEC RELIGION
ORIGEN
J. Gordon Melton (2005)
Richard A. Diehl (1987)
Henri Crouzel (1987)
NYAKYUSA RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
ORPHEUS
Monica Wilson (1987)
Marcel Detienne (1987)
OM
.
Alberto Bernabé (2005)
NYA
¯ YA
A. M. Esnoul (1987)
Anuradha Veeravalli (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ORPHIC GOLD TABLETS
Sarah Iles Johnston (2005)
NYBERG, H. S.
OMOPHAGIA
Frithiof Rundgren (1987)
Walter Burkert (1987)
ORTHODOX JUDAISM [FIRST EDITION]
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Charles S. Liebman (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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ORTHODOX JUDAISM [FURTHER
PAÑCATANTRA
PEACE
CONSIDERATIONS]
Walter Harding Maurer (1987)
Geoffrey Parrinder (1987)
Samuel C. Heilman (2005)
Revised Bibliography
PEARL
ORTHODOXY AND HETERODOXY
PANTHEISM AND PANENTHEISM
Beverly Moon (1987)
Sheila McDonough (1987)
Charles Hartshorne (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
PECHAM, JOHN
ORTHOPRAXY
PAPACY
David C. Lindberg (1987)
Judith A. Berling (1987)
Patrick Granfield (1987 and 2005)
PELAGIANISM
Revised Bibliography
PARABLES AND PROVERBS
Robert L. Wilken (1987)
Alyce M. McKenzie (2005)
OSAGE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
PELAGIUS
Tink Tinker (2005)
PARACELSUS
Robert L. Wilken (1987)
Allison Coudert (1987)
OSIRIS
PENATES
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
PARADISE
Arnaldo Momigliano (1987)
Attilio Mastrocinque (2005)
Harry B. Partin (1987)
Revised Bibliography
PENN, WILLIAM
OTHERWORLD
Melvin B. Endy, Jr. (1987)
Morton Kelsey (1987)
PARADOX AND RIDDLES
Michiko Yusa (1987 and 2005)
PENTECOSTAL AND CHARISMATIC
OTOMÍ RELIGION
CHRISTIANITY
Jacques Galinier (1987)
PARAMA
¯ RTHA
Robert Mapes Anderson (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Miyakawa Hisayuki (1987)
2005)
PA
¯ RAMITA¯S
OTTO, RUDOLF
PERCUSSION AND NOISE
Gregory D. Alles (2005)
Charles Hallisey (1987)
James W. Perkinson (2005)
Revised Bibliography
OTTO, WALTER F.
PERFECTIBILITY
Alessandro Stavru (2005)
PARENTALIA
George D. Bond (1987 and 2005)
Robert Schilling (1987)
OUSPENSKY, P. D.
Revised Bibliography
PERFORMANCE AND RITUAL
Judy D. Saltzman (2005)
Richard Schechner (1987 and
PARMENIDES
2005)
OWLS
Giovanni Cerri (2005)
Ann Dunnigan (1987)
PE¯RKONS
PARSIS
Revised Bibliography
Jamsheed K. Choksy (2005)
Haralds Biezais (1987)
Revised Bibliography
P
PASCAL, BLAISE
Leszek Kolakowski (1987)
PERSECUTION: CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE
PACHOMIUS
W. H. C. Frend (1987)
Theodore Zissis (1987)
PASSOVER
Revised Bibliography
Louis Jacobs (1987)
PADMASAMBHAVA
Revised Bibliography
PERSECUTION: JEWISH EXPERIENCE
Matthew T. Kapstein (2005)
Robert Chazan (1987 and 2005)
PATAÑJALI THE GRAMMARIAN
PAGANISM, ANGLO-SAXON
Constantina Bailly (1987)
PERUN
Richard North (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
Revised Bibliography
PAIN
PATRIARCHATE
Ariel Glucklich (2005)
Lee I. Levine (2005)
PESHER
Devorah Dimant (2005)
PALEOLITHIC RELIGION
PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY
Karl J. Narr (1987)
Melissa Raphael (2005)
PETER LOMBARD
Revised Bibliography
Eileen F. Kearney (1987)
PATRICK
PALI TEXT SOCIETY
H. McKennie Goodpasture (1987)
PETER THE APOSTLE
Grace G. Burford (2005)
James F. McCue (1987)
PAUCK, WILHELM
PETRE, MAUDE DOMINICA
PAN
David W. Lotz (1987)
Phillipe Borgeaud (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Ursula King (2005)
2005)
PAUL VI
PETR MOGHILA
Martin E. Marty (1987)
Kallistos Ware (1987)
PANATHENAIA
Klaus-Peter Köpping (1987)
PAUL THE APOSTLE
PETTAZZONI, RAFFAELE
Revised Bibliography
Robert Jewett (1987)
Mario Gandini (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
PHALLUS AND VAGINA
PILGRIMAGE: HINDU PILGRIMAGE
POETRY: POETRY AND RELIGION
Jeffrey J. Kripal (2005)
William S. Sax (2005)
Frank Burch Brown (2005)
PHENOMENOLOGY OF RELIGION
PILGRIMAGE: MUSLIM PILGRIMAGE
POINT LOMA THEOSOPHICAL
Douglas Allen (1987 and 2005)
Richard C. Martin (1987)
COMMUNITY
W. Michael Ashcraft (2005)
PHILISTINE RELIGION
PILGRIMAGE: ROMAN CATHOLIC
Gonzalo Rubio (2005)
PILGRIMAGE IN EUROPE
POLEMICS: CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM
Pierre André Sigal (1987)
PHILO JUDAEUS
POLEMICS
David Winston (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Norman Daniel (1987)
PHILOSOPHY: AN OVERVIEW
PILGRIMAGE: ROMAN CATHOLIC
POLEMICS: JEWISH-CHRISTIAN POLEMICS
Joan Stambaugh (1987)
PILGRIMAGE IN THE NEW WORLD
David Berger (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Mary Lee Nolan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
PHILOSOPHY: PHILOSOPHY AND
POLEMICS: MUSLIM-JEWISH POLEMICS
RELIGION
PILGRIMAGE: TIBETAN PILGRIMAGE
Moshe Perlmann (1987)
John E. Smith (1987)
Katia Buffetrille (2005)
Revised Bibliography
POLITICAL THEOLOGY
PIL.L.AI LOKA¯CA¯RYA
Frederick G. Lawrence (1987)
PHILOSOPHY: PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
D. Dennis Hudson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Wayne Proudfoot (1987)
PINARD DE LA BOULLAYE, HENRI
Revised Bibliography
POLITICS AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Harry B. Partin (1987)
Hugh B. Urban (2005)
PHOENICIAN RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
PINDAR
Alan M. Cooper (1987)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
Emilio Suárez de la Torre (2005)
AFRICAN RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
PHOENICIAN RELIGION [FURTHER
PIUS IX
Jeffrey Haynes (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS]
Roger Aubert (1987)
Tawny L. Holm (2005)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
PLATO
ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN RELIGIONS
PHOTIOS
Luc Brisson (2005)
Eric M. Orlin (2005)
Vasileios Yioultsis (1987)
PLATONISM
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
PHYSICS AND RELIGION
Kirk Wegter-McNelly (2005)
Claudio Moreschini (2005)
BUDDHISM
Bruce Matthews (2005)
PLAY
PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, GIOVANNI
Lewis W. Spitz (1987)
Don Handelman (1987 and 2005)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
CHINESE RELIGION
PLOTINUS
PIETISM
Jack W. Chen (2005)
F. Ernest Stoeffler (1987)
Mary T. Clark (1987 and 2005)
Natasha Heller (2005)
PIGS
PLUTARCH
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
Manabu Waida (1987)
Frederick E. Brenk (2005)
CHRISTIANITY
Revised Bibliography
POBEDONOSTSEV, KONSTANTIN
Jill Raitt (2005)
PILGRIMAGE: AN OVERVIEW
James W. Cunningham (1987)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
Edith Turner (1987 and 2005)
POETRY: CHINESE RELIGIOUS POETRY
ISLAM
PILGRIMAGE: BUDDHIST PILGRIMAGE IN
James J. Y. Liu (1987)
John L. Esposito (2005)
EAST ASIA
POETRY: CHRISTIAN POETRY
Hoshino Eiki (1987)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
Peter S. Hawkins (1987)
Revised Bibliography
JAPANESE RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
John K. Nelson (2005)
PILGRIMAGE: BUDDHIST PILGRIMAGE IN
POETRY: INDIAN RELIGIOUS POETRY
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
Linda Hess (1987)
Charles F. Keyes (1987)
NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIOUS
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
TRADITIONS
POETRY: ISLAMIC POETRY
Vine Deloria, Jr. (2005)
PILGRIMAGE: CONTEMPORARY JEWISH
Ali S. Asani (2005)
PILGRIMAGE
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS AND
Moshe Shokeid (1987 and 2005)
POETRY: JAPANESE RELIGIOUS POETRY
OCEANIC RELIGIONS
Gary L. Ebersole (2005)
John Barker (2005)
PILGRIMAGE: EASTERN CHRISTIAN
PILGRIMAGE
POETRY: NATIVE AMERICAN POETRY AND
POLYNESIAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Sirarpi Feredjian-Aivazian (1987)
RELIGION
F. Allan Hanson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Laura Furlan Szanto (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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lxxi
POLYNESIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
PRATT, JAMES B.
PROOFS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
THEMES
William R. Darrow (2005)
William J. Hill (1987)
Adrienne L. Kaeppler (1987 and
PRAYER
PROPHECY: AFRICAN PROPHETISM
2005)
Sam D. Gill (1987)
Robert M. Baum (2005)
POLYTHEISM
PREANIMISM
PROPHECY: AN OVERVIEW
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
Gerald T. Sheppard (1987)
PONTIFEX
PREHISTORIC RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
William E. Herbrechtsmeier
Robert Schilling (1987)
Mary Edwardsen (1987)
(1987)
Revised Bibliography
James Waller (1987)
PROPHECY: BIBLICAL PROPHECY
POPULAR CULTURE
PREHISTORIC RELIGIONS: OLD EUROPE
Robert R. Wilson (1987)
Lynn Schofield Clark (2005)
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
Revised Bibliography
POPULAR RELIGION
PREHISTORIC RELIGIONS: THE EURASIAN
PROPHECY: PROPHECY IN POST-BIBLICAL
Charles H. Long (1987)
STEPPES AND INNER ASIA
JUDAISM
Revised Bibliography
B. A. Litvinskii (1987)
Howard Kreisel (2005)
Revised Bibliography
PORTALS
PROPHET, MARK AND ELIZABETH CLARE
Ronald L. Grimes (1987)
PRESBYTERIANISM, REFORMED
Phillip Charles Lucas (2005)
Revised Bibliography
John H. Leith (1987)
Revised Bibliography
PROTESTANTISM
PORTENTS AND PRODIGIES
Martin E. Marty (1987)
Raymond Bloch (1987)
PREUSS, KONRAD T.
Revised Bibliography
Otto Zerries (1987)
POSEIDON
PRZYLUSKI, JEAN
Jan N. Bremmer (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
John S. Strong (2005)
PRIAPUS
POSITIVISM
Maurice Olender (1987)
PSALMS
Angèle Kremer-Marietti (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Edward L. Greenstein (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
2005)
PRIESTHOOD: AN OVERVIEW
POSTURES AND GESTURES
Willard G. Oxtoby (1987)
PSELLUS, MICHAEL
Frederick Mathewson Denny
George Karahalios (1987)
(1987)
PRIESTHOOD: BUDDHIST PRIESTHOOD
John Clifford Holt (1987 and
PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS
POTLATCH
2005)
Stanley Walens (1987)
Marlene Dobkin de Rios (2005)
PRIESTHOOD: CHRISTIAN PRIESTHOOD
PSYCHOLOGY: PSYCHOLOGY OF
POWER
Francine Cardman (2005)
Alan L. Miller (1987 and 2005)
RELIGION
PRIESTHOOD: DAOIST PRIESTHOOD
William B. Parsons (2005)
PRABHUPADA, A. C. BHAKTIVEDANTA
John Lagerwey (1987)
E. Burke Rochford, Jr. (2005)
PSYCHOLOGY: PSYCHOTHERAPY AND
Livia Kohn (2005)
RELIGION
PRAJA
¯ PATI
PRIESTHOOD: HINDU PRIESTHOOD
Michael D. Clifford (1987 and
David M. Knipe (1987)
David M. Knipe (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
PRIESTHOOD: JEWISH PRIESTHOOD
PSYCHOLOGY: SCHIZOANALYSIS AND
PRAJÑA
¯
Baruch A. Levine (1987)
RELIGION
Tadeusz Skorupski (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Eugene W. Holland (2005)
Revised Bibliography
PRIESTHOOD: SHINTO
¯ PRIESTHOOD
PTAH
PRAKR.TI
Toki Masanori (1987)
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
Edeltraud Harzer (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
PTOLEMY
PRALAYA
PROCESSION
Michael A. Kerze (1987)
Wendy Doniger (1987)
Ronald L. Grimes (1987)
Revised Bibliography
PU
¯ JA¯: BUDDHIST PU¯JA¯
PRA
¯ N.A
William Tuladhar-Douglas (2005)
Georg Feuerstein (1987)
PROKOPOVICH, FEOFAN
Revised Bibliography
James W. Cunningham (1987)
PU
¯ JA¯: HINDU PU¯JA¯
Nancy Auer Falk (1987 and 2005)
PRATI¯TYA-SAMUTPA
¯ DA
PROMETHEUS
David J. Kalupahana (1987)
Klaus-Peter Köpping (1987 and
PURA
¯ N.AS
Revised Bibliography
2005)
E. H. Rick Jarow (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
PURE AND IMPURE LANDS
QUATERNITY
RA
¯ DHA¯
Fujita Ko¯tatsu (1987)
George R. Elder (1987)
Donna Marie Wulff (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
PURIFICATION: AN OVERVIEW
QUESTS
RADHAKRISHNAN, SARVEPALLI
James J. Preston (1987)
David Adams Leeming (1987 and
Robert A. McDermott (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
PURIFICATION: PURIFICATION IN
JUDAISM
QUETZALCOATL
RADIN, PAUL
Charlotte Elisheva Fonrobert
Davíd Carrasco (1987)
Stanley Diamond (1987)
(2005)
Revised Bibliography
RAËLIANS
PURIM
QUIETISM
Susan J. Palmer (2005)
Louis Jacobs (1987)
Leszek Kolakowski (1987)
RAHNER, KARL
Revised Bibliography
QUIRINUS
Leo J. O’Donovan (1987)
PURIM PLAYS
Dominique Briquel (2005)
RAIN
Shifra Epstein (1987)
QURDA¯N: ITS ROLE IN MUSLIM PRACTICE
Ann Dunnigan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
AND LIFE
RAINBOW SNAKE
PURITANISM
Mahmoud M. Ayoub (1987)
Catherine H. Berndt (1987)
Francis J. Bremer (1987)
Vincent J. Cornell (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
QURDA¯N: TRADITION OF SCHOLARSHIP
RAJNEESH
PURUS.A
AND INTERPRETATION
Marion S. Goldman (2005)
Edeltraud Harzer (1987 and 2005)
Abdullah Saeed (2005)
RA
¯ MA
PUSEY, EDWARD BOUVERIE
QURRAT AL-EAYN T.A¯HIRAH
Velcheru Narayana Rao (1987)
C. Fitzsimons Allison (1987)
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
Revised Bibliography
PYGMY RELIGIONS
QUTB, SAYYID
RAMABAI, PANDITA
Serge Bahuchet (1987)
Suha Taji-Farouki (2005)
Sharada Sugirtharajah (2005)
Jacqueline M. C. Thomas (1987)
Youssef M. Choueiri (2005)
Revised Bibliography
RAMAKRISHNA
R
Walter G. Neevel, Jr. (1987)
PYRAMIDS: AN OVERVIEW
Brian A. Hatcher (2005)
Paul Gendrop (1987)
RABBAH BAR NAHMANI
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
RA
¯ MA¯NUJA
PYRAMIDS: EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS
Revised Bibliography
John B. Carman (1987)
J. D. Ray (1987)
Revised Bibliography
RABBINATE: THE RABBINATE IN MODERN
PYTHAGORAS
JUDAISM
RA
¯ MA¯YAN.A
Bruno Centrone (2005)
Robert E. Fierstien (2005)
Velcheru Narayana Rao (1987)
Q
Revised Bibliography
RABBINATE: THE RABBINATE IN PRE-
MODERN JUDAISM
RAPPAPORT, ROY A.
QABBALAH
Ephraim Kanarfogel (2005)
Ellen Messer (2005)
Moshe Idel (1987)
RABBINIC JUDAISM IN LATE ANTIQUITY
RASHI
QA
¯ D.I¯
Jacob Neusner (1987)
Ivan G. Marcus (1987)
Bernard G. Weiss (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
QA
¯ D.I¯ AL-NUEMA¯N
RABBITS
RASHI¯D RID
Hamid Haji (2005)
. A
¯ , MUH.AMMAD
Manabu Waida (1987)
Albert Hourani (1987)
QARA
¯ MIT.AH
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Ismail K. Poonawala (1987)
RA
¯ BIEAH AL-EADAWI¯YAH
RASTAFARIANISM
QI
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
Richard C. Salter (2005)
John S. Major (1987)
Ikael Tafari (2005)
RACHEL AND LEAH
QIYA
¯ S
Frederick E. Greenspahn (1987
RAUSCHENBUSCH, WALTER
M. Hashim Kamali (1987)
and 2005)
Paul M. Minus (1987 and 2005)
QUAKERS
RADCLIFFE-BROWN, A. R.
RAV
Hugh Barbour (1987)
Roland Robertson (1987)
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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RAVAD
RELATIVISM
REVEL, BERNARD
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
Richard H. Popkin (1987)
Aaron Rakeffet-Rothkoff (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
RA
¯ WZAH-KHVA¯NI¯
RELICS
REVELATION
¨
Peter Chelkowski (1987)
John S. Strong (1987 and 2005)
Johannes Deninger (1987)
RA
¯ ZI¯, FAKHR AL-DI¯N AL-
RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
REVENGE AND RETRIBUTION
Feras Q. Hamza (2005)
Winston L. King (1987)
Elmar Klinger (1987)
RE
RELIGION [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
REVIVAL AND RENEWAL
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
Gregory D. Alles (2005)
Kenelm Burridge (1987)
Revised Bibliography
REBECCA
RELIGIONSGESCHICHTLICHE SCHULE
Frederick E. Greenspahn (1987
Kurt Rudolph (1987)
REVOLUTION
and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Guenter Lewy (1987)
Revised Bibliography
RECONSTRUCTIONIST JUDAISM
RELIGIOUS BROADCASTING
Rebecca T. Alpert (2005)
Gregor T. Goethals (1987)
RICCI, MATTEO
Julia Ching (1987)
REDEMPTION
Phillip Charles Lucas (2005)
Ileana Marcoulesco (1987)
RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES: CHRISTIAN
RICHARDSON, CYRIL C.
Revised Bibliography
RELIGIOUS ORDERS
David W. Lotz (1987)
REFERENCE WORKS
Nathan D. Mitchell (1987)
RISSHO
¯ KO¯SEIKAI
Edgar Krentz (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Morioka Kiyomi (1987)
Martha S. Alt (2005)
RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES: RELIGION,
Revised Bibliography
Roberta A. Schaafsma (2005)
COMMUNITY, AND SOCIETY
RITES OF PASSAGE: AFRICAN RITES
REFLEXIVITY
Joseph M. Kitagawa (1987)
James L. Cox (2005)
Barbara A. Babcock (1987)
RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY
Revised Bibliography
RITES OF PASSAGE: AN OVERVIEW [FIRST
Shmuel N. Eisenstadt (1987)
EDITION]
REFORM
Revised Bibliography
Linda A. Camino (1987)
Joseph L. Blau (1987)
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION
Barbara G. Myerhoff (1987)
Revised Bibliography
J. Mark Halstead (2005)
Edith Turner (2005)
REFORMATION
RITES OF PASSAGE: AN OVERVIEW
Hans J. Hillerbrand (1987)
RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE
Ann Taves (2005)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
Barry Stephenson (2005)
RENAN, ERNEST
REFORM JUDAISM
RITES OF PASSAGE: HINDU RITES
Michael A. Meyer (1987 and
Richard J. Resch (1987)
Patrick Olivelle (1987 and 2005)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
REN AND YI
RITES OF PASSAGE: JEWISH RITES
REGULY, ANTAL
Harvey E. Goldberg (2005)
Vilmos Voigt (2005)
Kwong-loi Shun (2005)
RITES OF PASSAGE: MESOAMERICAN
REIMARUS, HERMANN SAMUEL
RENNYO
RITES
Charles H. Talbert (1987)
Kenshi Kusano (2005)
Kay A. Read (2005)
REINACH, SALOMON
RENOU, LOUIS
RITES OF PASSAGE: MUSLIM RITES
Willem A. Bijlefeld (1987)
Marie-Simone Renou (1987)
Dale F. Eickelman (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
RITES OF PASSAGE: NEOPAGAN RITES
REINCARNATION
REPENTANCE
Sarah M. Pike (2005)
J. Bruce Long (1987)
David E. Aune (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
RITES OF PASSAGE: OCEANIC RITES
Philip Gibbs (2005)
REINES, YITSH
. AQ YAEAQOV
RESHEF
David Biale (1987)
Edward Lipin´ski (2005)
RITSCHL, ALBRECHT
Revised Bibliography
David W. Lotz (1987)
RESURRECTION
REIYU
¯ KAI KYO¯DAN
Helmer Ringgren (1987)
RITUAL [FIRST EDITION]
Helen Hardacre (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Evan M. Zuesse (1987)
REJUVENATION
RETREAT
RITUAL [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Wallace B. Clift (1987)
Juan Manuel Lozano (1987)
Catherine M. Bell (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
RITUAL STUDIES
RUTH AND NAOMI
SAID, EDWARD W.
Madeline Duntley (2005)
Susanna W. Southard (2005)
Shamoon Zamir (2005)
RIVERS
RUUSBROEC, JAN VAN
SAINTHOOD
Diana L. Eck (1987)
Albert Ampe (1987)
Robert L. Cohn (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
S
RNYING MA PA (NYINGMAPA) SCHOOL
S´AIVISM: AN OVERVIEW
Matthew T. Kapstein (2005)
SAEADYAH GAON
David N. Lorenzen (1987)
Barry S. Kogan (1987)
ROHDE, ERWIN
Revised Bibliography
Willem A. Bijlefeld (1987)
Revised Bibliography
S´AIVISM: KA
¯ PA¯LIKAS
Revised Bibliography
SABAZIOS
David N. Lorenzen (1987)
RÓHEIM, GÉZA
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
S´AIVISM: KRAMA S´AIVISM
John Morton (2005)
Cicerone Poghirc (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Alexis Sanderson (1987)
ROMAN CATHOLICISM [FIRST EDITION]
S´AIVISM: NA
¯ YA¯NA¯RS
Richard P. McBrien (1987)
SACRAMENT: AN OVERVIEW
¯
Theodore W. Jennings, Jr. (1987)
Indira Viswanathan Peterson
ROMAN CATHOLICISM [FURTHER
Revised Bibliography
(1987)
CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
Michael J. Schuck (2005)
SACRAMENT: CHRISTIAN SACRAMENTS
Monika K. Hellwig (1987)
S´AIVISM: PA
¯ S´UPATAS
ROMAN RELIGION: THE EARLY PERIOD
David N. Lorenzen (1987)
Robert Schilling (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Jörg Rüpke (2005)
SACRED AND THE PROFANE, THE
Carsten Colpe (1987)
S´AIVISM: PRATYABHIJÑA
¯
ROMAN RELIGION: THE IMPERIAL
Revised Bibliography
André Padoux (1987)
PERIOD
Arnaldo Momigliano (1987)
SACRED SPACE
S´AIVISM: S´AIVA SIDDHA
¯ NTA
Simon Price (2005)
Joel P. Brereton (1987)
Mariasusai Dhavamony (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ
Revised Bibliography
Steven S. Schwarzschild (1987)
SACRED TIME
S´AIVISM: S´AIVISM IN KASHMIR
Revised Bibliography
Hillel Schwartz (2005)
Alexis Sanderson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
RODSH HA-SHANAH AND YOM KIPPUR
SACRIFICE [FIRST EDITION]
Louis Jacobs (1987)
Joseph Henninger (1987)
S´AIVISM: TRIKA S´AIVISM
Alexis Sanderson (1987)
ROSICRUCIANS
SACRIFICE [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Harry Wells Fogarty (1987)
Davíd Carrasco (2005)
S´AIVISM: VI¯RAS´AIVAS
Revised Bibliography
André Padoux (1987)
SACRILEGE
ROUSSEAU, JEAN-JACQUES
Revised Bibliography
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
William Leon McBride (1987)
Craig A. Burgdoff (2005)
SAKYA PAN
. D
. ITA (SA SKYA PAN
. D
. ITA)
ROY, RAM MOHAN
Matthew T. Kapstein (2005)
David L. Haberman (1987)
SADDUCEES
SALANTER, YISRADEL
Revised Bibliography
Lawrence H. Schiffman (2005)
Gershon C. Bacon (1987 and
SA
¯ DHUS AND SA¯DHVI¯S
R.TA
2005)
William K. Mahony (1987)
Matthew Clark (2005)
S.ALA¯T
RUDRA
SAEDI¯
Muzammil H. Siddiqi (1987)
Sukumari Bhattacharji (1987)
G. M. Wickens (1987)
Tazim R. Kassam (2005)
Revised Bibliography
RU
¯ MI¯, JALA¯L AL-DI¯N
SALT
Annemarie Schimmel (1987)
SAGAS
James E. Latham (1987)
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
RUNES [FIRST EDITION]
Revised Bibliography
Erik Wahlgren (1987)
SAHAK PARTHEV
SALUTATIONS
Krikor H. Maksoudian (1987)
RUNES [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
George Alfred James (1987 and
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
SAI BABA MOVEMENT
2005)
Smriti Srinivas (2005)
RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH
SALVATION ARMY
Thomas Hopko (1987)
SAICHO
¯
Edward H. McKinley (1987 and
Hilarion Alfeyev (2005)
Paul Groner (1987 and 2005)
2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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lxxv
SAMA
¯ E
SAOSHYANT
SCHELER, MAX
Khaliq Ah.mad Nizami (1987)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Manfred S. Frings (1987)
Revised Bibliography
S´A
¯ RA¯DA DEVI¯
SCHELLING, FRIEDRICH
SAMA
¯ DHI
Neelima Shukla-Bhatt (2005)
Thomas F. O’Meara (1987 and
Georg Feuerstein (1987)
2005)
SARAH
Revised Bibliography
Frederick E. Greenspahn (2005)
SCHENIRER, SARAH
SAMARITANS
Blu Greenberg (1987)
SARASVATI¯
Reinhard Pummer (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Donna Marie Wulff (1987)
SAM
. GHA: AN OVERVIEW
SCHIMMEL, ANNEMARIE
SARMATIAN RELIGION
Heinz Bechert (1987 and 2005)
Peter Antes (2005)
D. S. Raevskii (1987)
SAM
Revised Bibliography
SCHISM: AN OVERVIEW
. GHA: SAM
. GHA AND SOCIETY IN
SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
Nancy T. Ammerman (1987)
SARTRE, JEAN-PAUL
H. L. Seneviratne (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Maurice Natanson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SAM
SCHISM: CHRISTIAN SCHISM
. GHA: SAM
. GHA AND SOCIETY IN
John Lawrence Boojamra (1987)
TIBET
SARVA
¯ STIVA¯DA
Georges Dreyfus (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Luis O. Gómez (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SCHLEGEL, FRIEDRICH
SAMI RELIGION
Louise Bäckman (1987)
Hans J. Klimkeit (1987)
S´A
¯ STRA LITERATURE
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Ludo Rocher (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH
SA
¯ M.KHYA
Edeltraud Harzer (1987 and 2005)
B. A. Gerrish (1987)
SATAN
Sergio Sorrentino (2005)
Arvind Sharma (1987 and 2005)
SAM
. NYA
¯ SA
Patrick Olivelle (1987 and 2005)
SCHMIDT, WILHELM
SATANISM
Joseph Henninger (1987)
David G. Bromley (2005)
SAMOYED RELIGION
Alessandra Ciattini (2005)
Robert Austerlitz (1987)
SATI
SCHNEERSON, MENACHEM M.
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
Julia Leslie (2005)
Naftali Loewenthal (2005)
SAM
. SA
¯ RA
SAUL
SCHOLARIOS, GENNADIOS
Brian K. Smith (1987)
John Van Seters (1987)
Nomikos Michael Vaporis (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
SCHOLASTICISM
SAMSON
SAULE
James A. Weisheipl (1987)
Edward L. Greenstein (1987 and
Vaira Vı¯k¸e-Freiberga (2005)
Revised Bibliography
2005)
SAURA HINDUISM
SCHOLEM, GERSHOM
SAMUEL
Thomas J. Hopkins (1987)
David Biale (1987)
John Van Seters (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
SAUTRA
¯ NTIKA
SCHWEITZER, ALBERT
SANCTUARY
Tadeusz Skorupski (1987)
Martin E. Marty (1987)
Gregory D. Alles (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
SAVONAROLA, GIROLAMO
SCIENCE AND RELIGION
SANHEDRIN
Donald Weinstein (1987)
Ted Peters (2005)
David Goodblatt (1987)
S.AWM
Revised Bibliography
SCIENTOLOGY
Zafar Ishaq Ansari (1987)
J. Gordon Melton (2005)
S´AN
˙ KARA
SAXO GRAMMATICUS
David N. Lorenzen (1987)
SCRIPTURE
John Weinstock (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
William A. Graham (1987 and
SAYERS, DOROTHY L.
2005)
S´A
¯ NTARAKS.ITA
Ann Loades (2005)
Sara L. McClintock (2005)
SCYTHIAN RELIGION
SCAPEGOAT
D. S. Raevskii (1987)
SANTERÍA
Jan N. Bremmer (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Joseph M. Murphy (1987)
SCHECHTER, SOLOMON
SEASONAL CEREMONIES
S´A
¯ NTIDEVA
Ismar Schorsch (1987)
Theodor H. Gaster (1987)
Susanne Mrozik (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
SECRET SOCIETIES
SEXUALITY: AN OVERVIEW [FURTHER
SHANGDI
George Weckman (1987 and
CONSIDERATIONS]
John S. Major (1987)
2005)
Jeffrey J. Kripal (2005)
SHAPE SHIFTING
SECULARIZATION
SEXUALITY: SEXUAL RITES IN EUROPE
James P. Carse (1987)
Bryan R. Wilson (1987)
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Hans Thomas Hakl (2005)
SHARPE, ERIC J.
SEDNA
SEYMOUR, WILLIAM
Garry W. Trompf (2005)
Inge Kleivan (1987)
James Anthony Noel (2005)
SHAVUEOT
SEFER YETSIRAH
SGAM PO PA (GAMPOPA)
Louis Jacobs (1987)
Moshe Idel (1987)
Roger R. Jackson (2005)
SHAYKH AL-ISLA
¯ M
Madeline C. Zilfi (1987)
SEIDEL, ANNA KATHARINA
SHABBAT [FIRST EDITION]
Jennifer Oldstone-Moore (2005)
Louis Jacobs (1987)
SHAYKHI¯YAH
Revised Bibliography
Steven Scholl (1987)
SELKDNAM RELIGION
Anne Chapman (1987)
SHABBETAI TSEVI [FIRST EDITION]
Sajjad H. Rizvi (2005)
Revised Bibliography
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
SHEEP AND GOATS
B. A. Litvinskii (1987)
SEMANTICS
SHABBETAI TSEVI [FURTHER
Revised Bibliography
R. M. Martin (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
Matt Goldish (2005)
SHEKHINAH
SHABISTARI¯, AL-
Elliot R. Wolfson (2005)
SEN, KESHAB CHANDRA
Ainslie T. Embree (1987 and
Gerhard Böwering (1987)
SHEMBE, ISAIAH
2005)
SHA
¯ FIEI¯, AL-
Bengt Sundkler (1987)
Majid Khadduri (1987)
SENGZHAO
SHEMUDEL THE AMORA
Aaron K. Koseki (1987)
SHAHA
¯ DAH
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Kenneth Cragg (1987)
SHENOUTE
Stephen Emmel (2005)
SERAFIM OF SAROV
SHAHRASTA
¯ NI¯, AL-
Theodore Stylianopoulos (1987)
Bruce B. Lawrence (1987)
SHERIRAD GAON
Gerald J. Blidstein (1987)
SERGII
SHAKERS
James W. Cunningham (1987)
Lawrence Foster (1987)
SHIISM: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Wilfred Madelung (1987)
SERGII OF RADONEZH
Revised Bibliography
Sergei Hackel (1987)
SHAMANISM: AN OVERVIEW [FIRST
EDITION]
SHIISM: ISMA
¯ EI¯LI¯YAH
SERRA, JUNIPERO
Mircea Eliade (1987)
Wilfred Madelung (1987)
Antoine Tibesar (1987)
SHAMANISM: AN OVERVIEW [FURTHER
SHIISM: ITHNA
¯ EASHARI¯YAH
SERVETUS, MICHAEL
CONSIDERATIONS]
Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1987 and
John C. Godbey (1987)
Michael Winkelman (2005)
2005)
Mary Wellemeyer (2005)
SHAMANISM: NEOSHAMANISM
SHIMEON BAR YOH.DAI
SETH
Galina Lindquist (2005)
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SHAMANISM: NORTH AMERICAN
SETON, ELIZABETH
SHAMANISM
SHIMEON BEN GAMLIDEL II
Annabelle M. Melville (1987)
Sam D. Gill (1987)
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISM
Revised Bibliography
SHAMANISM: SIBERIAN AND INNER ASIAN
Jonathan M. Butler (1987)
SHAMANISM
SHIMEON BEN LAQISH
Ronald L. Numbers (1987)
Anna-Leena Siikala (1987)
Robert Goldenberg (1987)
Gary G. Land (2005)
Revised Bibliography
SHAMANISM: SOUTH AMERICAN
SEVERUS OF ANTIOCH
SHAMANISM
SHINGONSHU
¯
Theodore Zissis (1987)
Peter T. Furst (1987 and 2005)
Richard K. Payne (2005)
SEXUALITY: AN OVERVIEW [FIRST
SHANDAO
SHINRAN
EDITION]
Fujiwara Ryo¯setsu (1987)
Alfred Bloom (1987)
Mircea Eliade (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
lxxvii
SHINTO
¯
S´IVA [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
SOCIOBIOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY
Brian Bocking (2005)
Karen Pechilis (2005)
PSYCHOLOGY: DARWINISM AND
RELIGION
SHNEDUR ZALMAN OF LYADY
SKEPTICS AND SKEPTICISM
Arthur Green (1987)
Mikael Stenmark (2005)
Richard H. Popkin (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY AND RELIGION
[FIRST EDITION]
SHONA RELIGION
SKOBTSOVA, MARIA
M. F. C. Bourdillon (1987)
Robert Nisbet (1987)
Sergei Hackel (2005)
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY AND RELIGION
SHOTOKU TAISHI
SKY: THE HEAVENS AS HIEROPHANY
Miyamoto Youtaro (2005)
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Robert A. Segal (2005)
Revised Bibliography
SHRINES
Paul B. Courtright (1987 and
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
SKY: MYTHS AND SYMBOLISM
2005)
Anthony F. Aveni (2005)
[FIRST EDITION]
Winston Davis (1987)
SHUGENDO
¯
SLAVIC RELIGION
H. Byron Earhart (1987)
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Robert A. Segal (2005)
SHUGS LDAN (SHUGDEN)
SLEEP
Georges Dreyfus (2005)
SOCRATES
Jonathan Z. Smith (1987)
Alessandro Stavru (2005)
SIBYLLINE ORACLES
SMART, NINIAN
Arnaldo Momigliano (1987)
SÖDERBLOM, NATHAN
Ursula King (2005)
Emilio Suárez de la Torre (2005)
Charles J. Adams (1987)
SMITH, HANNAH WHITALL
Revised Bibliography
SIDDUR AND MAH
. ZOR
Melvin E. Dieter (2005)
Lawrence A. Hoffman (1987)
SOFER, MOSHEH
Revised Bibliography
SMITH, JOSEPH
Steven M. Lowenstein (1987)
Klaus J. Hansen (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
SÍDH
Proinsias Mac Cana (1987 and
SMITH, MORTON
SOHM, RUDOLF
2005)
Joseph Sievers (2005)
James Luther Adams (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SIKHISM
SMITH, WILFRED CANTWELL
Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
Peter Slater (2005)
SO
¯ KA GAKKAI
(2005)
Shimazono Susumu (2005)
SMITH, W. ROBERTSON
S´I¯LABHADRA
T. O. Beidelman (1987)
SO
˘ KYO
˘ NGDO
˘ K
Mimaki Katsumi (1987)
Robert A. Segal (2005)
Michael C. Kalton (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SIMA CHENGZHEN
SMOKING
Franciscus Verellen (2005)
Francis Robicsek (1987)
SOL INVICTUS
J. Rufus Fears (1987)
SIMONS, MENNO
SNAKES
Cornelius J. Dyck (1987)
Manfred Lurker (1987)
SÖLLE, DOROTHEE
Revised Bibliography
Nancy C. Ring (2005)
SIN AND GUILT
André LaCocque (1987)
SNORRI STURLUSON
SOLOMON
Revised Bibliography
John Weinstock (1987 and 2005)
John Van Seters (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SINGH, GOBIND
SNOUCK HURGRONJE, CHRISTIAAN
Khushwant Singh (1987)
Dale F. Eickelman (1987)
SOLOMON ISLANDS RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Roger M. Keesing (1987)
Pierre Maranda (2005)
SINHALA RELIGION
SOCIETY AND RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
Gananath Obeyesekere (1987)
Walter H. Capps (1987)
SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH BAER
Revised Bibliography
Moshe Sokol (2005)
SOCIETY AND RELIGION [FURTHER
SIRHINDI¯, AH
. MAD
CONSIDERATIONS]
SOLOVDEV, VLADIMIR
Yohanan Friedmann (1987 and
Wade Clark Roof (2005)
Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal (1987
2005)
and 2005)
SOCIOBIOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY
S´IVA [FIRST EDITION]
PSYCHOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW
SOMA
Stella Kramrisch (1987)
Holmes Rolston III (2005)
Joel P. Brereton (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
SOPHIA
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
SPENCER, HERBERT
Gilles Quispel (1987)
THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN AMAZON
Garry W. Trompf (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Robin M. Wright (2005)
Revised Bibliography
SOROKIN, PITIRIM ALEKSANDROVICH
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
SPENER, PHILIPP JAKOB
Stephen G. Post (2005)
THE COLONIAL ANDES
F. Ernest Stoeffler (1987)
Kenneth Mills (2005)
SORSKII, NIL
SPINOZA, BARUCH
Sergei Hackel (1987)
David Winston (2005)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
SOTERIOLOGY
THE GRAN CHACO
SPIRIT POSSESSION: AN OVERVIEW
Ninian Smart (1987)
Mario Califano (1987)
Vincent Crapanzano (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
SPIRIT POSSESSION: WOMEN AND
SOUL: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
POSSESSION
CONCEPTS
THE MODERN ANDES
Pietro Mander (2005)
Joseph W. Bastien (1987)
Mary L. Keller (2005)
Revised Bibliography
SPIRITUAL DISCIPLINE
SOUL: BUDDHIST CONCEPTS
William K. Mahony (1987)
Steven Collins (1987)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
Revised Bibliography
THE NORTHWEST AMAZON
SPIRITUAL GUIDE
Robin M. Wright (2005)
Stuart W. Smithers (1987)
SOUL: CHINESE CONCEPTS
Tu Wei-ming (1987)
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY
SPIRITUALISM
OF STUDY
John B. Buescher (2005)
SOUL: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
Mark R. Woodward (2005)
Geddes MacGregor (1987)
SPIRITUALITY
Revised Bibliography
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS: INSULAR
Mary N. MacDonald (2005)
CULTURES
SOUL: CONCEPTS IN INDIGENOUS
SPITTLE AND SPITTING
James J. Fox (1987)
Annmari Ronnberg (1987)
RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
Claude Rivière (1987 and 2005)
SPORTS AND RELIGION
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS:
Mari Womack (2005)
SOUL: GREEK AND HELLENISTIC
MAINLAND CULTURES
CONCEPTS
SPURGEON, CHARLES HADDON
Jan N. Bremmer (1987)
Charles F. Keyes (1987)
Darrel W. Amundsen (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
S´RI¯ VAIS.N.AVAS
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS: NEW
SOUL: INDIAN CONCEPTS
John B. Carman (1987)
Karen Pechilis (2005)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN INSULAR
Revised Bibliography
CULTURES
SOUL: ISLAMIC CONCEPTS
James L. Peacock (1987 and 2005)
STANNER, W. E. H.
Michael E. Marmura (1987)
Melinda Hinkson (2005)
SOUTHERN AFRICAN RELIGIONS: AN
SOUL: JEWISH CONCEPT
STANTON, ELIZABETH CADY
OVERVIEW
Jack Bemporad (1987)
Jennifer Rycenga (2005)
Monica Wilson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
STARBUCK, E. D.
SOUTHERN AFRICAN RELIGIONS:
Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi (1987)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIONS:
SOUTHERN BANTU RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
AN OVERVIEW
Luc de Heusch (1987)
Otto Zerries (1987)
Revised Bibliography
STARS
Serinity Young (1987)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIONS:
SOUTHERN SIBERIAN RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
HISTORY OF STUDY
Roberte Hamayon (1987)
Deborah A. Poole (1987 and
STCHERBATSKY, THEODORE
Revised Bibliography
2005)
Bruce Cameron Hall (1987)
SOZZINI, FAUSTO PAVOLO
Revised Bibliography
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN RELIGIONS:
John C. Godbey (1987)
MYTHIC THEMES
STEINER, RUDOLF
Juan Adolfo Vázquez (1987)
SPEKTOR, YITSH
. AQ ELH
. ANAN
Robert A. McDermott (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
David Ellenson (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
STHIRAMATI
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS OF
Cuong Tu Nguyen (2005)
THE ANDES IN THE PRE-INCA PERIOD
SPELLS
Federico Kauffmann Doig (1987)
Beatriz Barba de Piña Chán (1987)
STOICISM
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Aldo Magris (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
lxxix
STONES
S.UH.BAH
SUZUKI SHO
¯ SAN
Carl-Martin Edsman (1987)
Khaliq Ah.mad Nizami (1987)
Winston L. King (1987)
Revised Bibliography
STRAUSS, DAVID FRIEDRICH
SUHRAWARDI¯, SHIHA
¯ B AL-DI¯N YAH.YA¯
Van A. Harvey (1987 and 2005)
Mehdi Aminrazavi (2005)
SVENTOVIT
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
STRUCTURALISM [FIRST EDITION]
SUICIDE
Edmund Leach (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Marilyn J. Harran (1987)
Revised Bibliography
SWAMINARAYAN MOVEMENT
STRUCTURALISM [FURTHER
Hanna H. Kim (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS]
SUKKOT
Jeppe Sinding Jensen (2005)
Louis Jacobs (1987)
SWANS
Ann Dunnigan (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Revised Bibliography
Gregory D. Alles (2005)
SUN
SWAZI RELIGION
Hilda Kuper (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
Jean Rhys Bram (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
AND OCEANIA
SUN DANCE [FIRST EDITION]
SWEDENBORG, EMANUEL
Garry W. Trompf (2005)
Joseph Epes Brown (1987)
Jane Williams-Hogan (2005)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
SUN DANCE [FURTHER
SWEDENBORGIANISM
STUDY OF RELIGION IN EASTERN
CONSIDERATIONS]
Jane Williams-Hogan (2005)
EUROPE AND RUSSIA
Tink Tinker (2005)
Bretislav Horyna (2005)
SYMBOL AND SYMBOLISM
SUNDANESE RELIGION
Peter T. Struck (2005)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
Robert Wessing (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION IN JAPAN
SYMBOLIC TIME
Revised Bibliography
Sakoto Fujiwara (2005)
Dario Zadra (1987)
SUNDÉN, HJALMAR
Revised Bibliography
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
René Gothóni (2005)
STUDY OF RELIGION IN NORTH AFRICA
SYMEON THE NEW THEOLOGIAN
AND THE MIDDLE EAST
SUNNAH
George A. Maloney (1987)
Brannon Wheeler (2005)
Marilyn Robinson Waldman
SYNAGOGUE
(1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
Joseph Gutmann (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION IN NORTH
S´U
¯ NYAM AND S´U¯NYATA¯
Steven Fine (2005)
AMERICA
Frederick J. Streng (1987)
SYNCRETISM [FIRST EDITION]
Jeffrey C. Ruff (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Carsten Colpe (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
SUPERNATURAL, THE
SYNCRETISM [FURTHER
STUDY OF RELIGION IN SOUTH ASIA
Michel Despland (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS]
Abrahim H. Khan (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Fritz Graf (2005)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
SUPERSTITION
SYRIAC ORTHODOX CHURCH OF
STUDY OF RELIGION IN SUB-SAHARAN
Mary R. O’Neil (1987)
ANTIOCH
AFRICA
Revised Bibliography
Ronald G. Roberson (2005)
Ezra Chitando (2005)
SUPREME BEINGS
SZOLD, HENRIETTA
STUPA WORSHIP
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
Jonathan D. Sarna (1987)
Hirakawa Akira (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
SUÁREZ, FRANCISCO
SU
¯ RDA¯S
Marvin R. O’Connell (1987)
T
Karine Schomer (1987)
SUBALTERN STUDIES
John Stratton Hawley (2005)
T.ABARI¯, AL-
Laurie Louise Patton (2005)
Andrew Rippin (2005)
SUSANO-O NO MIKOTO
S´UBHA
¯ KARASM.HA
Kakubayashi Fumio (1987 and
T.ABA¯T.A.BA¯DI¯, EALLA¯MA
Charles D. Orzech (1987)
2005)
Mohammad Jafar Elmi (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Reza Shah-Kazemi (2005)
SU
¯ TRA LITERATURE
SUFFERING
Ludo Rocher (1987)
TABOO
Jack Bemporad (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Roy Wagner (1987)
SUFISM
SUZUKI, D. T.
TAFSI¯R
Peter J. Awn (1987)
Robert H. Sharf (2005)
Andrew Rippin (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
TAFTA
¯ ZA¯NI¯, AL-
TAQI¯YAH
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
Wadi Z. Haddad (1987)
James Winston Morris (1987)
COMPOUNDS IN SOUTH ASIA
Michael W. Meister (2005)
TAGORE, RABINDRANATH
TA
¯ RA¯
Hugh B. Urban (2005)
Leslie S. Kawamura (1987 and
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
2005)
COMPOUNDS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
TAIJI
Hiram Woodward (2005)
Tu Wei-ming (1987)
TARASCAN RELIGION
Paul Friedrich (1987 and 2005)
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
TÁIN BÓ CUAILNGE
COMPOUNDS IN TIBET
Proinsias Mac Cana (1987 and
TARASIOS
Philip Denwood (2005)
2005)
Demetrios J. Constantelos (1987)
TEMPLE: CONFUCIAN TEMPLE
TAIPING
T.ARFON
COMPOUNDS
Anna Seidel (1987)
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt (1987
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
and 2005)
TAIWANESE RELIGIONS
T.ARI¯QAH
TEMPLE: DAOIST TEMPLE COMPOUNDS
Paul R. Katz (2005)
A. H. Johns (1987)
Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt (1987
F. D. Lewis (2005)
and 2005)
TAIXU
Jan Yün-hua (1987)
TATHA
¯ GATA
TEMPLE: HINDU TEMPLES
Revised Bibliography
John Makransky (2005)
Michael W. Meister (1987)
TATHA
¯ GATA-GARBHA
Revised Bibliography
TALIESIN
Brynley F. Roberts (1987 and
Robert A. F. Thurman (1987)
TEMPLE: MESOAMERICAN TEMPLES
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Paul Gendrop (1987)
TATHATA
¯
TALMUD
TEMPLE SOLAIRE
Robert Goldenberg (1987 and
Tadeusz Skorupski (1987)
Massimo Introvigne (2005)
Revised Bibliography
2005)
TEMPTATION
TAUBES, JAKOB
TAM, YA!AQOV BEN ME’IR
Bernhard Häring (1987)
Elettra Stimilli (2005)
Shalom Albeck (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
TAULER, JOHANNES
TEN COMMANDMENTS
Claire Champollion (1987)
Walter Harrelson (1987)
TAMIL RELIGIONS
Fred W. Clothey (1987)
TA!ZIYAH
TENDAISHU
¯
Peter Chelkowski (1987)
Paul Groner (2005)
TANGAROA
Sachiko Hatanaka (1987)
TEARS
TENGRI
Gary L. Ebersole (2005)
Jean-Paul Roux (1987)
TANG YONGTONG
Revised Bibliography
Ren Jiyu (1987 and 2005)
TECUMSEH
Joel W. Martin (2005)
TENRIKYO
¯
TANLUAN
Uehara Toyoaki (1987)
Roger J. Corless (1987)
TEHUELCHE RELIGION
Alejandra Siffredi (1987)
Revised Bibliography
TANNAIM
Revised Bibliography
TERESA OF ÁVILA
David Kraemer (1987)
Peter T. Rohrbach (1987)
Revised Bibliography
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, PIERRE
Ursula King (2005)
TERTULLIAN
TANTRISM: AN OVERVIEW
E. Glenn Hinson (1987)
David Gordon White (2005)
TEKAKWITHA, KATERI
Henry Warner Bowden (1987 and
TESHUB
TANTRISM: HINDU TANTRISM
2005)
Harry A. Hoffner, Jr. (1987)
Brian K. Smith (2005)
Revised Bibliography
TEKHINES
TANYAO
Chava Weissler (2005)
TEXTILES
Miyakawa Hisayuki (1987)
John E. Vollmer (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
TEMPLE: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN AND
MEDITERRANEAN TEMPLES
TEZCATLIPOCA
TAO HONGJING
R. A. Tomlinson (1987)
Davíd Carrasco (1987)
T. C. Russell (2005)
Clemente Marconi (2005)
Revised Bibliography
TAPAS
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
THAI RELIGION
David M. Knipe (1987)
COMPOUNDS IN EAST ASIA
Charles F. Keyes (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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THEALOGY
THOMAS AQUINAS
TIV RELIGION
Melissa Raphael (2005)
James A. Weisheipl (1987)
Paul Bohannan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
THECLA
THOR
Stephen J. Davis (2005)
Edgar C. Polomé (1987)
TJURUNGAS
Joseph Harris (2005)
John E. Stanton (1987)
THEISM
Peter A. Bertocci (1987)
THOTH
TLALOC
Revised Bibliography
Leonard H. Lesko (1987)
Philip P. Arnold (2005)
THEOCRACY
THRACIAN RELIGION
TLAXCALAN RELIGION
Dewey D. Wallace, Jr. (1987 and
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
Hugo G. Nutini (1987 and 2005)
2005)
Cicerone Poghirc (1987)
Revised Bibliography
TOBACCO
THEODICY
Peter T. Furst (2005)
Ronald M. Green (1987)
THRACIAN RIDER
TOLSTOY, LEO
Revised Bibliography
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
Cicerone Poghirc (1987)
Sylvia Juran (1987)
THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA
Revised Bibliography
TOLTEC RELIGION
Panagiotis C. Christou (1987)
Hanns J. Prem (1987)
TIAN
THEODORE OF STUDIOS
Laurence G. Thompson (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Demetrios J. Constantelos (1987)
TOMBS
TIANTAI
Revised Bibliography
Leo M. Pruden (1987)
Peter Metcalf (2005)
THEODORET OF CYRRHUS
TOMOL
TIBETAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Theodore Zissis (1987)
Per Kvaerne (1987 and 2005)
Dennis F. Kelley (2005)
THEODOSIUS
TIBETAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
TÖNNIES, FERDINAND
Noel Q. King (1987 and 2005)
Michael L. Walter (1987)
James Luther Adams (1987)
Revised Bibliography
THEOLOGY: CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY
Françoise Pommaret (2005)
Yves Congar (1987)
TIELE, C. P.
TORAH
Revised Bibliography
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
Martin S. Jaffee (2005)
THEOLOGY: COMPARATIVE THEOLOGY
Revised Bibliography
TORAJA RELIGION
David Tracy (1987)
TIKHON
Hetty Nooy-Palm (1987)
Revised Bibliography
James W. Cunningham (1987)
Revised Bibliography
THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
TIKHON OF ZADONSK
TORQUEMADA, TOMÁS DE
John Algeo (2005)
Thomas Hopko (1987)
Marvin R. O’Connell (1987)
THERAVA
¯ DA
TIKOPIA RELIGION
TOSAFOT [FIRST EDITION]
Frank E. Reynolds (1987)
Raymond Firth (1987)
E. E. Urbach (1987)
Regina T. Clifford (1987)
Judith Macdonald (2005)
TOSAFOT [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
TILAK, BAL GANGADHAR
Ephraim Kanarfogel (2005)
THÉRÈSE OF LISIEUX
Ainslie T. Embree (1987 and
TOTEMISM
Peter T. Rohrbach (1987)
2005)
Roy Wagner (1987)
THERIANTHROPISM
TILA
¯ WAH
Revised Bibliography
Stanley Walens (1987)
Richard C. Martin (1987)
TOTONAC RELIGION
THESMOPHORIA
TILLICH, PAUL JOHANNES
Roberto Williams-Garcia (1987)
M. L. West (1987)
Robert P. Scharlemann (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
2005)
TOUCHING
Geoffrey Parrinder (1987)
THEURGY
TIMOTHY AILUROS
Richard A. Norris (1987)
Demetrios J. Constantelos (1987)
TOURISM AND RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
TINGLEY, KATHERINE
Thomas S. Bremer (2005)
W. Michael Ashcraft (2005)
THIASOI
TOWERS
Klaus-Peter Köpping (1987)
TI¯RTHAM
. KARAS
Jeffrey F. Meyer (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Colette Caillat (1987 and 2005)
J. Daniel White (2005)
THOMAS À KEMPIS
TITHES
TRADITION
Howard G. Hageman (1987)
Walter Harrelson (1987 and 2005)
Paul Valliere (1987 and 2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
TRANSCENDENCE AND IMMANENCE
TRICKSTERS: NORTH AMERICAN
TURTLES AND TORTOISES
Charles Hartshorne (1987)
TRICKSTERS [FIRST EDITION]
Manabu Waida (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Mac Linscott Ricketts (1987)
Revised Bibliography
TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION
TRICKSTERS: NORTH AMERICAN
T.U¯SI¯, NAS.I¯R AL-DI¯N
Carl Olson (2005)
TRICKSTERS [FURTHER
S. J. Badakhchani (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS]
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION: AN
Bernard C. Perley (2005)
TWELVE TRIBES
OVERVIEW
Susan J. Palmer (2005)
Charles H. Long (2005)
TRIGLAV
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
TWINS: AN OVERVIEW
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
Revised Bibliography
Ugo Bianchi (1987)
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
Revised Bibliography
MODERN CANADA
TRINITY
Jennifer I. M. Reid (2005)
Catherine Mowry LaCugna (1987)
TWINS: BALTIC TWIN DEITIES
Revised Bibliography
Janı¯na Kursı¯te (2005)
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
TROELTSCH, ERNST
TWO BOOKS, THE
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
Friedrich Wilhelm Graf (1987)
Peter M. J. Hess (2005)
MODERN INDIA
David Kopf (2005)
TRUBETSKOI, EVGENII
TYLOR, E. B.
Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak
Eric J. Sharpe (1987)
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
(1987)
Revised Bibliography
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
MODERN JAPAN
TRUBETSKOI, SERGEI
TYNDALE, WILLIAM
Michio Araki (2005)
Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak
David Daniell (2005)
(1987)
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
TY´R
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
TRUTH
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe (2005)
MODERN OCEANIA
Frederick J. Streng (1987)
TYRRELL, GEORGE
Garry W. Trompf (2005)
Revised Bibliography
David G. Schultenover (1987)
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
TSADDIQ
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF THE
Menachem Kallus (2005)
U
MODERN CARIBBEAN
TSONG KHA PA
UCHIMURA KANZO
¯
Paul Christopher Johnson (2005)
José Ignacio Cabezón (2005)
John F. Howes (1987)
TRANSMIGRATION
TSWANA RELIGION
UFO RELIGIONS
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (1987)
Aidan Southall (1987)
John A. Saliba (2005)
Jan N. Bremmer (2005)
Revised Bibliography
U
˘ ICH’O
˘ N
TREASURE TRADITION
TUATHA DÉ DANANN
Robert Evans Buswell, Jr. (1987
Janet Gyatso (2005)
Elizabeth A. Gray (2005)
and 2005)
TREES
TUCCI, GIUSEPPE
U
˘ ISANG
Pamela R. Frese (1987)
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
Robert Evans Buswell, Jr (1987
S. J. M. Gray (1987)
TULSI¯DA
¯ S
and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Velcheru Narayana Rao (1987)
UKKO
TRENT, COUNCIL OF
Revised Bibliography
Anna-Leena Siikala (1987)
Marvin R. O’Connell (1987)
TUNGUZ RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
TRIADS
Boris Chichlo (1987 and 2005)
EULAMA¯D
Geoffrey Parrinder (1987)
TUONELA
Hamid Algar (1987)
TRICKSTERS: AFRICAN TRICKSTERS
Felix J. Oinas (1987)
ÜLGEN
Robert D. Pelton (1987)
Juha Pentikäinen (2005)
Klaus Sagaster (1987)
Revised Bibliography
TURKIC RELIGIONS
Revised Bibliography
Jean-Paul Roux (1987)
TRICKSTERS: AN OVERVIEW
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ULTRAMONTANISM
Josef L. Altholz (1987)
Revised Bibliography
TURNER, HENRY MCNEAL
James Anthony Noel (2005)
UMAI
TRICKSTERS: MESOAMERICAN AND
Denis Sinor (1987)
SOUTH AMERICAN TRICKSTERS
TURNER, VICTOR
Lawrence E. Sullivan (1987)
Benjamin C. Ray (1987)
UMA
¯ PATI S´IVA¯CA¯RYA
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Glenn E. Yocum (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
lxxxiii
EUMAR IBN AL-KHAT.T.A¯B
V
VEDA¯N
˙ GAS
David Waines (1987)
Brian K. Smith (2005)
VAIKHA
¯ NASAS
EUMAR TA¯L
G. R. Welbon (1987 and 2005)
VEDA
¯ NTA
David Robinson (1987)
R. N. Dandekar (1987)
Revised Bibliography
VÄINÄMÖINEN
Revised Bibliography
Matti Kuusi (1987)
UMMAH
VEDAS
Brannon Wheeler (2005)
VAIS´ES.IKA
R. N. Dandekar (1987)
Kisor K. Chakrabarti (1987)
Revised Bibliography
UNARIUS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE
Diana G. Tumminia (2005)
VAIS.N.AVISM: AN OVERVIEW
VEDISM AND BRAHMANISM
R. N. Dandekar (1987)
Jan C. Heesterman (1987)
UNDERHILL, EVELYN
Revised Bibliography
Gregory F. Porter (1987)
VAIS.N.AVISM: BHA¯GAVATAS
Revised Bibliography
G. R. Welbon (1987 and 2005)
VEGETATION
Peter C. Chemery (1987)
UNDERWORLD
VAIS.N.AVISM: PA¯ÑCARA¯TRAS
Revised Bibliography
J. Bruce Long (1987)
G. R. Welbon (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
VAJRABODHI
VELES-VOLOS
Charles D. Orzech (1987)
Marija Gimbutas (1987)
UNGARINYIN RELIGION
Anthony Redmond (2005)
VAJRADHARA
VENUS
Isabelle Onians (2005)
Robert Schilling (1987)
UNIATE CHURCHES
Revised Bibliography
Thomas F. Sable (1987 and 2005)
VAJRAPA
¯ N.I
Isabelle Onians (2005)
VERGIL
UNIFICATION CHURCH
Patricia A. Johnston (2005)
Eileen Barker (1987 and 2005)
VAJRASATTVA
Bryan J. Cuevas (2005)
VESTA
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST ASSOCIATION
Robert Schilling (1987)
John C. Godbey (1987)
VALHO
˛ LL
Charles Guittard (2005)
Revised Bibliography
John Lindow (1987 and 2005)
VIA NEGATIVA
UNITY
VALKYRIES
Veselin Kesich (1987)
Gail M. Harley (2005)
John Lindow (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
Dell deChant (2005)
VALLABHA
VICO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA
UNKULUNKULU
R. K. Barz (1987)
Donald Phillip Verene (1987)
James S. Thayer (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
VIERKANDT, ALFRED
VA
¯ LMI¯KI
Wallace B. Clift (1987)
UNTOUCHABLES, RELIGIONS OF
Velcheru Narayana Rao (1987)
Saurabh Dube (2005)
VIETNAMESE RELIGION
VANUATU RELIGIONS
Georges Condominas (1987)
U NU
Michael Allen (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Juliane Schober (2005)
Revised Bibliography
VIJÑA
¯ NABHIKS.U
UPANIS.ADS
VARN
. A AND JA
¯ TI
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1987)
William K. Mahony (1987)
Brian K. Smith (2005)
VIOLENCE
UPA
¯ YA
VARUN
. A
Fritz Graf (2005)
Michael Pye (1987)
Sukumari Bhattacharji (1987)
Revised Bibliography
VIRACOCHA
VASUBANDHU
Elizabeth P. Benson (1987)
USENER, HERMANN
Nagao Gadjin (1987 and 2005)
Burton Feldman (1987)
VIRGIN GODDESS
VATICAN COUNCILS: VATICAN I
Revised Bibliography
Julia Iwersen (2005)
Roger Aubert (1987)
US.U¯L AL-FIQH
Revised Bibliography
VIRGINITY
Bernard G. Weiss (1987)
Han J. W. Drijvers (1987)
VATICAN COUNCILS: VATICAN II [FIRST
Revised Bibliography
UTOPIA
EDITION]
Garry W. Trompf (1987)
Karl Rahner (1987)
VISION QUEST
Revised Bibliography
Adolf Darlap (1987)
Tink Tinker (2005)
UTU
VATICAN COUNCILS: VATICAN II
VISIONS
Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Felicitas D. Goodman (1987)
Pietro Mander (2005)
Nancy C. Ring (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF ARTICLES
VIS.N.U
WALKER, JAMES R.
WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS
Jan Gonda (1987)
Raymond J. DeMallie (2005)
Kurt Rudolph (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
WANDJINA
VISUAL CULTURE AND RELIGION: AN
I. M. Crawford (1987)
WENSINCK, A. J.
OVERVIEW
WANG BI
Jacques Waardenburg (1987)
David Morgan (2005)
Rudolf G. Wagner (1987 and
WESLEY BROTHERS
VISUAL CULTURE AND RELIGION:
2005)
Frank Baker (1987)
OUTSIDER ART
Norman J. Girardot (2005)
WANG CHONG
WEST AFRICAN RELIGIONS
Yü Ying-shih (1987)
Dominique Zahan (1987)
VITAL, H
. AYYIM
Revised Bibliography
Lawrence Fine (1987)
WANG FUZHI
Ian McMorran (1987)
Revised Bibliography
WHEATLEY, PAUL
WANG YANGMING
Davíd Carrasco (2005)
VIVEKANANDA
Thomas J. Hopkins (1987)
Tu Wei-Ming (1987)
WHITE, ELLEN GOULD
Brian A. Hatcher (2005)
Revised Bibliography
Ronald L. Numbers (1987)
WANG ZHE
VLADIMIR I
WHITE BUFFALO CALF WOMAN
Thomas Hopko (1987)
Kubo Noritada (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Mary C. Churchill (2005)
VOCATION
WHITEFIELD, GEORGE
Han J. W. Drijvers (1987)
WAQF
Edwin S. Gaustad (1987 and
Revised Bibliography
Miriam Hoexter (2005)
2005)
WAR AND WARRIORS: AN OVERVIEW
VODOU
WHITEHEAD, ALFRED NORTH
Karen McCarthy Brown (1987 and
Bruce Lincoln (1987)
John B. Cobb, Jr. (1987)
2005)
Revised Bibliography
WAR AND WARRIORS: INDO-EUROPEAN
WICCA
VOWS AND OATHS
Elmar Klinger (1987)
BELIEFS AND PRACTICES
Joanne E. Pearson (2005)
Revised Bibliography
C. Scott Littleton (1987 and 2005)
WIDENGREN, GEO
Eugen Ciurtin (2005)
VRIES, JAN DE
WARAO RELIGION
Kees W. Bolle (1987)
Andrés Alejandro Pérez Diez
(1987)
WIKANDER, STIG
VR
Mihaela Timus (2005)
. NDA
¯ VANA
Revised Bibliography
David L. Haberman (1987)
WILLIAM OF OCKHAM
Revised Bibliography
WARBURG, ABY
Ina Wunn (2005)
Gordon Leff (1987 and 2005)
VR.TRA
WILLIAMS, ROGER
Wendy Doniger (1987)
WARD, MARY
Susan O’Brien (2005)
Robert T. Handy (1987)
W
WARLPIRI RELIGION
WILLIBRORD
Stephen C. Neill (1987)
WACH, JOACHIM [FIRST EDITION]
Françoise Dussart (2005)
Joseph M. Kitagawa (1987)
WATER
WINTER SOLSTICE SONGS
WACH, JOACHIM [FURTHER
Jean Rudhardt (1987)
Monica Bra˘tulescu (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
WISDOM
Eric Ziolkowski (2005)
WAWALAG
Kurt Rudolph (1987)
WAHHA
¯ BI¯YAH
Catherine H. Berndt (1987)
Revised Bibliography
John O. Voll (1987 and 2005)
WEALTH
WISDOM LITERATURE: BIBLICAL BOOKS
WALA
¯ YAH
Winston Davis (1987)
[FIRST EDITION]
Hermann Landolt (1987)
Revised Bibliography
James L. Crenshaw (1987)
WALDENSIANS
WEBER, MAX
WISDOM LITERATURE: BIBLICAL BOOKS
Gordon Leff (1987 and 2005)
Norman Birnbaum (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Tawny L. Holm (2005)
WALDMAN, MARILYN ROBINSON
WEBS AND NETS
WISDOM LITERATURE: THEORETICAL
Mügé Galin (2005)
J. Bruce Long (1987)
PERSPECTIVES
WALI¯ ALLA
¯ H, SHA¯H
WEIL, SIMONE
Alexandra R. Brown (1987 and
Sajida S. Alvi (2005)
William D. Miller (1987)
2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page lxxxv
LIST OF ARTICLES
lxxxv
WISE, ISAAC M.
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
Y
S. D. Temkin (1987)
CHRISTIAN WORSHIP
Revised Bibliography
Thomas J. Talley (1987)
YA!AQOV BEN ASHER
Bernard Septimus (1987)
WISE, JOHN
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
Edwin S. Gaustad (1987 and
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
2005)
YAKUT RELIGION
DAOIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE
Laurence Delaby (1987)
WISE, STEPHEN S.
John Lagerwey (1987 and 2005)
Abraham J. Karp (1987)
YAMA
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
Sukumari Bhattacharji (1987)
Revised Bibliography
HINDU DEVOTIONAL LIFE
Revised Bibliography
WISSOWA, GEORG
Paul B. Courtright (1987)
YAMAGA SOKO
¯
Henry Jay Watkin (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Samuel Hideo Yamashita (1987)
Revised Bibliography
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
YAMATO TAKERU
WITCHCRAFT: AFRICAN WITCHCRAFT
JEWISH WORSHIP
Isomae Jun’ichi (2005)
Maxwell Gay Marwick (1987)
Ruth Langer (2005)
Revised Bibliography
YAMAZAKI ANSAI
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
Kate Wildman Nakai (1987 and
WITCHCRAFT: CONCEPTS OF
2005)
MUSLIM WORSHIP
WITCHCRAFT
Jeffrey Burton Russell (1987)
Vernon James Schubel (2005)
YA
¯ MUNA
Sabina Magliocco (2005)
Walter G. Neevel, Jr. (1987 and
WOVOKA
2005)
WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG
John A. Grim (1987)
Henry Le Roy Finch (1987)
YANTRA
WUNDT, WILHELM
Madhu Khanna (1987)
WOLFF, CHRISTIAN
Wallace B. Clift (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Charles A. Corr (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
YAO AND SHUN
WOLVES
WYCLIF, JOHN
Sarah Allan (1987 and 2005)
Ann Dunnigan (1987)
Massey H. Shepherd, Jr. (1987)
YATES, FRANCES AMELIA
Revised Bibliography
J. B. Trapp (2005)
X
WOMEN’S STUDIES IN RELIGION
YAZATAS
Julie Clague (2005)
XAVIER, FRANCIS
Gherardo Gnoli (1987)
WO
˘ NHYO
John F. Broderick (1987)
YEHOSHU!A BEN H.ANANYAH
Robert Evans Buswell, Jr. (1987
XENOPHANES
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
and 2005)
Giovanni Casadio (2005)
Revised Bibliography
WORK
XIAN
YEHOSHU!A BEN LEVI
Karen Ready (1987)
John Lagerwey (2005)
Robert Goldenberg (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
XIAO
WORLD RELIGIONS
YEHUDAH BAR ILEAI
Tomoko Masuzawa (2005)
Keith N. Knapp (2005)
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
Revised Bibliography
WORLD’S PARLIAMENT OF RELIGIONS
XIAO BAOZHEN
Robert S. Ellwood (1987 and
Kubo Noritada (1987)
YEHUDAH BAR YEH
. EZQE’L
2005)
Revised Bibliography
Baruch M. Bokser (1987)
Revised Bibliography
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
XINXING
BUDDHIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE IN EAST
Miyakawa Hisayuki (1987)
YEHUDAH HA-LEVI
ASIA
Revised Bibliography
Barry S. Kogan (1987)
Richard K. Payne (2005)
Revised Bibliography
XI WANG MU
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
Michael Loewe (1987)
YEHUDAH HA-NASID
BUDDHIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE IN
Gary G. Porton (1987 and 2005)
SOUTHEAST ASIA
XUANZANG
YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL (YESHE TSOGYAL)
Peter Skilling (2005)
Alan Sponberg (1987)
Janet Gyatso (2005)
Revised Bibliography
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
YESHIVAH
BUDDHIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE IN TIBET
XUNZI
Shaul Stampfer (1987)
Françoise Pommaret (2005)
Aaron Stalnaker (2005)
Revised Bibliography
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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lxxxvi
LIST OF ARTICLES
YIJING
YURUPARY
ZHENREN
Jan Yün-hua (1987)
Stephen Hugh-Jones (1987)
John Lagerwey (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
YINYANG WUXING
ZHENYAN
Aihe Wang (2005)
Z
Charles D. Orzech (1987)
YISHMAEE’L BEN ELISHAE
Revised Bibliography
ZAEHNER, R. C.
Gary G. Porton (1987)
G. R. Welbon (1987)
ZHIYAN
Revised Bibliography
Kimura Kiyotaka (1987)
ZAKA
¯ T
YI T’OEGYE
Azim Nanji (2005)
ZHIYI
JaHyun Kim Haboush (1987)
Neal Donner (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ZALMOXIS
Ioan Petru Culianu (1987)
Revised Bibliography
YI YULGOK
Cicerone Poghirc (1987)
ZHOU DUNYI
JaHyun Kim Haboush (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Rodney L. Taylor (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
ZAMAKHSHARI¯, AL-
ZHUANGZI
YOGA
Andrew Rippin (1987)
Mircea Eliade (1987)
Harold D. Roth (2005)
Revised Bibliography
ZAPATISMO AND INDIGENOUS
ZHUHONG
RESISTANCE
Chun-fang Yü (1987)
YOGA
¯ CA¯RA
Amado J. Láscar (2005)
Hattori Masaaki (1987 and 2005)
Amanda Nolacea Harris (2005)
ZHU XI
YOGANANDA
Conrad Schirokauer (1987 and
ZARATHUSHTRA
Catherine Wessinger (2005)
Albert de Jong (2005)
2005)
YOH
. ANAN BAR NAPPAH
. A’
ZAYNAB BINT EALI¯
ZIMMER, HEINRICH ROBERT
Robert Goldenberg (1987)
B. Tahera Qutbuddin (2005)
G. R. Welbon (1987 and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
ZEALOTS
ZINZENDORF, NIKOLAUS
YOH
. ANAN BEN ZAKK’AI
David M. Rhoads (1987 and
David A. Schattschneider (1987
Jacob Neusner (1987)
2005)
and 2005)
Revised Bibliography
ZEKHUT AVOT
ZIONISM
YONI
Shalom Carmy (2005)
David Biale (1987 and 2005)
Frédérique Apffel-Marglin (1987
ZEME
and 2005)
ZOHAR
Haralds Biezais (1987)
Moshe Idel (1987)
YORUBA RELIGION
Revised Bibliography
John Pemberton III (1987)
ZOLLA, ELÉMIRE
ZEN
Revised Bibliography
Grazia Marchianò (2005)
Steven Heine (2005)
YOSE BEN H
. ALAFTA’
ZONGMI
ZEUS
Tzvee Zahavy (1987)
Fritz Graf (2005)
Peter N. Gregory (1987)
Revised Bibliography
Revised Bibliography
ZHANG DAOLING
YOUNG, BRIGHAM
Isabelle Robinet (1987)
ZOROASTRIANISM
Jan Shipps (1987)
Jamsheed K. Choksy (2005)
ZHANG JUE
YU
Isabelle Robinet (1987)
ZULU RELIGION
Anna Seidel (1987)
Eleanor M. Preston-Whyte (1987)
ZHANG LU
Revised Bibliography
YUHUANG
Isabelle Robinet (1987)
Anna Seidel (1987)
ZHANG XUECHENG
ZURVANISM
YULUNGGUL SNAKE
David S. Nivison (1987)
Jamsheed K. Choksy (2005)
Catherine H. Berndt (1987)
Revised Bibliography
ZWINGLI, HULDRYCH
YUNUS EMRE
ZHANG ZAI
David E. Demson (1987 and
Fahır I˙z (1987)
Rodney L. Taylor (1987 and 2005)
2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page lxxxvii
L I S T O F C O N T R I B U T O R S
Contributors to the Encyclopedia are listed below in alphabetic order followed by their academic affiliations and the arti-
cle(s) they contributed. Articles reprinted from the first edition are indicated by (1987) following the article name.
Affiliations provided for these authors are their 1987 affiliations. New or updated articles are indicated by (2005) and
include current affiliations for the authors.
Robert Ackerman
FREE WILL AND PREDESTINATION:
Shalom Albeck
Montclair, New Jersey
ISLAMIC CONCEPTS (2005)
Bar Ilan University
FRAZER, JAMES G. (1987)
Kamran Scot Aghaie
TAM, YA!AQOV BEN ME’IR (1987)
Joyce Ackroyd
University of Texas at Austin
Ezio Albrile
University of Queensland
MESSIANISM: MESSIANISM IN THE
Torino, Italy
BUSHIDO
¯ (1987)
MUSLIM TRADITION (2005)
GNOSTICISM: HISTORY OF STUDY
Charles J. Adams
Akintunde E. Akinade
(2005)
Institute of Islamic Studies,
High Point University
MANDAEAN RELIGION (2005)
McGill University
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN SUB-
Gerardo Aldana
CORBIN, HENRY (1987)
SAHARAN AFRICA [FURTHER
University of California, Santa
JAMA¯EAT-I ISLA¯MI¯ (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Barbara
SÖDERBLOM, NATHAN (1987)
Shirin Akiner
COSMOLOGY: INDIGENOUS
James Luther Adams
University of London
NORTH AND MESOAMERICAN
Harvard University
ISLAM: ISLAM IN CENTRAL ASIA (2005)
COSMOLOGIES (2005)
LEGITIMATION (1987)
SOHM, RUDOLF (1987)
Hirakawa Akira
Bobby C. Alexander
TÖNNIES, FERDINAND (1987)
Waseda University
University of Texas at Dallas
William Y. Adams
CEREMONY (1987 AND 2005)
STUPA WORSHIP (1987)
University of Kentucky
Kurt Aland
Hilarion Alfeyev
AKSUMITE RELIGION (1987)
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität
Bishop of Vienna and Austria, Russian
KUSHITE RELIGION (1987)
Münster
Orthodox Church
A. W. H. Adkins
RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (2005)
MONTANISM (1987)
University of Chicago
MONTANUS (1987)
Hamid Algar
EVANS, ARTHUR (1987)
University of California, Berkeley
HARRISON, JANE E. (1987)
Azra Alavi
EULAMA¯D (1987)
Joseph A. Adler
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,
Kenyon College
India
John Algeo
CHINESE RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
NIZ.A¯M AL-DI¯N AWLIYA¯D (2005)
University of Georgia (emeritus)
(2005)
Catherine L. Albanese
THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY (2005)
Asma Afsaruddin
Wright State University
M. Athar Ali
University of Notre Dame
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
Aligarh Muslim University
FA¯T.IMAH BINT MUH.AMMAD (2005)
NORTH AMERICA (1987)
HUJWI¯RI¯, AL- (1987)
lxxxvii

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page lxxxviii
lxxxviii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Sarah Allan
Mehdi Aminrazavi
Zafar Ishaq Ansari
Dartmouth College
University of Mary Washington
International Islamic University,
YAO AND SHUN (1987 AND 2005)
SUHRAWARDI¯, SHIHA¯B AL-DI¯N YAH
. YA¯
Islamabad
Douglas Allen
(2005)
ABU
¯ H.ANI¯FAH (1987)
University of Maine
Nancy T. Ammerman
S.AWM (1987)
HUSSERL, EDMUND (1987 AND 2005)
Emory University
Peter Antes
PHENOMENOLOGY OF RELIGION
SCHISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
University of Hannover
(1987 AND 2005)
Albert Ampe
NEW YEAR FESTIVALS (2005)
James P. Allen
SCHIMMEL, ANNEMARIE (2005)
Universiteit Antwerpen
Metropolitan Museum of Art
RUUSBROEC, JAN VAN (1987)
Veikko Anttonen
AKHENATON (2005)
School of Cultural Research,
Darrel W. Amundsen
Michael Allen
University of Turku, Finland
Western Washington University
University of Sydney
HARVA, UNO (2005)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
VANUATU RELIGIONS (1987)
AND MEDICINE IN CHRISTIANITY
Michiko Yamaguchi Aoki
Gregory D. Alles
(2005)
Roger Williams College
McDaniel College
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
O
¯ KUNINUSHI NO MIKOTO (1987)
AND MEDICINE IN GREECE AND
DYNAMISM (1987)
Frédérique Apffel-Marglin
ROME (2005)
HOMO RELIGIOSUS (1987)
Smith College
SPURGEON, CHARLES HADDON (1987)
OTTO, RUDOLF (2005)
HIERODOULEIA (1987 AND 2005)
RELIGION [FURTHER
Georges C. Anawati
YONI (1987 AND 2005)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Institut Dominicain d’Etudes
Diane Apostolos-Cappadona
SANCTUARY (1987)
Orientales, Cairo
Center for Muslim-Christian
STUDY OF RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD: ISLAMIC
Understanding, Georgetown
(2005)
CONCEPTS (1987)
University
C. Fitzsimons Allison
KALA¯M (1987)
ART AND RELIGION (2005)
Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina
Carol S. Anderson
DANCE: POPULAR AND FOLK DANCE
PUSEY, EDWARD BOUVERIE (1987)
Kalamazoo College
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Dale C. Allison, Jr.
LESBIANISM (2005)
DANCE: THEATRICAL AND
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
LITURGICAL DANCE [FURTHER
Pamela Sue Anderson
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
BIBLICAL LITERATURE: NEW
University of Oxford
HUMAN BODY: HUMAN BODIES,
TESTAMENT (2005)
BEAUTY (2005)
RELIGION, AND ART (2005)
JESUS (2005)
Robert Mapes Anderson
ICONOCLASM: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Adel Allouche
Wagner College
ICONOGRAPHY: ICONOGRAPHY AS
Yale University
MCPHERSON, AIMEE SEMPLE (1987)
VISIBLE RELIGION [FURTHER
ARABIAN RELIGIONS (1987 AND 2005)
PENTECOSTAL AND CHARISMATIC
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Rebecca T. Alpert
CHRISTIANITY (1987 AND 2005)
Arjun Appadurai
Temple University
Ionna Andreesco-Miereanu
University of Pennsylvania
RECONSTRUCTIONIST JUDAISM (2005)
Centre National de la Recherche
INDIAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
Martha S. Alt
Scientifique, Paris
STUDY (1987)
Ohio State University
MAGIC: MAGIC IN EASTERN EUROPE
Nozir Arabzoda
REFERENCE WORKS (2005)
(1987)
(deceased)
Josef L. Altholz
Allan A. Andrews
NA¯S.IR-I KHUSRAW (2005)
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
University of Vermont
Francis A. Arinze
ULTRAMONTANISM (1987)
GENSHIN (1987)
Secretariat for Non-Christians,
HO
¯ NEN (1987)
David Altshuler
Vatican City
IGBO RELIGION (1987)
George Washington University
Pietro Angelini
JOSEPHUS FLAVIUS (1987)
L’Università Orientale di Napoli
Brian G. Armstrong
Sajida S. Alvi
DE MARTINO, ERNESTO (2005)
Georgia State University (emeritus)
CALVIN, JOHN (1987)
McGill University
Sigma Ankrava
LA¯HORI¯, MUH
. AMMAD EALI¯ (1987 AND
University of Latvia
Karen Armstrong
2005)
BALTIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
London, England
WALI¯ ALLA¯H, SHA¯H (2005)
(2005)
MUH
. AMMAD (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page lxxxix
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
lxxxix
Roger Arnaldez
Roger Aubert
M. A. Zaki Badawi
Université de Paris IV (Paris-
Université Catholique de Louvain-la-
Muslim College, London
Sorbonne) (emeritus)
Neuve
ABU
¯ BAKR (2005)
IBN H
. AZM (1987)
PIUS IX (1987)
Michael A. Baenen
VATICAN COUNCILS: VATICAN I (1987)
Rudolf Arnheim
Somerville, Massachusetts
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
David E. Aune
MALINOWSKI, BRONISLAW (1987)
University of Notre Dame
AESTHETICS: VISUAL AESTHETICS
CIRCLE (2005)
Marc David Baer
(1987)
ORACLES (1987)
Tulane University
Philip P. Arnold
REPENTANCE (1987)
DÖNMEH (2005)
Syracuse University
Robert Austerlitz
Serge Bahuchet
COLORS (2005)
Columbia University
Centre National de la Recherche
TLALOC (2005)
NUM (1987)
Scientifique, Paris
Linda B. Arthur
SAMOYED RELIGION (1987)
PYGMY RELIGIONS (1987)
Washington State University
Harry Aveling
Constantina Bailly
CLOTHING: DRESS AND RELIGION
La Trobe University
IN AMERICA’S SECTARIAN
New York, New York
FICTION: SOUTHEAST ASIAN FICTION
COMMUNITIES (2005)
PATAÑJALI THE GRAMMARIAN (1987)
AND RELIGION (2005)
Avak Asadourian
Anthony F. Aveni
William Sims Bainbridge
Armenian Diocese of Iraq
Colgate University
National Science Foundation
GREGORY OF DATEV (1987)
CALENDARS: MESOAMERICAN
FAMILY, THE (2005)
GREGORY OF NAREK (1987)
CALENDARS (2005)
Frank Baker
NERSE¯S OF CLA (1987)
SKY: MYTHS AND SYMBOLISM (2005)
Duke University
Ali S. Asani
Peter J. Awn
ASBURY, FRANCIS (1987)
Harvard University
Columbia University
COKE, THOMAS (1987)
AGA KHAN (1987)
SUFISM (1987)
METHODIST CHURCHES (1987)
GINA
¯ N (1987)
Mahmoud M. Ayoub
WESLEY BROTHERS (1987)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SOUTH ASIA (2005)
University of Toronto
David L. Balás
POETRY: ISLAMIC POETRY (2005)
EA¯SHU¯RA¯D (1987)
University of Dallas
W. Michael Ashcraft
H
. ILLI¯, AL- (1987)
BASIL OF CAESAREA (1987)
QURDA¯N: ITS ROLE IN MUSLIM
Truman State University
PRACTICE AND LIFE (1987)
Nalini Balbir
POINT LOMA THEOSOPHICAL
University of Paris
COMMUNITY (2005)
Th. P. van Baaren
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
TINGLEY, KATHERINE (2005)
Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen
AFTERLIFE: GEOGRAPHIES OF DEATH
AND JAINISM (2005)
Jes P. Asmussen
(1987)
Robert W. Balch
Københavns Universitet
Barbara A. Babcock
University of Montana
CHRISTENSEN, ARTHUR (1987)
University of Arizona
HEAVEN’S GATE (2005)
LEHMANN, EDVARD (1987)
REFLEXIVITY (1987)
Prapod Assavavirulhakarn
John F. Baldovin
Louise Bäckman
Chulalongkorn University
Jesuit School of Theology, Berkeley
Stockholms Universitet
BLESSING (2005)
CHRISTMAS (1987)
NUM-TU
¯ REM (1987)
EASTER (1987)
Aziz Suryal Atiya
SAMI RELIGION (1987)
EPIPHANY (1987)
University of Utah
Gershon C. Bacon
Bando Sho¯jun
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
Bar-Ilan University
NORTH AFRICA (1987)
Otani University
AGUDAT YISRADEL (1987 AND 2005)
COPTIC CHURCH (1987)
BENCHO
¯ (1987)
MUSAR MOVEMENT (1987 AND 2005)
Christopher P. Atwood
SALANTER, YISRADEL (1987 AND 2005)
Carl Bangs
Indiana University
S. J. Badakhchani
Saint Paul School of Theology,
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN
Institute of Ismaili Studies, London
Kansas City
MONGOLIA (2005)
T.U¯SI¯, NAS.I¯R AL-DI¯N (2005)
ARMINIUS, JACOBUS (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page xc
xc
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Moshe Barasch
GE HONG (1987)
FEMINIST THEOLOGY: CHRISTIAN
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
LI SHAOJUN (1987)
FEMINIST THEOLOGY (2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
ICONOGRAPHY: JEWISH
Anne Llewellyn Barstow
AND CHRISTIANITY (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY [FIRST EDITION]
State University of New York, College
MARY: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES (2005)
(1987)
at Old Westbury
JOAN OF ARC (1987)
George S. Bebis
Beatriz Barba de Piña Chán
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of
Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e
J. Robert Barth
Theology, Brookline, Massachusetts
Historia, Mexico City
Boston College
APOLLINARIS OF LAODICEA (1987)
COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR (1987
SPELLS (1987)
GREGORY OF SINAI (1987)
AND 2005)
IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH (1987)
Charles Barber
R. K. Barz
NIKODIMOS OF THE HOLY
University of Notre Dame
Australian National University
MOUNTAIN (1987)
ICONOCLASM: ICONOCLASM IN THE
VALLABHA (1987)
Heinz Bechert
BYZANTINE TRADITION (2005)
Jacques Barzun
Georg-August-Universitat zu
Hugh Barbour
Columbia University (emeritus)
Gottingen
Earlham College
JAMES, WILLIAM (1987)
SAM
. GHA: AN OVERVIEW (1987 AND
FOX, GEORGE (1987)
2005)
A. L. Basham
QUAKERS (1987)
(deceased)
Brenda E. F. Beck
John D. Barbour
A¯JI¯VIKAS (1987)
University of British Columbia
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: HINDU
St. Olaf College
Judith R. Baskin
PRACTICES (1987)
AUTOBIOGRAPHY (2005)
University of Oregon
Guy L. Beck
André Bareau
MIQVEH (2005)
Tulane University
Collège de France
Joseph W. Bastien
FREEMASONS (2005)
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: EARLY
University of Texas at Arlington
Mary Farrell Bednarowski
DOCTRINAL SCHOOLS OF
ATAHUALLPA (1987 AND 2005)
United Theological Seminary of the
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
BUDDHISM (1987)
OF THE MODERN ANDES (1987)
Twin Cities
Eileen Barker
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Martine Batchelor
London School of Economics
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND
La Sauve, France
WOMEN (2005)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
NUNS: BUDDHIST NUNS (2005)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN EUROPE
Susan Fitzpatrick Behrens
Emery J. Battis
(1987 AND 2005)
California State University,
Washington, D.C.
UNIFICATION CHURCH (1987 AND
Northridge
HUTCHINSON, ANNE (1987)
2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER AND
Robert M. Baum
SOUTH AMERICAN RELIGIONS (2005)
John Barker
Iowa State University
T. O. Beidelman
University of British Columbia
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
New York University
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
STUDY (2005)
CIRCUMCISION (1987 AND 2005)
AND OCEANIC RELIGIONS (2005)
ALINESITOUE (2005)
SMITH, W. ROBERTSON (1987)
Michael Barkun
DIOLA RELIGION (1987)
Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi
PROPHECY: AFRICAN PROPHETISM
Maxwell School, Syracuse University
Haifa University
(2005)
CHRISTIAN IDENTITY MOVEMENT
LEUBA, JAMES H. (1987)
Martin Baumann
(2005)
STARBUCK, E. D. (1987)
University of Lucerne, Switzerland
James Barr
Nicole Belayche
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN THE WEST
Christ Church, University of Oxford
École Pratique des Hautes-Études,
(2005)
Paris, France
DELITZSCH, FRIEDRICH (1987)
John Beattie
IUPITER DOLICHENUS (2005)
T. H. Barrett
Linacre College, University of Oxford
Catherine M. Bell
School of Oriental and African
INTERLACUSTRINE BANTU RELIGIONS
Santa Clara University
Studies, University of London
(1987)
LU XIUJING (1987)
DAOISM: HISTORY OF STUDY (1987
Tina Beattie
RITUAL [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
AND 2005)
Roehampton University
(2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
xci
Diane Bell
GU YANWU (1987)
ALKALAI, YEHUDAH BEN SHELOMOH
George Washington University
ORTHOPRAXY (1987)
(1987)
BERNDT, CATHERINE H. (2005)
John Bern
BAR-ILAN, MEDIR (1987)
DREAMING, THE (2005)
MOHILEVER, SHEMUDEL (1987)
University of Newcastle, Australia
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
REINES, YITSH
. AQ YAEAQOV (1987)
NGUKURR RELIGION (1987)
AND AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
SCHOLEM, GERSHOM (1987)
RELIGIONS (2005)
Alberto Bernabé
ZIONISM (1987 AND 2005)
Universidad Complutense, Madrid,
Nicole Belmont
Ugo Bianchi
Spain
Collège de France
Università degli Studi, Rome
HURRIAN RELIGION (2005)
GENNEP, ARNOLD VAN (1987)
BRELICH, ANGELO (1987)
ORPHEUS (2005)
CONFESSION OF SINS (1987)
Jack Bemporad
Paul Bernabeo
DEMIURGE (1987)
Temple Sinai of Bergen County,
New York, New York
DUALISM (1987)
Tenafly, New Jersey
APOLOGETICS (1987)
HISTORY OF RELIGIONS (1987)
SOUL: JEWISH CONCEPT (1987)
TWINS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
SUFFERING (1987)
Catherine H. Berndt
University of Western Australia
Daniel P. Biebuyck
Paula Ben-Amos
University of Delaware
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
Indiana University, Bloomington
RELIGIONS: MYTHIC THEMES
DRAMA: AFRICAN RELIGIOUS DRAMA
EDO RELIGION (1987)
(1987)
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Dagmar Benner
RAINBOW SNAKE (1987)
Haralds Biezais
Cambridge University
WAWALAG (1987)
Uppsala Universitet
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
YULUNGGUL SNAKE (1987)
BALTIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
AND MEDICINE IN A¯YURVEDA AND
Ronald M. Berndt
(1987)
SOUTH ASIA (2005)
University of Western Australia
DAINAS (1987)
Alexandre Bennigsen
LAIMA (1987)
DJAN’KAWU (1987)
École Pratique des Hautes Études,
PE¯RKONS (1987)
GADJERI (1987)
ZEME (1987)
Collège de France
Peter A. Bertocci
ISLAM: ISLAM IN THE CAUCASUS AND
Willem A. Bijlefeld
Boston University (emeritus)
THE MIDDLE VOLGA (1987)
Hartford Seminary
THEISM (1987)
Elizabeth P. Benson
BETH, KARL (1987)
Eberhard Bethge
KRAEMER, HENDRIK (1987)
Institute of Andean Studies, Los
Wachtberg-Villiprott, West Germany
NILSSON, MARTIN P. (1987)
Angeles
BONHOEFFER, DIETRICH (1987)
REINACH, SALOMON (1987)
BOCHICA (1987)
ROHDE, ERWIN (1987)
INTI (1987)
Anne H. Betteridge
MANCO CAPAC AND MAMA OCLLO
University of Arizona
Purushottama Bilimoria
(1987)
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: MUSLIM
Deakin University of Melbourne,
VIRACOCHA (1987)
PRACTICES (1987)
Stony Brook
David Berger
Hans Dieter Betz
AVIDYA¯ (2005)
Brooklyn College, City University of
University of Chicago
Jon-Christian Billigmeier
New York
APOSTLES (1987)
California State University,
POLEMICS: JEWISH-CHRISTIAN
LIBATION (1987)
Northridge
POLEMICS (1987)
MAGIC: MAGIC IN GRECO-ROMAN
ALPHABETS (1987 AND 2005)
NAHMANIDES, MOSES (1987)
ANTIQUITY (1987)
Norman Birnbaum
Stephen E. Berk
Peter Beyer
Georgetown University
California State University,
University of Ottawa
WEBER, MAX (1987)
Long Beach
GLOBALIZATION AND RELIGION
Raoul Birnbaum
DWIGHT, TIMOTHY (1987)
(2005)
Harvard University
Niyazi Berkes
Sukumari Bhattacharji
AVALOKITES´VARA (1987)
McGill University (emeritus)
Jadavpur University
BHAIS.AJYAGURU (1987)
GÖKALP, ZI˙YAM [FIRST EDITION]
RUDRA (1987)
MAÑJUS´RI¯ (1987)
(1987)
VARUN
. A (1987)
Barbara Bishop
YAMA (1987)
Judith A. Berling
Schola Contemplationis, Pfafftown,
Indiana University, Bloomington
David Biale
North Carolina
DAI ZHEN (1987)
University of California, Davis
JULIAN OF NORWICH (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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xcii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Joseph L. Blau
AMORAIM (1987)
Arnd Adje Both
Columbia University (emeritus)
ASHI (1987)
International Study Group on Music
REFORM (1987)
HUNAD (1987)
Archaeology
RABBAH BAR NAHMANI (1987)
Gerald J. Blidstein
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
RAV (1987)
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
MESOAMERICA (2005)
RAVAD (1987)
ALFASI, YITSH
. AQ BEN YAEAQOV (1987)
Larry D. Bouchard
SHEMUDEL THE AMORA (1987)
GERSHOM BEN YEHUDAH (1987)
University of Virginia
YEHUDAH BAR YEH
. EZQE’L (1987)
H’AI GAON (1987)
LITERATURE: LITERATURE AND
HALAKHAH: HISTORY OF HALAKHAH
Kees W. Bolle
RELIGION (2005)
(1987)
University of California, Los Angeles
Issa J. Boullata
MEDIR BEN BARUKH OF ROTHENBURG
(emeritus)
Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill
(1987)
ANIMISM AND ANIMATISM (1987)
University
SHERIRADGAON (1987)
COSMOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW (1987
IBN AL-FA¯RID
. (1987 AND 2005)
Raymond Bloch
AND 2005)
IEJA¯Z (1987)
Académie des Inscriptions et Belles
EUHEMERUS AND EUHEMERISM (2005)
M. F. C. Bourdillon
Lettres, Paris
FATE (1987 AND 2005)
University of Zimbabwe
PORTENTS AND PRODIGIES (1987)
HIEROS GAMOS (1987)
SHONA RELIGION (1987)
Alfred Bloom
MYTH: AN OVERVIEW (1987 AND 2005)
Erika Bourguignon
University of Hawaii, Manoa
VRIES, JAN DE (1987)
Ohio State University
SHINRAN (1987)
Judith Magee Boltz
GEOMANCY (1987)
Lowell W. Bloss
University of Washington
NECROMANCY (1987 AND 2005)
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
DAOISM: DAOIST LITERATURE (1987
Henry Warner Bowden
NA¯GAS AND YAKS
AND 2005)
.AS (1987 AND 2005)
Rutgers University
LAOZI (1987)
Brian Bocking
TEKAKWITHA, KATERI (1987 AND 2005)
School of Oriental and African
George Clement Bond
Gerhard Böwering
Studies, University of London
Teachers College, Columbia University
Fairfield University
SHINTO
¯ (2005)
LENSHINA, ALICE (1987)
KALA¯BA¯DHI¯, AL- (1987)
William M. Bodiford
George D. Bond
MIERA¯J (1987)
University of California, Los Angeles
Northwestern University
SHABISTARI¯, AL- (1987)
DO
¯ GEN (2005)
DEVA¯NAM
. PIYATISSA (1987)
Faubion Bowers
KEIZAN (2005)
MOGGALIPUTTATISSA (1987)
New York, New York
Herbert L. Bodman, Jr.
PERFECTIBILITY (1987 AND 2005)
CALLIGRAPHY: CHINESE AND
University of North Carolina at
Corinne Bonnet
JAPANESE CALLIGRAPHY (1987)
Chapel Hill
Universite de Toulouse II - Le Mirail
Fiona Bowie
CALIPHATE (1987)
CUMONT, FRANZ (2005)
University of Bristol
Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak
ESHMUN (2005)
GENDER ROLES (2005)
Manhattanville College
MELQART (2005)
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN (2005)
TRUBETSKOI, EVGENII (1987)
John Lawrence Boojamra
John J. Bradley
TRUBETSKOI, SERGEI (1987)
Saint Vladimir’s Orthodox
University of Queensland
Paul Bohannan
Theological Seminary, Crestwood,
AFTERLIFE: AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
University of Southern California
New York
CONCEPTS (2005)
COSMOLOGY: AUSTRALIAN
TIV RELIGION (1987)
SCHISM: CHRISTIAN SCHISM (1987)
INDIGENOUS COSMOLOGY (2005)
Philip V. Bohlman
James A. Boon
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
University of Chicago
Princeton University
INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIA (2005)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, AND
David Brakke
INDIA (2005)
RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
Indiana University
Stephen R. Bokenkamp
DRAMA: BALINESE DANCE AND
NAG HAMMADI (2005)
Indiana University
DANCE DRAMA (1987)
Jean Rhys Bram
DAOISM: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Phillipe Borgeaud
Hunter College, City University of
Baruch M. Bokser
Université de Genève
New York
Jewish Theological Seminary of America
MEMORIZATION (1987 AND 2005)
MOON (1987)
ABBAYE (1987)
PAN (1987 AND 2005)
SUN (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page xciii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
xciii
James R. Brandon
JESUITS (1987)
Robert McAfee Brown
University of Hawaii, Manoa
XAVIER, FRANCIS (1987)
Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley
DRAMA: EAST ASIAN DANCE AND
Raymond Brodeur
ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT (1987)
THEATER (1987)
Université Laval, Québec
Christopher R. Browning
Monica Bra˘tulescu
MARIE DE L’INCARNATION (2005)
University of North Carolina at
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
David G. Bromley
Chapel Hill
WINTER SOLSTICE SONGS (1987)
Virginia Commonwealth University
HOLOCAUST, THE: HISTORY
Ernst Breisach
BRAINWASHING (DEBATE) (2005)
(1987 AND 2005)
Western Michigan University
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Fanny E. Bryan
HISTORIOGRAPHY: AN OVERVIEW
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND
Urbana, Illinois
(1987)
VIOLENCE (2005)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN THE CAUCASUS AND
SATANISM (2005)
Francis J. Bremer
THE MIDDLE VOLGA (1987)
Millersville State College
Olive J. Brose
Raymond J. Bucher
PURITANISM (1987)
Westbrook, Connecticut
MAURICE, FREDERICK DENISON (1987)
Curia Generalizia dei Frati Minori,
Thomas S. Bremer
Rome
Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee
Alexandra R. Brown
FRANCIS OF ASSISI (1987)
TOURISM AND RELIGION (2005)
Washington and Lee University
WISDOM LITERATURE: THEORETICAL
John Buckler
Jan N. Bremmer
PERSPECTIVES (1987 AND 2005)
University of Illinois, Urbana-
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen,
Champaign
The Netherlands
Colin Brown
University of Canterbury (emeritus)
JEROME (1987)
AGO
¯ GE¯ (1987 AND 2005)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley
DELPHI (1987 AND 2005)
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
GREEK RELIGION [FURTHER
University of North Carolina at
(1987 AND 2005)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Greensboro
HADES (2005)
Delmer M. Brown
GINZA (1987)
HERA (2005)
Inter-University Center for Japanese
MANDA D’HIIA (1987)
POSEIDON (1987 AND 2005)
Language Studies, Tokyo
MANDAEAN RELIGION (1987)
SCAPEGOAT (2005)
JIEN (1987)
Thomas Buckley
SOUL: GREEK AND HELLENISTIC
University of Massachusetts, Boston
CONCEPTS (1987)
Frank Burch Brown
TRANSMIGRATION (2005)
Christian Theological Seminary,
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
Indianapolis, Indiana
OF CALIFORNIA AND THE
Frederick E. Brenk
MUSIC: RELIGIOUS MUSIC IN THE
INTERMOUNTAIN REGION (1987)
Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome
WEST (2005)
John B. Buescher
PLUTARCH (2005)
POETRY: POETRY AND RELIGION
Tibetan Broadcast Service of the Voice
Michael Brenner
(2005)
of America, Washington, D.C.
University of Munich
John Pairman Brown
SPIRITUALISM (2005)
JEWISH STUDIES: JEWISH STUDIES
Northern California Ecumenical
SINCE 1919 (2005)
Katia Buffetrille
Council, Berkeley
Joel P. Brereton
École Pratique des Hautes-Études,
KINGDOM OF GOD (1987)
University of Texas at Austin
Paris, France
Joseph Epes Brown
PILGRIMAGE: TIBETAN PILGRIMAGE
LOTUS (1987)
University of Montana
(2005)
SACRED SPACE (1987)
BLACK ELK (1987)
SOMA (2005)
Gudrun Bühnemann
SUN DANCE [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Dominique Briquel
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Karen McCarthy Brown
Université de Paris-Sorbonne, France
MAN
. D
. ALAS: BUDDHIST MAN
. D
. ALAS
Drew University
ETRUSCAN RELIGION (2005)
(2005)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
QUIRINUS (2005)
AND MEDICINE IN THE AFRICAN
Richard W. Bulliet
Luc Brisson
DIASPORA (2005)
Columbia University
CNRS, Paris
VODOU (1987 AND 2005)
MADRASAH (1987)
PLATO (2005)
Paula Brown
Donald A. Bullough
John F. Broderick
State University of New York at Stony
University of Saint Andrews
Campion Center, Weston, Massachusetts
Brook
ALCUIN (1987)
IGNATIUS LOYOLA (1987)
CANNIBALISM (1987)
CHARLEMAGNE (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Grace G. Burford
Geneviève Calame-Griaule
Robert S. Carlsen
Prescott College, Prescott, Arizona
Centre National de la Recherche
University of Colorado at Denver
HORNER, I. B. (2005)
Scientifique, Paris
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS:
PALI TEXT SOCIETY (2005)
DOGON RELIGION (1987)
CONTEMPORARY CULTURES (2005)
Craig A. Burgdoff
Carnegie Samuel Calian
P. Allan Carlsson
Capital University, Columbus, Ohio
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
Virginia Military Institute
BUTLER, JOSEPH (1987)
SACRILEGE (2005)
BERDIAEV, NIKOLAI (1987)
John B. Carman
Ronald Burke
Mario Califano
Harvard University
University of Nebraska at Omaha
Centro Argentino de Etnológia
Americana, Buenos Aires

BHAKTI (1987)
DÖLLINGER, JOHANN (1987)
KRISTENSEN, W. BREDE (1987)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
Walter Burkert
RA
¯ MA¯NUJA (1987)
OF THE GRAN CHACO (1987)
Universitat Zurich
S´RI¯ VAIS.N.AVAS (1987)
J. Baird Callicott
OMOPHAGIA (1987)
Shalom Carmy
Yale University
Pamela J. Burnham
Yeshiva University
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION:
BIBLICAL EXEGESIS: JEWISH VIEWS
Santa Cruz, California
ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS, WORLD
(1987)
ALPHABETS (2005)
RELIGIONS, AND ECOLOGY (2005)
ZEKHUT AVOT (2005)
Kenelm Burridge
Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade
David Carpenter
University of British Colombia
Universidade do Estado de Santa
St. Joseph’s University
Catarina
REVIVAL AND RENEWAL (1987)
GOLD AND SILVER (1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
John P. Burris
INSPIRATION (1987)
SOUTH AMERICA (2005)
JADE (1987)
Rollins College
Linda A. Camino
MONEY (1987)
COMPARATIVE-HISTORICAL METHOD
University of Virginia
Davíd Carrasco
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
RITES OF PASSAGE: AN OVERVIEW
Harvard University
Robert Evans Buswell, Jr.
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
AZTEC RELIGION (1987)
University of California, Los Angeles
Claudia V. Camp
COATLICUE (1987)
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN KOREA
Texas Christian University
HUITZILOPOCHTLI (1987)
(1987 AND 2005)
H
HUMAN SACRIFICE: AZTEC RITES (1987
. OKHMAH (2005)
CHINUL (1987 AND 2005)
AND 2005)
Alberto Camplani
U
˘ ICH’O
˘ N (1987 AND 2005)
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN
University of Rome “La Sapienza”
U
˘ ISANG (1987 AND 2005)
MESOAMERICA AND SOUTH
BARDAISAN (2005)
AMERICA (1987 AND 2005)
WO
˘ NHYO (1987 AND 2005)
Virgil Cândea
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
Jonathan M. Butler
THEMES (2005)
Asociat¸ia “România,” Bucharest
University of California, Riverside
QUETZALCOATL (1987)
ICONS (1987)
SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISM (1987)
SACRIFICE [FURTHER
Walter H. Capps
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
José Ignacio Cabezón
University of California, Santa
TEZCATLIPOCA (1987)
University of California, Santa
Barbara
WHEATLEY, PAUL (2005)
Barbara
SOCIETY AND RELIGION [FIRST
E. Gerhard Carroll
TSONG KHA PA (2005)
EDITION] (1987)
University of Notre Dame
Nancy Caciola
John D. Caputo
FÉNELON, FRANÇOIS (1987)
University of California, San Diego
Villanova University
James P. Carse
EXORCISM (2005)
DECONSTRUCTION (2005)
New York University
Colette Caillat
Francine Cardman
SHAPE SHIFTING (1987)
Membre de l’Académie des Inscriptions
Weston Jesuit School of Theology
John Ross Carter
et Belles-Lettres, Institut de France,
PRIESTHOOD: CHRISTIAN
Colgate University
Paris
PRIESTHOOD (2005)
BUDDHAGHOSA (1987)
AHIM
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS (1987)
. SA
¯ (1987 AND 2005)
Jeannie Carlier
GOS´A
¯ LA (1987 AND 2005)
École des Hautes Études en Sciences
Giovanni Casadio
MAHA¯VI¯RA (1987)
Sociales, Collège de France
Università degli Studi di Salerno
TI¯RTHAM
. KARAS (1987 AND 2005)
MUSES (1987)
AION (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page xcv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
xcv
BIANCHI, UGO (2005)
Stuart Chandler
Boris Chichlo
HISTORIOGRAPHY: WESTERN STUDIES
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Centre National de la Recherche
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS ] (2005)
FOGUANGSHAN (2005)
Scientifique, Paris
XENOPHANES (2005)
Hao Chang
DOLGAN RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
Phillip Cash Cash
Hong Kong University of Science and
TUNGUZ RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
University of Arizona
Technology
David Chidester
NEZ PERCE (NIIMÍIPUU) RELIGIOUS
KANG YUWEI (1987 AND 2005)
University of Cape Town
TRADITIONS (2005)
Anne Chapman
CAPPS, WALTER (2005)
Victoria Cass
Centre National de la Recherche
COLONIALISM AND
POSTCOLONIALISM (2005)
University of Colorado at Boulder
Scientifique, Paris
JONESTOWN AND PEOPLES TEMPLE
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
SELKDNAM RELIGION (1987)
(2005)
AND CHINESE RELIGIONS (2005)
David W. Chappell
Julia Ching
Maria Catalina
University of Hawaii (emeritus)
Victoria College, University of Toronto
Global Unified Earth Systems Science
DAOCHUO (1987 AND 2005)
CONFUCIUS (1987)
JINGTU (1987 AND 2005)
NATIVE AMERICAN SCIENCE (2005)
RICCI, MATTEO (1987)
Christopher Key Chapple
Eleonora Cavallini
Loyola Marymount University
Silvia Maria Chiodi
University of Bologna
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
EROS (2005)
AND JAINISM (2005)
(CNR), Roma, Italy
Paola Ceccarelli
AN (2005)
James H. Charlesworth
Università dell’Aquila
Princeton Theological Seminary
Ezra Chitando
ATHENA (2005)
BIBLICAL LITERATURE: APOCRYPHA
University of Zimbabwe
Ursula-Angelika Cedzich
AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
STUDY OF RELIGION IN SUB-
DePaul University
Leon Chartrand
SAHARAN AFRICA (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY: DAOIST
University of Toronto
ICONOGRAPHY (2005)
BEARS (2005)
William C. Chittick
State University of New York at Stony
Bruno Centrone
Ximena Chávez Balderas
Brook
Università di Pisa, Italy
Templo Mayor Museum, Mexico City
DHIKR (1987)
PYTHAGORAS (2005)
AFTERLIFE: MESOAMERICAN
CONCEPTS (2005)
Francisca Cho
Giovanni Cerri
FUNERAL RITES: MESOAMERICAN
Georgetown University
Rome, Italy
FUNERAL RITES (2005)
KOREAN RELIGION (2005)
PARMENIDES (2005)
Robert Chazan
Jamsheed K. Choksy
J. H. Chajes
New York University
Indiana University
University of Haifa
ANTI-SEMITISM (2005)
ATESHGAH (2005)
DYBBUK (2005)
PERSECUTION: JEWISH EXPERIENCE
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
(1987 AND 2005)
Kisor K. Chakrabarti
AND ZOROASTRIANISM (2005)
PARSIS (2005)
Calcutta, India
Peter Chelkowski
ZOROASTRIANISM (2005)
VAIS´ES
New York University
.IKA (1987)
RA
¯ WZAH-KHVA¯NI¯ (1987)
ZURVANISM (2005)
Duane Champagne
¨
TA!ZIYAH (1987)
Youssef M. Choueiri
University of California, Los Angeles
Peter C. Chemery
University of Exeter
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN
Chicago, Illinois
QUTB, SAYYID (2005)
RELIGIONS: NEW RELIGIOUS
METEOROLOGICAL BEINGS (1987)
Ann Chowning
MOVEMENTS (2005)
VEGETATION (1987)
Victoria University of Wellington
Claire Champollion
Jack W. Chen
MELANESIAN RELIGIONS: AN
Université de Haute Bretagne
Wellesley College
OVERVIEW (1987)
TAULER, JOHANNES (1987)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
Carol P. Christ
Abdin Chande
AND CHINESE RELIGION (2005)
Ariadne Institute for the Study of
Adelphi University
Richard S. Y. Chi
Myth and Ritual
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SUB-SAHARAN
(deceased)
LADY OF THE ANIMALS (1987 AND
AFRICA (2005)
DHARMAPA¯LA (1987)
2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page xcvi
xcvi
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
William A. Christian, Jr.
Anne Clarke
Martin Collcutt
Hamden, Connecticut
New York, New York
Princeton University
FOLK RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW (1987
GROTIUS, HUGO (1987)
EISAI (1987)
AND 2005)
L. Clarke
GOZAN ZEN (1987)
MUSO
¯ SO¯SEKI (1987)
Panagiotis C. Christou
Concordia University, Montreal
Patriarchal Institute for Patristic
EIS.MAH (2005)
John J. Collins
Studies, Thessaloniki
Yale University
Peter B. Clarke
APOCALYPSE: AN OVERVIEW (1987 AND
CABASILAS, NICHOLAS (1987)
Oxford University
2005)
CASSIAN, JOHN (1987)
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: NEW RELIGIOUS
APOCALYPSE: JEWISH
CYPRIAN (1987)
MOVEMENTS (2005)
APOCALYPTICISM TO THE RABBINIC
CYRIL OF JERUSALEM (1987)
Thomas Cleary
PERIOD
MARK OF EPHESUS (1987)
Kyoto, Japan
(2005)
THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA (1987)
LINJI (1987)
Raymond F. Collins
Malcolm Na¯ea Chun
James Clifford
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
University of Hawaii, Manoa
University of California, Santa Cruz
GOSPEL (1987)
HAWAIIAN RELIGION (2005)
LEENHARDT, MAURICE (1987)
Steven Collins
Mary C. Churchill
Michael D. Clifford
Bristol University
University of Iowa
New York, New York
SOUL: BUDDHIST CONCEPTS (1987)
WHITE BUFFALO CALF WOMAN (2005)
PSYCHOLOGY: PSYCHOTHERAPY AND
Louise Collis
Alessandra Ciattini
RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
London, England
University of Rome
Regina T. Clifford
KEMPE, MARGERY (1987)
JENSEN, ADOLF E. (2005)
Chicago, Illinois
Dominique Collon
KULTURKREISELEHRE (2005)
THERAVA¯DA (1987)
British Museum, London
SCHMIDT, WILHELM (2005)
Wallace B. Clift
ICONOGRAPHY: MESOPOTAMIAN
Eugen Ciurtin
University of Denver
ICONOGRAPHY (1987)
University of Bucharest
CHILD (1987)
Carsten Colpe
REJUVENATION (1987)
CULIANU, IOAN PETRU (2005)
Freie Universität Berlin
VIERKANDT, ALFRED (1987)
WIDENGREN, GEO (2005)
SACRED AND THE PROFANE, THE
WUNDT, WILHELM (1987)
(1987)
Beverley Clack
Fred W. Clothey
SYNCRETISM [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Oxford Brookes University
University of Pittsburgh
Elizabeth Colson
HUMAN BODY: HUMAN BODIES,
MURUKAN (1987 AND 2005)
RELIGION, AND GENDER (2005)
¯
University of California, Berkeley
TAMIL RELIGIONS (1987)
CENTRAL BANTU RELIGIONS (1987)
Julie Clague
John B. Cobb, Jr.
W. Richard Comstock
University of Glasgow
Claremont School of Theology (emeri-
University of California, Santa
WOMEN’S STUDIES IN RELIGION
tus)
Barbara
(2005)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
DOCTRINE (1987)
Elizabeth A. Clark
AND CHRISTIANITY (2005)
Georges Condominas
Duke University
GOD: GOD IN POSTBIBLICAL
CHRISTIANITY (1987)
École des Hautes Études en Sciences
CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (1987 AND
WHITEHEAD, ALFRED NORTH (1987)
Sociales, Collège de France
2005)
Mark R. Cohen
LAO RELIGION (1987)
Lynn Schofield Clark
VIETNAMESE RELIGION (1987)
Princeton University
University of Colorado
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN THE MIDDLE
Yves Congar
POPULAR CULTURE (2005)
EAST AND NORTH AFRICA TO 1492
Couvent Saint-Jacques, Paris
Mary T. Clark
(1987)
THEOLOGY: CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY
Manhattanville College (emeritus)
Robert L. Cohn
(1987)
NEOPLATONISM (1987 AND 2005)
Northwestern University
Beth A. Conklin
PLOTINUS (1987 AND 2005)
SAINTHOOD (1987)
Vanderbilt University
Matthew Clark
CANNIBALISM (2005)
Douglas Cole
East Sussex, United Kingdom
Simon Fraser University
Demetrios J. Constantelos
SA¯DHUS AND SA¯DHVI¯S (2005)
BOAS, FRANZ (1987)
Stockton State College
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
xcvii
CHARITY (1987 AND 2005)
Allison Coudert
Frederick E. Crowe
EVAGRIOS OF PONTUS (1987)
State University of New York, College
Lonergan Research Institute of Regis
JULIAN OF HALICARNASSUS (1987)
at Oneonta
College, Toronto
NIKEPHOROS KALLISTOS (1987)
ALCHEMY: RENAISSANCE ALCHEMY
LONERGAN, BERNARD (1987 AND 2005)
TARASIOS (1987)
(1987)
THEODORE OF STUDIOS (1987)
Mark Csikszentmihalyi
ELIXIR (1987)
TIMOTHY AILUROS (1987)
FAUST (1987)
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Michael D. Coogan
HORNS (1987)
CONFUCIANISM: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Stonehill College
PARACELSUS (1987)
CONFUCIANISM: THE CLASSICAL
CANON (2005)
CANAANITE RELIGION: THE
Paul B. Courtright
LITERATURE (1987 AND 2005)
Emory University
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
John W. Cook
GA
¯ N.APATYAS (1987)
University of Chicago
GAN
Yale University (emeritus) and Henry
. ES´A (1987)
FLOW EXPERIENCE (1987)
SHRINES (1987 AND 2005)
Luce Foundation, President Emeritus
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
Bryan J. Cuevas
ICONOGRAPHY: CHRISTIAN
HINDU DEVOTIONAL LIFE (1987)
Florida State University
ICONOGRAPHY (1987 AND 2005)
James L. Cox
VAJRASATTVA (2005)
Scott Cook
University of Edinburgh
Philip Culbertson
Grinnell College
RITES OF PASSAGE: AFRICAN RITES
Auckland University
HAN FEI ZI (2005)
(2005)
MEN’S STUDIES IN RELIGION (2005)
Alan M. Cooper
Kenneth Cragg
Ioan Petru Culianu
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
Anglican Diocese of Oxford
Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati
SHAHA
¯ DAH (1987)
ASTROLOGY (1987)
CANAANITE RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Vincent Crapanzano
BENDIS (1987)
(1987)
Queens College, City University of
DACIAN RIDERS (1987)
PHOENICIAN RELIGION [FIRST
New York
GETO-DACIAN RELIGION (1987)
EDITION] (1987)
FRENZY (1987)
SABAZIOS (1987)
Kate Cooper
SPIRIT POSSESSION: AN OVERVIEW
SACRILEGE (1987)
University of Manchester
(1987)
SEXUALITY: SEXUAL RITES IN EUROPE
CHASTITY (2005)
I. M. Crawford
(1987)
Roger J. Corless
Western Australian Museum, Perth
SKY: THE HEAVENS AS HIEROPHANY
Duke University (emeritus)
WANDJINA (1987)
(1987)
TANLUAN (1987)
THRACIAN RELIGION (1987)
Suzanne J. Crawford
THRACIAN RIDER (1987)
Vincent J. Cornell
Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma,
ZALMOXIS (1987)
University of Arkansas
Washington
GOD: GOD IN ISLAM (2005)
BLACK ELK (2005)
Mark D. Cummings
QURDA¯N: ITS ROLE IN MUSLIM
James L. Crenshaw
New York, New York
PRACTICE AND LIFE (2005)
Vanderbilt University
DAO’AN (1987)
Catherine Cornille
DAOSHENG (1987)
WISDOM LITERATURE: BIBLICAL
Boston College
BOOKS [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
James W. Cunningham
GURU¯ (2005)
Donald A. Crosby
College of Saint Catherine, Saint
Charles A. Corr
Colorado State University (emeritus)
Paul, Minnesota
Southern Illinois University,
BUSHNELL, HORACE (1987 AND 2005)
POBEDONOSTSEV, KONSTANTIN (1987)
Edwardsville (emeritus)
Richard Crouter
PROKOPOVICH, FEOFAN (1987)
WOLFF, CHRISTIAN (1987 AND 2005)
Carleton College
SERGII (1987)
TIKHON (1987)
John E. Cort
AMBROSE (1987)
Denison University
Henri Crouzel
Lawrence S. Cunningham
IMAGES: IMAGES, ICONS, AND IDOLS
Institut Catholique de Toulouse
Florida State University
(2005)
ORIGEN (1987)
ANTHONY OF PADUA (1987)
Dario M. Cosi
Douglas S. Crow
Charles E. Curran
University of Bologna, Italy
Fordham University, Bronx
Southern Methodist University
CASTRATION (1987 AND 2005)
GHAYBAH (1987)
CHRISTIAN ETHICS (1987 AND 2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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xcviii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Brian E. Daley
Alan Davies
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
Weston School of Theology,
Victoria College, University of Toronto
AND NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIOUS
Cambridge, Massachusetts
ANTI-SEMITISM (1987)
TRADITIONS (2005)
COUNCILS: CHRISTIAN COUNCILS
J. G. Davies
Raymond J. DeMallie
(1987)
University of Birmingham
Indiana University
Marie W. Dallam
ARCHITECTURE (1987)
DELORIA, ELLA CARA (2005)
Temple University
BASILICA, CATHEDRAL, AND CHURCH
WALKER, JAMES R. (2005)
DADDY GRACE (2005)
(1987)
Arthur Andrew Demarest
Joseph Dan
Oliver Davies
Vanderbilt University
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
King’s College London
ARCHAEOLOGY AND RELIGION (1987)
BAEAL SHEM TOV (1987 AND 2005)
HILDEGARD OF BINGEN (2005)
William A. Dembski
HASIDISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
JEWISH THOUGHT AND PHILOSOPHY:
Robertson Davies
Baylor University
JEWISH ETHICAL LITERATURE (1987)
Massey College, University of Toronto
INTELLIGENT DESIGN (2005)
FICTION: THE WESTERN NOVEL AND
R. N. Dandekar
David E. Demson
RELIGION (1987)
Bhandarkar Oriental Research
Emmanuel College, University of
Institute, Poona
Richard H. Davis
Toronto (emeritus)
VAIS.N.AVISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
Bard College
ZWINGLI, HULDRYCH (1987 AND 2005)
VEDA
¯ NTA (1987)
IMAGES: VENERATION OF IMAGES
Robert D. Denham
VEDAS (1987)
(2005)
Roanoke College
Norman Daniel
Scott Davis
FRYE, NORTHROP (2005)
Institute Dominicain d’Études
Miyazaki International College
Johannes Deninger
Orientales, Cairo
HUMOR AND RELIGION: HUMOR AND
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
POLEMICS: CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM
RELIGION IN EAST ASIAN CONTEXTS
POLEMICS [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
(2005)
Frankfurt
REVELATION (1987)
David Daniell
Stephen J. Davis
University College, London
Yale University
Mark Dennis
TYNDALE, WILLIAM (2005)
THECLA (2005)
St. Peter, Minnesota
Victor Danner
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: EAST ASIAN
Winston Davis
BUDDHISM (2005)
Indiana University, Bloomington
Southwestern University, Georgetown,
IBN EAT.A¯D ALLA¯H (1987)
Texas
Frederick Mathewson Denny
Eugene G. d’Aquili
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY OF
University of Colorado at Boulder
University of Pennsylvania
RELIGION [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
DAEWAH (1987)
NEUROSCIENCE AND RELIGION:
WEALTH (1987)
HANDS (1987)
NEUROEPISTEMOLOGY (1987)
KNEES (1987)
Dell deChant
NAMES AND NAMING (1987)
Adolf Darlap
University of South Florida
POSTURES AND GESTURES (1987)
Leopold-Franzens Universität
FILLMORE, CHARLES AND MYRTLE
Innsbruck
(2005)
Philip Denwood
DOGMA (1987)
NEW THOUGHT MOVEMENT (2005)
School of Oriental and African
VATICAN COUNCILS: VATICAN II
UNITY (2005)
Studies, University of London
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
Hubert Decleer
William R. Darrow
COMPOUNDS IN TIBET (2005)
School for International Training
Williams College
MAR PA (2005)
Karen Derris
PRATT, JAMES B. (2005)
University of Redlands
Laurence Delaby
Clifford Davidson
BUDDHAS AND BODHISATTVAS:
Musée de l’Homme, Paris
Western Michigan University
ETHICAL PRACTICES ASSOCIATED
YAKUT RELIGION (1987)
DRAMA: EUROPEAN RELIGIOUS
WITH BUDDHAS AND
Roland A. Delattre
DRAMA [FURTHER
BODHISATTVAS (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Shlomo Deshen
DESIRE (1987)
Hilda R. Ellis Davidson
Bar-Ilan University
University of Cambridge
Vine Deloria, Jr.
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: JEWISH
GRIMM BROTHERS (1987)
University of Colorado (emeritus)
PRACTICES (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/2/05 10:13 AM Page xcix
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
xcix
Leslie G. Desmangles
Michael Dillon
Georges Dreyfus
Trinity College
University of Durham
Williams College
CREOLIZATION (2005)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN CHINA (2005)
SAM
. GHA: SAM
. GHA AND SOCIETY IN
TIBET (2005)
Michel Despland
Devorah Dimant
SHUGS LDAN (SHUGDEN) (2005)
Concordia University
University of Haifa
Han J. W. Drijvers
CONSCIENCE (1987)
PESHER (2005)
Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen
SUPERNATURAL, THE (1987)
Jay Dobbin
ABLUTIONS (1987)
Ali E. Hillal Dessouki
Colonia, Yap
VIRGINITY (1987)
University of Cairo
MICRONESIAN RELIGIONS: AN
VOCATION (1987)
EABDUH, MUH.AMMAD (1987)
OVERVIEW (2005)
Tom F. Driver
Marcel Detienne
James C. Dobbins
Union Theological Seminary,
École Pratique des Hautes Études,
Oberlin College
New York
Collège de France
GANJIN (1987)
DRAMA: MODERN WESTERN THEATER
(1987)
DIONYSOS (1987)
Federico Kauffmann Doig
ORPHEUS (1987)
Lima, Peru
Saurabh Dube
Eliot Deutsch
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
El Colegio de México
UNTOUCHABLES, RELIGIONS OF (2005)
University of Hawaii, Manoa
OF THE ANDES IN THE PRE-INCA
PERIOD (1987)
BHAGAVADGI¯TA¯ (1987)
Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin
Wendy Doniger
Université de Liège (emeritus)
Rex Deverell
University of Chicago
CUMONT, FRANZ (1987)
McMaster Divinity College, Ontario,
ANDROGYNES (1987)
GOBLET D’ALVIELLA, EUGÈNE (1987)
Canada
BRAHMA¯ (1987)
KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE (1987)
DRAMA: MODERN WESTERN THEATER
HORSES (1987)
Donald F. Duclow
(2005)
INDIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC THEMES
Gwynedd-Mercy College
Alnoor Dhanani
(1987)
DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE (1987)
Harvard University
INDRA (1987)
NICHOLAS OF CUSA (1987 AND 2005)
EABD AL-JABBA¯R (2005)
PRALAYA (1987)
Kathleen Dugan
VR.TRA (1987)
Mariasusai Dhavamony
University of San Diego
Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana
Neal Donner
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Los Angeles, California
AND NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN
S´AIVISM: S´AIVA SIDDHA
¯ NTA (1987)
ZHIYI (1987)
RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS (2005)
Stanley Diamond
Maureen H. Donovan
Avery Dulles
New School for Social Research,
Ohio State University
Catholic University of America
New York
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: RELIGIOUS
CHURCH (1987 AND 2005)
RADIN, PAUL (1987)
DOCUMENTS (2005)
Paul Dundas
Manuel C. Díaz y Díaz
Margaret Anne Doody
University of Edinburgh
Universidad de Compostela (emeritus)
University of Notre Dame
COSMOLOGY: JAIN COSMOLOGY
ISIDORE OF SEVILLE (1987 AND 2005)
(2005)
FICTION: HISTORY OF THE NOVEL
Richard A. Diehl
JAINISM (2005)
(2005)
University of Missouri, Columbia
James D. G. Dunn
Nelly van Doorn-Harder
OLMEC RELIGION (1987)
University of Durham
Valparaiso University
ENTHUSIASM (1987)
Melvin E. Dieter
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Asbury Theological Seminary,
AND ISLAM (2005)
John D. Dunne
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Wilmore, Kentucky
Christine Downing
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF:
HOLINESS MOVEMENT (2005)
San Diego State University
MAHA¯YA¯NA PHILOSOPHICAL
SMITH, HANNAH WHITALL (2005)
ATHENA (1987)
SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM (2005)
Francisco Diez de Velasco
HESTIA (1987)
NA¯GA¯RJUNA (2005)
Universidad de La Laguna, Canary
A. Stanley Dreyfus
Ann Dunnigan
Islands, Spain
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
New York, New York
DESCENT INTO THE UNDERWORLD
Institute of Religion, New York
FISH (1987)
(2005)
MALBIM (1987)
OWLS (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page c
c
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
RAIN (1987)
Diana L. Eck
ORIENTATION (1987)
SWANS (1987)
Harvard University
SEXUALITY: AN OVERVIEW [FIRST
WOLVES (1987)
BANARAS (1987)
EDITION] (1987)
Madeline Duntley
CIRCUMAMBULATION (1987)
SHAMANISM: AN OVERVIEW [FIRST
EDITION] (1987)
The College of Wooster
MOUNTAINS (1987)
RIVERS (1987)
YOGA (1987)
RITUAL STUDIES (2005)
Malcolm David Eckel
David Ellenson
Louis Dupré
Boston University
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
Yale University
BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY (2005)
Institute of Religion, Los Angeles
MARX, KARL (1987)
GEIGER, ABRAHAM (1987)
MYSTICISM [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Carl-Martin Edsman
Uppsala Universitet
HILDESHEIMER, ESRIEL (1987)
Hubert Durt
ALTAR (1987)
HIRSCH, SAMSON RAPHAEL (1987)
École Française d’Extrême-Orient, Kyoto
BOATS (1987)
HOFFMANN, DAVID (1987)
FOUCHER, ALFRED (1987)
BRIDGES (1987)
HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL (1987)
LAMOTTE, ÉTIENNE (1987 AND 2005)
STONES (1987)
SPEKTOR, YITSH
. AQ ELH
. ANAN (1987)
LA VALLÉE POUSSIN, LOUIS DE (1987)
Mary Edwardsen
Ter Ellingson
Françoise Dussart
New York, New York
University of Washington
University of Connecticut
EVOLUTION: EVOLUTIONISM (1987)
DRUMS (1987)
WARLPIRI RELIGION (2005)
PREHISTORIC RELIGIONS: AN
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION (1987)
OVERVIEW (1987)
Brian M. du Toit
Robert S. Ellwood
University of Florida (emeritus)
Franz-Karl Ehrhard
University of Southern California
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
University of Munich
BLAVATSKY, H. P. (2005)
AND MEDICINE IN AFRICA (2005)
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF:
CAO DAI (1987 AND 2005)
HIMALAYAN BUDDHISM (2005)
Pierre Duviols
CAYCE, EDGAR (2005)
Universite d’Aix-Marseille I
Ute Eickelkamp
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Charles Darwin University and
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN
INCA RELIGION (1987)
Macquarie University
(1987)
Cornelius J. Dyck
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
WORLD’S PARLIAMENT OF RELIGIONS
Associated Mennonite Biblical
RELIGIONS: MYTHIC THEMES
(1987 AND 2005)
Seminary, Elkhart, Indiana
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Mohammad Jafar Elmi
ANABAPTISM (1987)
Dale F. Eickelman
Islamic College for Advanced Studies,
MENNONITES (1987)
New York University
London
SIMONS, MENNO (1987)
MAWLID (1987)
T.ABA¯T.ABA¯DI¯, EALLA¯MA (2005)
John W. Eadie
RITES OF PASSAGE: MUSLIM RITES (1987)
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
SNOUCK HURGRONJE, CHRISTIAAN
Christoph Elsas
Freie Universität Berlin
CONSTANTINE (1987)
(1987)
CLEMEN, CARL (1987)
H. Byron Earhart
Shmuel N. Eisenstadt
Western Michigan University (emeritus)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Constance W. Elsberg
RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY (1987)
KITAGAWA, JOSEPH M. (2005)
Northern Virginia Community
SHUGENDO
¯ (1987)
George R. Elder
College
Hunter College, City University of
HEALTHY, HAPPY, HOLY
Christine Eber
New York
ORGANIZATION (3HO) (2005)
New Mexico State University
CROSSROADS (1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Ainslie T. Embree
QUATERNITY (1987)
AND MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS
Columbia University
(2005)
Mircea Eliade
AKBAR (1987 AND 2005)
(deceased)
SEN, KESHAB CHANDRA (1987 AND
Gary L. Ebersole
ALCHEMY: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
2005)
University of Missouri—Kansas City
ANDROGYNES (1987)
TILAK, BAL GANGADHAR (1987 AND
DEATH (2005)
CENTER OF THE WORLD (1987)
2005)
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
DEUS OTIOSUS (1987)
(2005)
Stephen Emmel
EARTH (1987)
POETRY: JAPANESE RELIGIOUS POETRY
HIEROPHANY (1987)
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität
(2005)
INITIATION: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
Münster
TEARS (2005)
METALS AND METALLURGY (1987)
SHENOUTE (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page ci
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
ci
Kirk Endicott
Majid Fakhry
Sirarpi Feredjian-Aivazian
Dartmouth College
American University of Beirut;
Fairlawn, New Jersey
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Georgetown University
PILGRIMAGE: EASTERN CHRISTIAN
(1987 AND 2005)
IBN RUSHD (2005)
PILGRIMAGE (1987)
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: NEGRITOS OF
OCCASIONALISM (1987)
Deane Fergie
THE MALAY PENINSULA (1987)
Nancy Auer Falk
Adelaide University
Melvin B. Endy, Jr.
Western Michigan University
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
Hamilton College
FEMININE SACRALITY (1987 AND 2005)
RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
PU
¯ JA¯: HINDU PU¯JA¯ (1987 AND 2005)
PENN, WILLIAM (1987)
Gary B. Ferngren
Paul Lawrence Farber
Shifra Epstein
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Israel Museum, Jerusalem
GALEN (1987)
EVOLUTION: EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS
PURIM PLAYS (1987)
(2005)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
AND MEDICINE IN CHRISTIANITY
Peter C. Erb
Charles E. Farhadian
(2005)
Wilfrid Laurier University
Westmont College
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
BOEHME, JAKOB (1987)
CONVERSION (2005)
AND MEDICINE IN GREECE AND
Carl W. Ernst
Roberto Farneti
ROME (2005)
Pomona College
University of Bologna
HIPPOCRATES (1987 AND 2005)
BLASPHEMY: ISLAMIC CONCEPT (1987)
HOBBES, THOMAS (2005)
Franco Ferrari
A. M. Esnoul
Phyllis Ann Fast
University of Salerno
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Paris, France
ARISTOTLE (2005)
ATHAPASKAN RELIGIOUS
MOKS.A (1987)
TRADITIONS: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Frederick Ferré
OM
. (1987)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
University of Georgia
John L. Esposito
OF THE FAR NORTH (2005)
ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY (1987)
Georgetown University
Bernard Faure
LOGICAL POSITIVISM (1987)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
Cornell University
Georg Feuerstein
AND ISLAM (2005)
BODHIDHARMA (1987)
Johannine Daist Communion,
Josef van Ess
J. Rufus Fears
Clearlake, California
Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen
Indiana University, Bloomington
PRA
¯ N.A (1987)
I
¯JI¯, EAD
AUGUSTUS (1987)
SAMA
¯ DHI (1987)
. UD AL-DI¯N AL- (1987)
MUETAZILAH (1987)
DEA DIA (1987)
Maribel Fierro
EMPEROR’S CULT (1987)
David B. Evans
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
SOL INVICTUS (1987)
Saint John’s University, Jamaica,
Científicas
Anne Feldhaus
New York
ISLAM: ISLAM IN ANDALUSIA (2005)
Arizona State University
LEONTIUS OF BYZANTIUM (1987)
MARATHI RELIGIONS (1987 AND 2005)
Robert E. Fierstien
George Every
Burton Feldman
Temple Beth Or, Brick, New Jersey
Oscott College, Sutton Coldfield,
University of Denver
RABBINATE: THE RABBINATE IN
England
MODERN JUDAISM (2005)
CREUZER, G. F. (1987)
JUSTINIAN I (1987)
GÖRRES, JOSEPH VON (1987)
Abdou Filali-Ansary
MÜLLER, KARL O. (1987)
Toufic Fahd
Aga Khan University
USENER, HERMANN (1987)
ISLAM: AN OVERVIEW [FURTHER
Université de Strasbourg II
Seymour Feldman
CONSIDERATIONS](2005)
MAGIC: MAGIC IN ISLAM (1987)
Rutgers, The State University of New
Henry Le Roy Finch
Antoine Faivre
Jersey, New Brunswick Campus
Hunter College, City University of
Sorbonne
ARISTOTELIANISM (1987)
New York
ESOTERICISM (1987 AND 2005)
ARISTOTLE (1987)
EPISTEMOLOGY (1987)
HERMETISM (1987 AND 2005)
JEWISH THOUGHT AND PHILOSOPHY:
WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG (1987)
NATURE: RELIGIOUS AND
PREMODERN PHILOSOPHY (1987)
PHILOSOPHICAL SPECULATIONS
Paul B. Fenton
James F. Findlay
(1987 AND 2005)
Paris, France
University of Rhode Island
OCCULTISM (1987 AND 2005)
MAIMONIDES, ABRAHAM (2005)
MOODY, DWIGHT L. (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Ellison Banks Findly
Raymond D. Fogelson
Lima de Freitas
Trinity College
University of Chicago
Instituto de Arte, Lisbon
AGNI (1987 AND 2005)
LOWIE, ROBERT H. (1987)
LABYRINTH (1987)
BREATH AND BREATHING (1987 AND
NORTH AMERICAN [INDIAN]
Rebecca R. French
2005)
RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
State University of New York at
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Lawrence Fine
Buffalo
Indiana University, Bloomington
Richard C. Foltz
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND
APOCALYPSE: MEDIEVAL JEWISH
University of Florida
RELIGION IN BUDDHISM (2005)
APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE (1987)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
W. H. C. Frend
CORDOVERO, MOSHEH (1987)
AND ISLAM (2005)
University of Glasgow (emeritus)
LURIA, ISAAC (1987)
Charlotte Elisheva Fonrobert
DONATISM (1987)
VITAL, H
. AYYIM (1987)
Stanford University
MONOPHYSITISM (1987)
Steven Fine
PURIFICATION: PURIFICATION IN
PERSECUTION: CHRISTIAN
University of Cincinnati
JUDAISM (2005)
EXPERIENCE (1987)
ICONOGRAPHY: JEWISH
Charles W. Forman
Pamela R. Frese
ICONOGRAPHY [FURTHER
Yale University
College of Wooster
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
FLOWERS (1987)
MOORE, GEORGE FOOT (2005)
PACIFIC ISLANDS [FIRST EDITION]
MARRIAGE (1987)
SYNAGOGUE (2005)
(1987)
TREES (1987)
Reuven Firestone
Douglas A. Foster
Gérard Freyburger
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
Abilene Christian University
Université de Haute Alsace
Institute of Religion, Los Angeles
CHURCHES OF CHRIST (2005)
FIDES (1987)
JERUSALEM: JERUSALEM IN JUDAISM,
Lawrence Foster
LeeEllen Friedland
CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM (2005)
Georgia Institute of Technology
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Raymond Firth
LEE, ANN (1987 AND 2005)
DANCE: POPULAR AND FOLK DANCE
University of London (emeritus)
NOYES, JOHN HUMPHREY (1987 AND
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
TIKOPIA RELIGION (1987)
2005)
Yohanan Friedmann
Michael Fishbane
SHAKERS (1987)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Brandeis University
Marcel Fournier
AH
. MADIYAH (2005)
ADAM (1987)
Université de Montréal
SIRHINDI¯, AH
. MAD (1987 AND 2005)
CAIN AND ABEL (1987)
MAUSS, MARCEL (2005)
Paul Friedrich
DANIEL (1987)
James J. Fox
University of Chicago
ESTHER (1987)
Australian National University
TARASCAN RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
EVE (1987)
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS:
Manfred S. Frings
JONAH (1987)
INSULAR CULTURES (1987)
DePaul University
NOAH (1987)
Steven D. Fraade
SCHELER, MAX (1987)
Joseph Fitzer
Yale University
Karlfried Froehlich
St. John’s University, Jamaica,
ENOCH (1987)
Princeton Theological Seminary
New York
Daniel Frank
CRUSADES: CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE
MÖHLER, JOHANN ADAM (1987)
Ohio State University
(1987)
Thomas E. FitzGerald
KARAITES (2005)
Tikva Frymer-Kensky
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of
R. M. Frank
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Theology, Brookline, Massachusetts
Catholic University of America
ASHUR (1987)
EASTERN CHRISTIANITY (2005)
ENUMA ELISH (1987)
ABU
¯ AL-HUDHAYL AL-EALL A¯F (1987)
James H. Foard
ISRAELITE LAW: PERSONAL STATUS
ASHEARI¯ AL- (1987)
Arizona State University
AND FAMILY LAW (1987)
ASHEARI¯YAH (1987)
ISRAELITE LAW: STATE AND JUDICIARY
IPPEN (1987 AND 2005)
David L. Freeman
LAW (1987)
Harry Wells Fogarty
Temple Israel, Boston
MARDUK (1987)
New York, New York
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
NABU (1987)
ROSICRUCIANS (1987)
AND MEDICINE IN JUDAISM (2005)
UTU (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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ciii
Bruce Fudge
Eugene V. Gallagher
MONSTERS (1987)
New York University
Connecticut College
SEASONAL CEREMONIES (1987)
BUKHA¯RI¯, AL- (2005)
BRANCH DAVIDIANS (2005)
Albertine Gaur
Fujita Ko¯tatsu
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS:
British Library (retired)
SCRIPTURES OF NEW RELIGIOUS
Hokkaido University
CALLIGRAPHY: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
MOVEMENTS (2005)
PURE AND IMPURE LANDS (1987)
Edwin S. Gaustad
Nancy Gallagher
Fujiwara Ryo¯setsu
University of California, Riverside
University of California, Santa
Ryukoku University (emeritus)
BAPTIST CHURCHES (1987)
Barbara
WHITEFIELD, GEORGE (1987 AND 2005)
NIANFO (1987)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
WISE, JOHN (1987 AND 2005)
SHANDAO (1987)
AND MEDICINE IN ISLAMIC TEXTS
Sakoto Fujiwara
Liam Gearon
AND TRADITIONS (2005)
Taisho University
Centre for Research in Human Rights,
Mario Gandini
Roehampton University
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
Biblioteca comunale “G.C. Croce”
HUMAN RIGHTS AND RELIGION (2005)
STUDY OF RELIGION IN JAPAN (2005)
San Giovanni in Persiceto (Bologna,
Fujiyoshi Jikai
Patrick J. Geary
Italy)
Kyoto, Japan
University of Florida
PETTAZZONI, RAFFAELE (2005)
CULT OF SAINTS (1987)
JO
¯ DOSHU¯ (1987)
Pranab Ganguly
William J. Fulco
Armin W. Geertz
Anthropological Survey of India,
Jesuits at Loyola University, Los Angeles
Aarhus Universitet
Calcutta
ICONOGRAPHY: NATIVE NORTH
HURRIAN RELIGION (1987)
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: NEGRITOS OF
AMERICAN ICONOGRAPHY (1987)
Reginald H. Fuller
THE ANDAMAN ISLANDS (1987)
Jay Geller
Protestants Episcopal Theological
Peter Gardella
Vanderbilt Divinity School
Seminary in Virginia (emeritus)
Manhattanville College
FETISHISM (2005)
GOD: GOD IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
FOOD (2005)
(1987 AND 2005)
Paul Gendrop
Iain Gardner
Mexico City
Robert C. Fuller
University of Sydney
PYRAMIDS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
Bradley University
DOCETISM (2005)
TEMPLE: MESOAMERICAN TEMPLES
HEALING AND MEDICINE:
(1987)
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE IN THE
Richard A. Gardner
NEW AGE (2005)
Sophia University
Joachim Gentz
University of Goettingen
Peter T. Furst
HUMOR AND RELIGION: AN
OVERVIEW (2005)
DONG ZHONGSHU (2005)
University of Pennsylvania Museum of
HUMOR AND RELIGION: HUMOR AND
Archaeology and Anthropology, and
Jane S. Gerber
RELIGION IN EAST ASIAN CONTEXTS
Museum of Indian Arts & Culture
Graduate School and University
(2005)
HUICHOL RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
Center, City University of New York
SHAMANISM: SOUTH AMERICAN
James Garrett
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN THE MIDDLE
SHAMANISM (1987 AND 2005)
Colorado State University, Fort Collins
EAST AND NORTH AFRICA SINCE
TOBACCO (2005)
LAKOTA RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
1492 (1987 AND 2005)
(2005)
Nagao Gadjin
David Germano
Otani University
Giulia Sfameni Gasparro
University of Virginia
VASUBANDHU (1987 AND 2005)
University of Messina
BUDDHIST MEDITATION: TIBETAN
DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE (2005)
BUDDHIST MEDITATION (2005)
Peter Gaeffke
GODDESS WORSHIP: GODDESS
DZOGCHEN (2005)
University of Pennsylvania
WORSHIP IN THE HELLENISTIC
KLONG CHEN RAB ‘BYAMS PA
MAN
. D
. ALAS: HINDU MAN
. D
. ALAS (1987)
WORLD (2005)
(LONGCHENPA) (2005)
Mügé Galin
Theodor H. Gaster
Edwn Gerow
Ohio State University
Barnard College, Columbia University
University of Chicago
WALDMAN, MARILYN ROBINSON
(emeritus)
BA¯DARA¯YAN
. A (1987)
(2005)
AMULETS AND TALISMANS (1987)
B. A. Gerrish
Jacques Galinier
DRAMA: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN
University of Chicago
Université de Bordeaux III
RITUAL DRAMA [FIRST EDITION]
BAUR, F. C. (1987)
OTOMÍ RELIGION (1987)
(1987)
CREEDS: CHRISTIAN CREEDS (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS (1987)
Yehoshua Gitay
John D. Godsey
SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH (1987)
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Wesley Theological Seminary,
Alan Gewirth
AMOS (1987)
Washington, D.C.
University of Chicago
HOSEA (1987)
NEOORTHODOXY (1987)
MARSILIUS OF PADUA (1987)
ISAIAH (1987)
Gregor T. Goethals
MICAH (1987)
Philip Gibbs
Rhode Island School of Design
Melanesian Institute, Papua New
Stephen D. Glazier
RELIGIOUS BROADCASTING (1987)
Guinea
Westmont College
William E. Gohlman
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: NEW
CARIBBEAN RELIGIONS: PRE-
State University of New York, College
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS (2005)
COLUMBIAN RELIGIONS (1987)
at Genesco
RITES OF PASSAGE: OCEANIC RITES
Elisabeth G. Gleason
IBN SI¯NA¯ (1987 AND 2005)
(2005)
University of San Francisco
Daniel Gold
Michelle Gilbert
CONTARINI, GASPARO (1987)
Cornell University
Peabody Museum of Natural History,
Rod M. Glogower
CELIBACY (1987 AND 2005)
New Haven
Georgetown Synagogue,
CONSECRATION (1987 AND 2005)
AKAN RELIGION (1987)
Washington, D.C.
Harvey E. Goldberg
FON AND EWE RELIGION (1987)
FEINSTEIN, MOSHE (1987)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Sam D. Gill
RITES OF PASSAGE: JEWISH RITES
University of Colorado at Boulder
Ariel Glucklich
(2005)
PRAYER (1987)
Georgetown University
Robert Goldenberg
SHAMANISM: NORTH AMERICAN
DHARMA: HINDU DHARMA (2005)
SHAMANISM (1987)
MAGIC: MAGIC IN SOUTH ASIA (2005)
State University of New York at Stony
PAIN (2005)
Brook
Marija Gimbutas
ABBAHU (1987)
University of California, Los Angeles
Gherardo Gnoli
ELEAZAR BEN PEDAT (1987)
BABA YAGA (1987)
Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed
SHIMEON BEN LAQISH (1987)
DAZHBOG (1987)
Estremo Oriente, Rome
TALMUD (1987 AND 2005)
DOUBLENESS (1987)
AHURAS (1987)
YEHOSHU!A BEN LEVI (1987)
MEGALITHIC RELIGION: PREHISTORIC
AIRYANA VAE¯JAH (1987)
YOH
. ANAN BAR NAPPAH
. A’ (1987)
EVIDENCE (1987)
AMESHA SPENTAS (1987)
Judah Goldin
MOKOSH (1987)
ANA¯HITA¯ (1987)
PERUN (1987)
University of Pennsylvania
AVESTA (1987)
PREHISTORIC RELIGIONS: OLD
MIDRASH AND AGGADAH [FIRST
CHINVAT BRIDGE (1987)
EUROPE (1987)
EDITION] (1987)
DAIVAS (1987)
SLAVIC RELIGION (1987)
DAKHMA (1987)
Matt Goldish
SVENTOVIT (1987)
FRASHO
¯ KERETI (1987)
Ohio State University
TRIGLAV (1987)
FRAVASHIS (1987)
SHABBETAI TSEVI [FURTHER
VELES-VOLOS (1987)
HAOMA (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Robert M. Gimello
IRANIAN RELIGIONS (1987)
Irving Goldman
University of Arizona
KHVARENAH (1987)
New School for Social Research,
HUAYAN (1987)
MANICHAEISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
New York
Jean-Louis Girard
MITHRA (1987)
GENEALOGY (1987)
Université de Strasbourg II
SAOSHYANT (1987)
TUCCI, GIUSEPPE (1987)
Marion S. Goldman
MINERVA (1987)
YAZATAS (1987)
University of Oregon
Norman J. Girardot
RAJNEESH (2005)
John C. Godbey
Lehigh University
Meadville/Lombard Theological
Maria Julia Goldwasser
CHAOS (1987)
Museu Historico da Circade do Rio de
CHINESE RELIGION: HISTORY OF
Seminary, Chicago
Janeiro
STUDY (1987)
CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, (1987)
CARNIVAL (1987)
CHINESE RELIGION: MYTHIC THEMES
HUS, JAN (1987)
(1987)
SERVETUS, MICHAEL (1987)
Luis O. Gómez
GRANET, MARCEL (1987)
SOZZINI, FAUSTO PAVOLO (1987)
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
VISUAL CULTURE AND RELIGION:
UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN INDIA
OUTSIDER ART (2005)
ASSOCIATION (1987)
(1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cv
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS:
Richard Gordon
Elizabeth A. Gray
EXEGESIS AND HERMENEUTICS
Ilmmünster, Germany
Harvard University
(1987 AND 2005)
MITHRAISM (2005)
FOMHOIRE (2005)
LANGUAGE: BUDDHIST VIEWS OF
René Gothóni
LUGH (2005)
LANGUAGE (1987)
University of Helsinki
TUATHA DÉ DANANN (2005)
MAHA¯SA¯M
. GHIKA (1987)
CONFESSION OF SINS (2005)
S. J. M. Gray
SARVA
¯ STIVA¯DA (1987)
SUNDÉN, HJALMAR (2005)
College of Wooster
Jan Gonda
Stephen Gottschalk
EAGLES AND HAWKS (1987)
Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht
Wellesley, Massachusetts
TREES (1987)
INDIAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE (1987)
Richard L. Greaves
(1987)
Florida State University
VIS.N.U (1987)
Teun Goudriaan
Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht
BUNYAN, JOHN (1987)
Michelle A. Gonzalez
MA
¯ YA¯ (1987)
Loyola Marymount University,
Arthur Green
Los Angeles
Friedrich Wilhelm Graf
Reconstructionist Rabbinical College
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
DOV BER OF MEZHIRICH (1987)
JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ DE ASBAJE Y
ELIMELEKH OF LIZHENSK (1987)
RAMIREZ (2005)
München
TROELTSCH, ERNST (1987)
HASIDISM: HABAD HASIDISM (1987)
Yolotl González Torres
HASIDISM: SATMAR HASIDISM (1987)
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e
Fritz Graf
LEVI YITSH
. AQ OF BERDICHEV (1987)
Ohio State University
Historia
NAH
. MAN OF BRATSLAV (1987)
APOLLO (2005)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY
SHNEDUR ZALMAN OF LYADY (1987)
ARTEMIS (2005)
OF STUDY (1987 AND 2005)
ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES (1987)
Garrett Green
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
EMPEDOCLES (2005)
Connecticut College
THEMES (2005)
HERAKLES (2005)
FICHTE, JOHANN GOTTLIEB (1987)
David Goodblatt
HOMER (2005)
Ronald M. Green
University of Maryland at College
SYNCRETISM [FURTHER
Dartmouth College
Park
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
MORALITY AND RELIGION (1987)
VIOLENCE (2005)
SANHEDRIN (1987)
ZEUS (2005)
THEODICY (1987)
Felicitas D. Goodman
William A. Graham
Tamara M. Green
Cuyamungue Institute, Columbus,
Harvard University
Hunter College, City University of
Ohio
SCRIPTURE (1987 AND 2005)
New York
GLOSSOLALIA (1987)
ICONOGRAPHY: GRECO-ROMAN
VISIONS (1987)
Patrick Granfield
ICONOGRAPHY (1987)
Catholic University of America
L. E. Goodman
PAPACY (1987 AND 2005)
Blu Greenberg
University of Hawaii, Manoa
Riverdale, New York
Robert M. Grant
IBN BA
¯ JJAH (1987)
SCHENIRER, SARAH (1987)
University of Chicago
H. McKennie Goodpasture
EUSEBIUS (1987)
Moshe Greenberg
Union Theological Seminary,
GOODENOUGH, ERWIN R. (1987)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Richmond, Virginia
NOCK, ARTHUR DARBY (1987)
EZEKIEL (1987)
AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY (1987)
Allan G. Grapard
Samuel Greengus
CLOTILDA (1987)
East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii
Hebrew Union College-Jewish
CYRIL AND METHODIUS (1987)
ENCHIN (1987)
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati
PATRICK (1987)
HONJISUIJAKU (1987)
ISRAELITE LAW: CRIMINAL LAW (1987)
Peter Goodrich
William Grassie
Cardozo School of Law, New York
Frederick E. Greenspahn
Metanexus Institute, Philadelphia
Florida Atlantic University
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: SCIENCE,
ISAAC (1987 AND 2005)
AND CRITICAL THEORY (2005)
RELIGION, AND ECOLOGY (2005)
ISHMAEL (1987 AND 2005)
Vincent Goossaert
David B. Gray
JACOB (1987 AND 2005)
Centre National de la Recherche
Rice University
JOSEPH (1987 AND 2005)
Scientifique, Paris
CAKRASAMVARA (2005)
RACHEL AND LEAH (1987 AND 2005)
CHINESE RELIGION: POPULAR
GUHYASAMA¯JA (2005)
REBECCA (1987 AND 2005)
RELIGION (2005)
HEVAJRA (2005)
SARAH (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Edward L. Greenstein
Rita M. Gross
Christian-J. Guyonvarc’h
Tel Aviv University
University of Wisconsin—Eau Claire
Université de Haute Bretagne
AARON (1987)
BIRTH (1987 AND 2005)
EPONA (1987)
CYRUS II (1987 AND 2005)
COUVADE (1987)
MAPONOS (1987)
JOSHUA (1987 AND 2005)
FEMINIST THEOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW
MATRES (1987)
MIRIAM (1987 AND 2005)
(2005)
Janet Gyatso
PSALMS (1987 AND 2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Harvard University
SAMSON (1987 AND 2005)
AND BUDDHISM (2005)
MA GCIG LAB SGRON (MACHIG
Peter N. Gregory
LABDRON) (2005)
Cristiano Grottanelli
TREASURE TRADITION (2005)
University of Illinois, Urbana-
Università degli studi, Rome
YE SHES MTSHO RGYAL (YESHE
Champaign
AGRICULTURE (1987)
TSOGYAL) (2005)
ZONGMI (1987)
DRAGONS (1987)
David L. Haberman
J. Gwyn Griffiths
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN THE ANCIENT
University of Arizona
University College of Swansea
MEDITERRANEAN WORLD (1987)
ROY, RAM MOHAN (1987)
HELLENISTIC RELIGIONS (1987)
Vinigi Grottanelli
VR.NDA¯VANA (1987)
Laura S. Grillo
Università degli Studi, Rome
JaHyun Kim Haboush
Pacifica Graduate Institute,
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
University of Illinois, Urbana-
Carpinteria, California
STUDY (1987)
Champaign
GRIAULE, MARCEL (2005)
Jean Guiart
CONFUCIANISM IN KOREA (1987)
DIETERLEN, GERMAINE (2005)
Musée de l’Homme, Paris
YI T’OEGYE (1987)
YI YULGOK (1987)
John A. Grim
NEW CALEDONIA RELIGION (1987)
Bucknell University
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Sergei Hackel
(2005)
University of Sussex
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: AN
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: MISSIONARY
AKSAKOV, IVAN (1987)
OVERVIEW (2005)
AVVAKUM (1987)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
MOVEMENTS (1987 AND 2005)
DOSTOEVSKY, FYODOR (1987)
AND INDIGENOUS TRADITIONS
Charles Guittard
FILARET OF MOSCOW (1987)
(2005)
University of Paris X-Nanterre
JOSEPH OF VOLOKOLAMSK (1987)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
FORTUNA (2005)
KHOMIAKOV, ALEKSEI (1987)
OF THE NORTHEAST WOODLANDS
JUPITER (2005)
KIREEVSKII, IVAN (1987)
(1987 AND 2005)
MARS (2005)
NIKON (1987)
WOVOKA (1987)
VESTA (2005)
SERGII OF RADONEZH (1987)
Ronald L. Grimes
SKOBTSOVA, MARIA (2005)
Natalie Gummer
Wilfrid Laurier University
SORSKII, NIL (1987)
Beloit College
PORTALS (1987)
Rosalind I. J. Hackett
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS:
PROCESSION (1987)
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
RITUAL USES OF BOOKS (2005)
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
Eric W. Gritsch
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS:
AND HUMAN RIGHTS (2005)
Lutheran Theological Seminary,
TRANSLATION (2005)
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Wadi Z. Haddad
Sanjukta Gupta
Hartford Seminary
LUTHERANISM (1987)
Oxford University
TAFTA¯ZA¯NI¯, AL- (1987)
MÜNTZER, THOMAS (1987)
HINDU TANTRIC LITERATURE (1987
Haga Noboru
Paul Groner
AND 2005)
University of Tsukuba
University of Virginia
JI¯VANMUKTI (1987)
ISHIDA BAIGAN (1987)
SAICHO
¯ (1987 AND 2005)
MUDRA¯ (2005)
KAMO NO MABUCHI (1987)
TENDAISHU
¯ (2005)
Veronica Gutiérrez
Howard G. Hageman
Claudia Gross
University of California, Los Angeles
New Brunswick Theological Seminary,
University of Auckland
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS:
New Brunswick, New Jersey
KINSHIP (2005)
COLONIAL CULTURES (2005)
THOMAS À KEMPIS (1987)
Lawrence W. Gross
Joseph Gutmann
Syed Gulzar Haider
Iowa State University
Wayne State University
Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
ANISHINAABE RELIGIOUS
MAGEN DAVID (1987)
MOSQUE: HISTORY AND TRADITION
TRADITIONS (2005)
SYNAGOGUE (1987)
(2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
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Getatchew Haile
Feras Q. Hamza
Helen Hardacre
Saint John’s University, Collegeville,
Institute of Ismaili Studies, London
Princeton University
Minnesota
AFTERLIFE: ISLAMIC CONCEPTS (2005)
ANCESTORS: ANCESTOR WORSHIP
ETHIOPIAN CHURCH (1987)
RA¯ZI¯, FAKHR AL-DI¯N AL- (2005)
(1987)
KONKO
¯ KYO¯ (1987)
Hamid Haji
William L. Hanaway, Jr.
REIYU
¯ KAI KYO¯DAN (1987)
Institute of Ismaili Studies, London
University of Pennsylvania
DRAMA: MIDDLE EASTERN
Rachel E. Harding
QA¯D
. I¯ AL-NUEMA¯N (2005)
NARRATIVE TRADITIONS (1987)
Iliff School of Theology, Denver,
Hans Thomas Hakl
Don Handelman
Colorado
Graz, Austria
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
AFRO-BRAZILIAN RELIGIONS (2005)
EVOLA, JULIUS (2005)
CLOWNS (1987 AND 2005)
O. B. Hardison, Jr.
SEXUALITY: SEXUAL RITES IN EUROPE
PLAY (1987 AND 2005)
Folger Shakespeare Library,
(2005)
Robert T. Handy
Washington, D.C.
Wilhelm Halbfass
Union Theological Seminary, New
DRAMA: EUROPEAN RELIGIOUS
University of Pennsylvania
York (emeritus)
DRAMA [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
INDIAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
WILLIAMS, ROGER (1987)
Charlotte E. Hardman
STUDY (1987)
Wouter J. Hanegraaff
University of Durham
Bruce Cameron Hall
University of Amsterdam
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND
NEW AGE MOVEMENT (2005)
STCHERBATSKY, THEODORE (1987)
CHILDREN (2005)
Thomas O’Brien Hanley
Nathan J. Hallanger
Friedhelm E. Hardy
Loyola College in Maryland
Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley
King’s College, University of London
CARROLL, JOHN (1987)
EUGENICS (2005)
A¯LVA¯RS (1987)
Judith Lynne Hanna
¯
KR.S.N.AISM (1987)
Barry Hallen
University of Maryland, College Park
Morehouse College and Du Bois
Bernhard Häring
DANCE: DANCE AND RELIGION (1987
Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis
Institute, Harvard University
AND 2005)
TEMPTATION (1987)
COSMOLOGY: AFRICAN
Anne Hansen
COSMOLOGIES (2005)
Gail M. Harley
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee
University of South Florida, Tampa
Charles Hallisey
KHMER RELIGION (2005)
FILLMORE, CHARLES AND MYRTLE
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Klaus J. Hansen
(2005)
BUDDHA (1987)
Queen’s University, Canada
HOPKINS, EMMA CURTIS (2005)
BUDDHISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
MORMONISM (1987 AND 2005)
UNITY (2005)
DUT.T.HAGA¯MAN.I¯ (1987)
SMITH, JOSEPH (1987 AND 2005)
David Harnish
PA¯RAMITA¯S (1987)
F. Allan Hanson
Bowling Green State University
Christopher R. Hallpike
University of Kansas
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
Dalhousie University
MAORI RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
SOUTHEAST ASIA (2005)
HAIR (1987)
(1987)
Donald Harper
J. Mark Halstead
POLYNESIAN RELIGIONS: AN
Stanford University
OVERVIEW (1987)
University of Plymouth, United
MAGIC: MAGIC IN EAST ASIA (1987)
Kingdom
S. Nomanul Haq
Marilyn J. Harran
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (2005)
University of Pennsylvania
Chapman College
FA¯RA¯BI¯, AL- (2005)
Roberte Hamayon
SUICIDE (1987)
École Pratique des Hautes Études,
Stanley Samuel Harakas
Stevan Harrell
Collège de France
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of
University of Washington
Theology, Brookline, Massachusetts
BURIAT RELIGION (1987)
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: CHINESE
(emeritus)
ONGON (1987)
PRACTICES (1987)
BULGAKOV, SERGEI (1987)
SOUTHERN SIBERIAN RELIGIONS (1987)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
David Edwin Harrell, Jr.
Charles H. Hambrick
EASTERN EUROPE (1987 AND 2005)
University of Arkansas
Vanderbilt University
GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH (1987)
CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER (1987)
OKINAWAN RELIGION (1987)
JOHN OF DAMASCUS (1987)
DISCIPLES OF CHRIST (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cviii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Walter Harrelson
Adrian Hastings
Thomas N. Headland
Vanderbilt University (emeritus)
University of Leeds
University of Hawaii, Manoa
MYTH AND RITUAL SCHOOL (1987
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN SUB-
NEGRITO RELIGIONS: NEGRITOS OF
AND 2005)
SAHARAN AFRICA [FIRST EDITION]
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (1987)
TEN COMMANDMENTS (1987)
(1987)
John F. Healey
TITHES (1987 AND 2005)
Sachiko Hatanaka
University of Manchester
Amanda Nolacea Harris
Chubu University
NABATEAN RELIGION (2005)
University of Illinois, Urbana-
TANGAROA (1987)
John J. Heaney
Champaign
Brian A. Hatcher
Fordham University, Bronx (emeritus)
ZAPATISMO AND INDIGENOUS
Illinois Wesleyan University
HÜGEL, FRIEDRICH VON (1987 AND
RESISTANCE (2005)
RAMAKRISHNA (2005)
2005)
Ishwar C. Harris
VIVEKANANDA (2005)
College of Wooster
Jan C. Heesterman
Hattori Masaaki
Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden
BHAVE, VINOBA (1987)
Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University
BRAHMAN (1987)
Joseph Harris
ASAN
˙ GA (1987)
BRA¯HMAN
. AS AND A¯RAN
. YAKAS (1987)
Harvard University
DIGNA¯GA (1987)
VEDISM AND BRAHMANISM (1987)
THOR (2005)
YOGA¯CA¯RA (1987 AND 2005)
Synnøve Heggem
Kevin Hart
Hanna Havnevik
University of Oslo
University of Notre Dame
University of Oslo
GRUNDTVIG, NIKOLAI FREDERIK
FICTION: OCEANIC FICTION AND
ANI LOCHEN (2005)
SEVERIN (2005)
RELIGION (2005)
Peter S. Hawkins
LITERATURE: RELIGIOUS DIMENSIONS
Samuel C. Heilman
Yale University
OF MODERN WESTERN LITERATURE
Queens College City University of
DANTE ALIGHIERI (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
POETRY: CHRISTIAN POETRY (1987)
New York
Jens-Uwe Hartmann
ORTHODOX JUDAISM: FURTHER
John Stratton Hawley
CONSIDERATIONS (2005)
Institut für Indologie und Iranistik,
Barnard College, Columbia University
Munich
HINDI RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS (1987
Maria Heim
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN CENTRAL
AND 2005)
Amherst College
ASIA (2005)
KRS.N.A (1987 AND 2005)
ALMSGIVING (2005)
Charles Hartshorne
SU
¯ RDA¯S (2005)
BUDDHIST ETHICS (2005)
University of Texas at Austin
Sîan Hawthorne
Norvin Hein
(emeritus)
School of Oriental and African
Yale University
PANTHEISM AND PANENTHEISM (1987)
Studies, University of London
LI¯LA¯ (1987)
TRANSCENDENCE AND IMMANENCE
FEMINISM: FEMINISM, GENDER
Steven Heine
(1987)
STUDIES, AND RELIGION (2005)
Florida International University
Van A. Harvey
GENDER AND RELIGION: HISTORY OF
ZEN (2005)
Stanford University
STUDY (2005)
GYNOCENTRISM (2005)
Walther Heissig
BAUER, BRUNO (1987 AND 2005)
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-
FEUERBACH, LUDWIG (1987 AND 2005)
Perwaiz Hayat
HERMENEUTICS (1987 AND 2005)
Concordia University, Montreal
Universität Bonn
STRAUSS, DAVID FRIEDRICH (1987
DA¯RA¯ SHIKO
¯ H, MUH
MONGOL RELIGIONS (1987)
. AMMAD (2005)
AND 2005)
Zachary Hayes
James Heitzman
Warren Zev Harvey
Catholic Theological Union, Chicago,
Georgia State University
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Illinois
CITIES (2005)
CRESCAS, H
. ASDAI (1987 AND 2005)
BONAVENTURE (1987)
Natasha Heller
Edeltraud Harzer
Charles C. Haynes
Harvard University
University of Texas at Austin
First Amendment Center
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
PRAKR.TI (1987 AND 2005)
MEHER BABA (1987 AND 2005)
AND CHINESE RELIGION (2005)
PURUS.A (1987 AND 2005)
Jeffrey Haynes
Monika K. Hellwig
SA¯M
. KHYA (1987 AND 2005)
London Metropolitan University
Georgetown University
Hase Sho¯to¯
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
EUCHARIST (1987)
Kyoto University
AND AFRICAN RELIGIOUS
SACRAMENT: CHRISTIAN
JO
¯ DO SHINSHU¯ (1987)
TRADITIONS (2005)
SACRAMENTS (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cix
Ronald S. Hendel
Doris Heyden
E. Glenn Hinson
University of California, Berkeley
Instituto Nacional de Antropología e
Southern Baptist Theological
ISRAELITE RELIGION (2005)
Historia, Mexico City
Seminary
Joseph Henninger
CAVES (1987)
CONSTANTINIANISM (1987)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: CLASSIC
Anthropos-Institut, Sankt Augustin,
IRENAEUS (1987)
CULTURES (1987)
West Germany
JUSTIN MARTYR (1987)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
GRAEBNER, FRITZ (1987)
TERTULLIAN (1987)
THEMES (1987)
NEW YEAR FESTIVALS (1987)
Almut Hintze
SACRIFICE [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
John C. Higgins-Biddle
School of Oriental and African
SCHMIDT, WILHELM (1987)
University of Connecticut Health
Center

Studies, University of London
Robert G. Henricks
AHURA MAZDA¯ AND ANGRA MAINYU
LOCKE, JOHN (1987 AND 2005)
Dartmouth College
(2005)
DEMIÉVILLE, PAUL (1987)
Donald R. Hill
Hiroshi Obayashi
GROOT, J. J. M. DE (1987)
State University of New York, College
at Oneonta

Rutgers University
William E. Herbrechtsmeier
MAGIC: MAGIC IN INDIGENOUS
AFTERLIFE: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
Los Angeles, California
SOCIETIES (1987)
(2005)
PROPHECY: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
William J. Hill
Dennis Hirota
Gilbert Herdt
Catholic University of America
Ryukoku University
University of Chicago
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD: CHRISTIAN
KARMAN: BUDDHIST CONCEPTS
HOMOSEXUALITY (1987)
CONCEPTS (1987)
(2005)
Nimachia Hernandez
PROOFS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
Hirota Masaki
University of California, Berkeley
(1987)
Okayama University
BLACKFEET RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
Hans J. Hillerbrand
KUROZUMIKYO
¯ (1987)
(2005)
Southern Methodist University
Stephen Hirtenstein
Noreen L. Herzfeld
LUTHER, MARTIN (1987)
Muhyiddin Ibn EArabi Society
St. John’s University, Collegeville,
REFORMATION (1987)
IBN AL-EARABI¯ (2005)
Minnesota
Gregory A. Hillis
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (2005)
University of California, Santa
Mervyn Hiskett
CYBERNETICS (2005)
Barbara
Kent, England
Linda Hess
BUDDHIST MEDITATION: TIBETAN
DAN FODIO, USUMAN (1987)
BUDDHIST MEDITATION (2005)
Radcliffe College
Miriam Hoexter
KLONG CHEN RAB ‘BYAMS PA
POETRY: INDIAN RELIGIOUS POETRY
(LONGCHENPA) (2005)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
(1987)
WAQF (2005)
Alf Hiltebeitel
Peter M. J. Hess
George Washington University
Lawrence A. Hoffman
Berkeley, California
ARJUNA (1987)
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
COPERNICUS, NICOLAUS (2005)
GAMBLING (1987)
Institute of Religion, New York
TWO BOOKS, THE (2005)
HINDUISM (1987)
LITURGY (2005)
Luc de Heusch
INDUS VALLEY RELIGION (1987)
SIDDUR AND MAH
. ZOR (1987)
Université Libre de Bruxelles
KURUKS.ETRA (1987)
Harry A. Hoffner, Jr.
SOUTHERN AFRICAN RELIGIONS:
MAHA¯BHA¯RATA (1987)
University of Chicago
SOUTHERN BANTU RELIGIONS (1987)
Teresia Mbari Hinga
HITTITE RELIGION (1987)
Julia Cuervo Hewitt
DePaul University
TESHUB (1987)
Pennsylvania State University
AFTERLIFE: AFRICAN CONCEPTS (2005)
W. Hofstee
FICTION: LATIN AMERICAN FICTION
Melinda Hinkson
AND RELIGION (2005)
Australian National University
Leiden University
BAAL, JAN VAN (2005)
Martinez Hewlett
STANNER, W. E. H. (2005)
University of Arizona (emeritus)
TJ Hinrichs
Eugene W. Holland
EVOLUTION: EVOLUTIONISM (2005)
Boston College
Ohio State University
EVOLUTION: THE CONTROVERSY
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
PSYCHOLOGY: SCHIZOANALYSIS AND
WITH CREATIONISM (2005)
AND MEDICINE IN CHINA (2005)
RELIGION (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Tawny L. Holm
Bretislav Horyna
S. C. Humphreys
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Masaryk University
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
ASTARTE (2005)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
FUSTEL DE COULANGES, N. D. (1987)
DAVID [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
STUDY OF RELIGION IN EASTERN
John O. Hunwick
(2005)
EUROPE AND RUSSIA (2005)
MOABITE RELIGION (2005)
Northwestern University
PHOENICIAN RELIGION [FURTHER
Hoshino Eiki
MUH
. AMMAD AH
. MAD (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Taisho University
Manfred Hutter
WISDOM LITERATURE: BIBLICAL
PILGRIMAGE: BUDDHIST PILGRIMAGE
University of Bonn
BOOKS [FURTHER
IN EAST ASIA (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
BA¯BI¯S (2005)
Albert Hourani
BAHA¯DI¯S (2005)
John Clifford Holt
University of Oxford (emeritus)
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM IN
Bowdoin College
AFGHA¯NI¯, JAMA¯L AL-DI¯N AL- (1987)
IRAN (2005)
PRIESTHOOD: BUDDHIST
RASHI¯D RID
. A¯, MUH
. AMMAD (1987)
PRIESTHOOD (1987 AND 2005)
Kathryn Hutton
John F. Howes
Peter Homans
New York, New York
University of British Columbia
University of Chicago
LIONS (1987)
KAGAWA TOYOHIKO (1987)
FREUD, SIGMUND (1987 AND 2005)
UCHIMURA KANZO
¯ (1987)
Syed Akbar Hyder
JUNG, C. G. (1987)
University of Texas at Austin
Lauri Honko
C. Julia Huang
KARBALA (2005)
Turun Yliopisto
National Tsing Hua University
Ibrahim I. Ibrahim
FINNO-UGRIC RELIGIONS: AN
CIJI (2005)
Georgetown University
OVERVIEW (1987)
Tracey E. Hucks
EABD AL-RA¯ZIQ, EALI¯ (1987)
Walter Hooper
Haverford College
Oxford, England
AFRICAN AMERICAN RELIGIONS:
Moshe Idel
LEWIS, C. S. (1987)
HISTORY OF STUDY (2005)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Stewart M. Hoover
Clarke Hudson
QABBALAH (1987)
University of Colorado at Boulder
SEFER YETSIRAH (1987)
Indiana University
MEDIA AND RELIGION (2005)
ZOHAR (1987)
BUDDHIST MEDITATION: EAST ASIAN
Paul Jeffrey Hopkins
BUDDHIST MEDITATION (2005)
John M. Ingham
University of Virginia
D. Dennis Hudson
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
DGE LUGS PA (1987 AND 2005)
Smith College
NAHUATL RELIGION (1987)
Thomas J. Hopkins
PIL.L.AI LOKA¯CA¯RYA (1987)
Marcia C. Inhorn
Franklin and Marshall College
Winthrop S. Hudson
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
A¯RYA SAMA¯J (1987)
University of North Carolina at
HEALING AND MEDICINE: POPULAR
BRA¯HMO SAMA¯J (1987)
HEALING PRACTICES IN MIDDLE
DAYANANDA SARASVATI (1987)
Chapel Hill
EASTERN CULTURES (2005)
INDUS VALLEY RELIGION (1987)
DENOMINATIONALISM (1987)
SAURA HINDUISM (1987)
R. I. G. Hughes
Massimo Introvigne
VIVEKANANDA (1987)
Yale University
Center for Studies on New Religions,
Thomas Hopko
BACON, FRANCIS (1987)
Torino, Italy
Saint Vladimir’s Orthodox
CULTS AND SECTS (2005)
Stephen Hugh-Jones
Theological Seminary, Crestwood,
MOVEMENT FOR THE RESTORATION
University of Cambridge
New York
OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF
YURUPARY (1987)
FLORENSKII, PAVEL (1987)
GOD (2005)
IOANN OF KRONSTADT (1987)
Åke Hultkrantz
TEMPLE SOLAIRE (2005)
RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (1987)
Stockholms Universitet
Ishida Ichiro¯
TIKHON OF ZADONSK (1987)
ARCTIC RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Tohoku University
VLADIMIR I (1987)
(1987)
AME NO KOYANE (1987)
Mihály Hoppál
ARCTIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
KOKUGAKU (1987)
Magyar Tudományos Akadémia,
STUDY (1987)
Budapest
GHOST DANCE (1987)
Benjamin Ish-Shalom
FINNO-UGRIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY
NORTH AMERICAN [INDIAN]
Bar Ilan University
OF STUDY (1987)
RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
KOOK, AVRAHAM YITSH
. AQ (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxi
Isomae Jun’ichi
Martin S. Jaffee
Robert Jewett
Japan Women’s University
University of Washington
Garrett-Evangelical Theological
ANESAKI MASAHARU (2005)
DISCIPLESHIP (2005)
Seminary, Evanston, Illinois
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: THE STUDY OF
ORAL TORAH (2005)
PAUL THE APOSTLE (1987)
MYTHS (2005)
TORAH (2005)
Ren Jiyu
YAMATO TAKERU (2005)
George Alfred James
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
Philip J. Ivanhoe
University of North Texas
TANG YONGTONG (1987 AND 2005)
Boston University
ATHEISM (1987 AND 2005)
Darrell Jodock
MENGZI (2005)
SALUTATIONS (1987 AND 2005)
Gustavus Adolphus College
Julia Iwersen
John M. Janzen
BERGSON, HENRI (1987 AND 2005)
Hamburg, Germany
University of Kansas
A. H. Johns
GIMBUTAS, MARIJA (2005)
AFFLICTION: AFRICAN CULTS OF
Australian National University
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM FROM
AFFLICTION (1987 AND 2005)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SOUTHEAST
THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE PRESENT
KONGO RELIGION (1987)
(2005)
ASIA (1987 AND 2005)
LIGHT AND DARKNESS (2005)
E. H. Rick Jarow
T.ARI¯QAH (1987)
VIRGIN GODDESS (2005)
Vassar College
Greg Johnson
Fahir I˙z
PURA¯N
. AS (2005)
Franklin and Marshall College
Bogˇaziçi Üniversitesi
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND
David Jasper
YUNUS EMRE (1987)
RELIGION IN INDIGENOUS
University of Glasgow
CULTURES (2005)
Toshihiko Izutsu
LITERATURE: CRITICAL THEORY AND
Keio University
RELIGIOUS STUDIES (2005)
Paul Christopher Johnson
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
ISHRA¯QI¯YAH (1987)
Pupul Jayakar
GARIFUNA RELIGION (2005)
Roger R. Jackson
Government of India, Department of
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
Carleton College
Culture, New Delhi
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
MAHA¯MUDRA¯ (2005)
INDIAN RELIGIONS: RURAL
THE MODERN CARIBBEAN (2005)
SGAM PO PA (GAMPOPA) (2005)
TRADITIONS (1987)
Matthew V. Johnson, Sr.
Louis Jacobs
N. A. Jayawickrama
Wake Forest University
Leo Baeck College, London (emeritus)
Buddhist and Pali University of Sri
BLACK THEOLOGY (2005)
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD: JEWISH
Lanka
Patricia A. Johnston
CONCEPTS (1987)
MALALASEKERA, G. P. (1987)
GOD: GOD IN POSTBIBLICAL JUDAISM
Brandeis University
(1987 AND 2005)
James B. Jeffries
VERGIL (2005)
H
. ANUKKAH (1987)
Colgate University
Sarah Iles Johnston
JEWISH RELIGIOUS YEAR (1987)
MANITOU (2005)
Ohio State University
PASSOVER (1987)
Daniel Jenkins
AFTERLIFE: GREEK AND ROMAN
PURIM (1987)
CONCEPTS (2005)
RODSH HA-SHANAH AND YOM KIPPUR
London, England
HEKATE (2005)
(1987)
BROWNE, ROBERT (1987)
DIVINATION: GREEK AND ROMAN
SHABBAT (1987)
CONGREGATIONALISM (1987)
DIVINATION (2005)
SHAVUEOT (1987)
Theodore W. Jennings, Jr.
ORPHIC GOLD TABLETS (2005)
SUKKOT (1987)
Seminario Metodista de México,
Alan Jones
Thorkild Jacobsen
Mexico City
University of Oxford
Harvard University (emeritus)
SACRAMENT: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
IBA¯D
. IYYA (2005)
FRANKFORT, HENRI (1987)
Jeppe Sinding Jensen
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS: AN
Albert de Jong
OVERVIEW [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
University of Aarhus
Leiden University
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY
STRUCTURALISM [FURTHER
MAGI (2005)
OF STUDY (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
ZARATHUSHTRA (2005)
NINHURSAGA (1987)
Lionel M. Jensen
Albert R. Jonsen
David C. Jacobson
University of Notre Dame
University of California, San
Brown University
CONFUCIANISM: HISTORY OF STUDY
Francisco
AGNON, SHEMUDEL YOSEF (2005)
(2005)
CASUISTRY (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Dan W. Jorgensen
Kakubayashi Fumio
ATHENAGORAS (1987)
University of Western Ontario
Massey University
CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA (1987)
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
AMATERASU O
¯ MIKAMI (1987 AND 2005)
Flora Edouwaye S. Kaplan
JIMMU (1987 AND 2005)
STUDY [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
New York University
SUSANO-O NO MIKOTO (1987 AND
EDO RELIGION (2005)
George Joseph
2005)
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Martha Kaplan
Ibrahim Kalin
Vassar College
FICTION: AFRICAN FICTION AND
College of the Holy Cross
CARGO CULTS [FURTHER
RELIGION (2005)
MA¯TURI¯DI¯, AL- (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Mark Juergensmeyer
Menachem Kallus
Steven Kaplan
University of California, Santa
Bar Ilan University
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Barbara
TSADDIQ (2005)
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN NORTHEAST
GANDHI, MOHANDAS (1987 AND 2005)
Michael C. Kalton
AFRICA (2005)
NONVIOLENCE (1987 AND 2005)
Kansas State University
Matthew T. Kapstein
CHO
˘ NG YAGYONG (1987)
Bennetta Jules-Rosette
University of Chicago and École
SO
˘ KYO
˘ NGDO
˘ K (1987)
University of California, San Diego
Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris
Ogbu Kalu
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN TIBET (2005)
KIMBANGU, SIMON (1987)
McCormick Theological Seminary
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: TANTRIC
MARANKE, JOHN (1987)
IGBO RELIGION (2005)
RITUAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM
Sylvia Juran
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
David J. Kalupahana
New York, New York
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: TIBETAN
University of Hawaii, Manoa
AND MONGOLIAN BUDDHISM (2005)
TOLSTOY, LEO (1987)
PRATI¯TYA-SAMUTPA¯DA (1987)
PADMASAMBHAVA (2005)
Lutz Kaelber
Janet Kalven
RNYING MA PA (NYINGMAPA) SCHOOL
University of Vermont
Union Institute of Cincinnati
(2005)
MONASTICISM: CHRISTIAN
GRAIL MOVEMENT (2005)
SAKYA PAN
. D
. ITA (SA SKYA PAN
. D
. ITA)
(2005)
MONASTICISM (2005)
Mohammad Hashim Kamali
George Karahalios
Walter O. Kaelber
International Islamic University,
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of
Wagner College
Malaysia
H
Theology, Brookline, Massachusetts
. ADI¯TH (2005)
ASCETICISM (1987)
ISLAMIC LAW: PERSONAL LAW (1987)
PSELLUS, MICHAEL (1987)
INITIATION: MEN’S INITIATION (1987)
MADHHAB (1987)
Nicholas Karazafiris
Adrienne L. Kaeppler
QIYA
¯ S (1987)
Thessaloniki, Greece
Smithsonian Institution
Edward Kamens
MAXIMOS THE CONFESSOR (1987)
POLYNESIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
Yale University
Abraham J. Karp
THEMES (1987 AND 2005)
KU
¯ YA (1987 AND 2005)
University of Rochester
ONMYO
¯ DO¯ (1987)
Henry Kahane
LEESER, ISAAC (1987)
University of Illinois, Urbana-
J. H. Kamstra
WISE, STEPHEN S. (1987)
Universiteit van Amsterdam
Champaign
Tazim R. Kassam
EN NO GYO
¯ JA (1987)
ALCHEMY: HELLENISTIC AND
Syracuse University
GYO
¯ GI (1987)
S
MEDIEVAL ALCHEMY (1987)
.ALA¯T (2005)
HIJIRI (1987)
GRAIL, THE (1987)
JINGO
¯ (1987)
Thomas P. Kasulis
Northland College, Ashland,
Renée Kahane
Ephraim Kanarfogel
Wisconsin
University of Illinois, Urbana-
Yeshiva University
NIRVA
¯ N.A (1987)
Champaign
RABBINATE: THE RABBINATE IN PRE-
MODERN JUDAISM (2005)
Nathan Katz
ALCHEMY: HELLENISTIC AND
TOSAFOT [FURTHER
Florida International University
MEDIEVAL ALCHEMY (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
BHA¯VAVIVEKA (1987)
GRAIL, THE (1987)
Charles Kannengiesser
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN ASIA (2005)
Kajiyama Yu¯ichi
University of Notre Dame
Paul R. Katz
Kyoto University
ARIANISM (1987)
Academia Sinica
MA¯DHYAMIKA (1987)
ATHANASIUS (1987)
TAIWANESE RELIGIONS (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxiii
Steven T. Katz
Michael A. Kerze
Noel Q. King
Cornell University
California State University,
University of California, Santa Cruz
HOLOCAUST, THE: JEWISH
Northridge
and Guru Nanak Dev University,
THEOLOGICAL RESPONSES (1987)
EUCLID (1987)
Amritsar, India
Kawahashi Noriko
NUMBERS: BINARY SYMBOLISM (1987)
THEODOSIUS (1987 AND 2005)
Nagoya Institute of Technology
PTOLEMY (1987)
Ursula King
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Veselin Kesich
University of Bristol
AND JAPANESE RELIGIONS (2005)
Saint Vladimir’s Orthodox
GENDER AND RELIGION: AN
Leslie S. Kawamura
Theological Seminary, Crestwood,
OVERVIEW (2005)
University of Calgary
New York
NUNS: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
ATI¯S´A (1987)
VIA NEGATIVA (1987)
PETRE, MAUDE DOMINICA (2005)
TA¯RA¯ (1987 AND 2005)
Michael Kessler
SMART, NINIAN (2005)
Eileen F. Kearney
University of Chicago
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, PIERRE (2005)
University of Notre Dame
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
Winston L. King
ABELARD, PETER (1987)
AND MORALITY (2005)
Vanderbilt University (emeritus)
PETER LOMBARD (1987)
Charles F. Keyes
RELIGION [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Ian Keen
University of Washington
SUZUKI SHO
¯ SAN (1987)
Australian National University
THAI RELIGION (1987)
Karen Kingsley
DJAN’KAWU (2005)
PILGRIMAGE: BUDDHIST PILGRIMAGE
Tulane University
Roger M. Keesing
IN SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA
MONASTERY (1987)
Australian National University
(1987)
Jacob N. Kinnard
SOLOMON ISLANDS RELIGIONS (1987)
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS:
Iliff School of Theology
Charles W. Kegley
MAINLAND CULTURES (1987)
ICONOGRAPHY: BUDDHIST
California State College, Bakersfield
Majid Khadduri
ICONOGRAPHY (2005)
BRUNNER, EMIL (1987)
Johns Hopkins University
David Kinsley
Pita Kelekna
SHA
¯ FIEI¯, AL- (1987)
McMaster University
Fordham University, Lincoln Center
Abrahim H. Khan
AVATA¯RA (1987)
MUISCA RELIGION (1987)
Trinity College, University of Toronto
DEVOTION (1987)
Mary L. Keller
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
Hans Kippenberg
University of Wyoming
STUDY OF RELIGION IN SOUTH ASIA
University of Erfurt
SPIRIT POSSESSION: WOMEN AND
(2005)
APOSTASY (1987 AND 2005)
POSSESSION (2005)
Hasan-Uddin Khan
CODES AND CODIFICATION (1987)
Dennis F. Kelley
Roger Williams University
ICONOGRAPHY: ICONOGRAPHY AS
University of Missouri, Columbia
MOSQUE: ARCHITECTURAL ASPECTS
VISIBLE RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN
(2005)
(1987)
RELIGIONS: MYTHIC THEMES (2005)
Madhu Khanna
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND
TOMOL (2005)
Wolfson College, University of Oxford
RELIGION IN THE ANCIENT
Morton Kelsey
YANTRA (1987)
MEDITERRANEAN WORLD (2005)
University of Notre Dame
Saleem Kidwai
Kishibe Shigeo
MIRACLES: MODERN PERSPECTIVES
Aligarh Muslim University
Tokyo
(1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
OTHERWORLD (1987)
KHUSRAW, AMI¯R (1987)
JAPAN (1987)
Carolyn Bereznak Kenny
Richard Kieckhefer
University of California, Santa
Northwestern University
Joseph M. Kitagawa
Barbara
MAGIC: MAGIC IN MEDIEVAL AND
University of Chicago (emeritus)
HAIDA RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS (2005)
RENAISSANCE EUROPE (2005)
ELIADE, MIRCEA [FIRST EDITION]
(1987)
Lori Kenschaft
Hanna H. Kim
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Arlington, Massachusetts
New York University
(1987)
CHILD, LYDIA MARIA (2005)
SWAMINARAYAN MOVEMENT (2005)
RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES: RELIGION,
William M. Kephart
Yong-choon Kim
COMMUNITY, AND SOCIETY (1987)
University of Pennsylvania
University of Rhode Island
WACH, JOACHIM [FIRST EDITION]
HUTTERIAN BRETHREN (1987)
CH’O
˘ NDOGYO (1987)
(1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxiv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
James M. Kittelson
Harold G. Koenig
Klaus-Peter Köpping
Ohio State University
Duke University Medical Center
University of Heidelberg
BUCER, MARTIN (1987)
HEALTH AND RELIGION (2005)
ANAMNESIS (1987)
Kimura Kiyotaka
John Koenig
BULL-ROARERS (1987)
University of Tokyo
General Theological Seminary, New
PANATHENAIA (1987)
DUSHUN (1987 AND 2005)
PROMETHEUS (1987 AND 2005)
York, New York
FAZANG (1987)
THIASOI (1987)
HOSPITALITY (1987 AND 2005)
ZHIYAN (1987)
Aaron K. Koseki
R. M. Koentjaraningrat
M. H. Klaiman
University of Illinois, Urbana-
Universitas Indonesia
Maplewood, Minnesota
Champaign
JAVANESE RELIGION (1987)
MASCULINE SACRALITY (1987)
JIZANG (1987)
Barry S. Kogan
Samuel Z. Klausner
SENGZHAO (1987)
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
University of Pennsylvania
Christine Kovic
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati
MARTYRDOM (1987)
University of Houston—Clear Lake
SAEADYAH GAON (1987)
Terry F. Kleeman
YEHUDAH HA-LEVI (1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
University of Colorado at Boulder
AND MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS
Etan Kohlberg
CHINESE RELIGION: HISTORY OF
(2005)
STUDY (2005)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Martin Kraatz
IBN BA
¯ BAWAYHI (1987)
Inge Kleivan
MAJLISI¯, AL- (1987)
Philipps-Universität Marburg
Københavns Universitet
(retired)
INUIT RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS (1987)
Surindar Singh Kohli
FRICK, HEINRICH (1987 AND 2005)
SEDNA (1987)
Panjab University (emeritus)
David Kraemer
Hans J. Klimkeit
A¯DI GRANTH (1987)
Jewish Theological Seminary of
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-
Livia Kohn
America
Universität Bonn
Boston University
ELEAZAR BEN EAZARYAH (1987)
SCHLEGEL, FRIEDRICH (1987)
DAO AND DE (2005)
ELIEEZER BEN HYRCANUS (1987)
Elmar Klinger
PRIESTHOOD: DAOIST PRIESTHOOD
GAMLIDEL OF YAVNEH (1987)
Bayerische-Julius-Maximilians-
(2005)
TANNAIM (1987)
Universität Würzburg
Leszek Kolakowski
Stella Kramrisch
REVENGE AND RETRIBUTION (1987)
All Souls College, University of
VOWS AND OATHS (1987)
Oxford, and University of Chicago
Philadelphia Museum of Art
ICONOGRAPHY: HINDU
W. Randolph Kloetzli
DESCARTES, RENÉ (1987)
ICONOGRAPHY (1987)
Washington, D.C.
GOOD, THE (1987)
S´IVA [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
COSMOLOGY: BUDDHIST
JASPERS, KARL (1987)
COSMOLOGY (1987)
PASCAL, BLAISE (1987)
Benny Kraut
COSMOLOGY: HINDU COSMOLOGY
QUIETISM (1987)
University of Cincinnati
(1987)
Robert Kolb
ADLER, FELIX (1987)
Keith N. Knapp
Concordia College, Saint Paul,
ETHICAL CULTURE (1987)
The Citadel
Minnesota
KOHLER, KAUFMANN (1987)
XIAO (2005)
FLACIUS, MATTHIAS (1987)
Howard Kreisel
David M. Knipe
Nikolai Konakov
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Russian Academy of Science
PROPHECY: PROPHECY IN POST-
(emeritus)
KOMI RELIGION (2005)
BIBLICAL JUDAISM (2005)
EPICS (1987)
David Konstan
Angèle Kremer-Marietti
FIRE (2005)
Rosny-sous-Bois, France
PRAJA¯PATI (1987)
Wesleyan University
COMTE, AUGUSTE (1987)
PRIESTHOOD: HINDU PRIESTHOOD
OCEANS (1987)
POSITIVISM (1987)
(1987)
David Kopf
TAPAS (1987)
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Edgar Krentz
Alexander Knysh
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
Lutheran School of Theology at
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
Chicago
JUNAYD, AL- (2005)
MODERN INDIA (2005)
REFERENCE WORKS (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxv
Jeffrey J. Kripal
John Lagerwey
AbdAlla¯h Laroui
Rice University
École Pratique des Hautes Études,
Université Mohammed V, Rabat
PHALLUS AND VAGINA (2005)
Paris
ISLAM: ISLAM IN NORTH AFRICA (1987)
SEXUALITY: AN OVERVIEW [FURTHER
DAOISM: THE DAOIST RELIGIOUS
Amado J. Láscar
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
COMMUNITY (1987)
Ohio University
PRIESTHOOD: DAOIST PRIESTHOOD
Björn Krondorfer
ZAPATISMO AND INDIGENOUS
(1987)
St. Mary’s College of Maryland
RESISTANCE (2005)
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
MEN’S STUDIES IN RELIGION (2005)
DAOIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE (1987
Daniel J. Lasker
AND 2005)
John D. Krugler
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
XIAN (2005)
Marquette University
ALBO, YOSEF (1987)
ZHENREN (1987 AND 2005)
BLASPHEMY: JEWISH CONCEPT (2005)
CALVERT, GEORGE (1987)
Arzina R. Lalani
James E. Latham
Kubo Noritada
Institute of Ismaili Studies, London
American College in Paris
Rikkyo University
JAEFAR AL-S.A¯DIQ (2005)
BREAD (1987)
LIU DEREN [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Louise Lamphere
FOOD (1987)
WANG ZHE (1987)
Brown University
LEAVEN (1987)
XIAO BAOZHEN (1987)
NAVAJO RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
SALT (1987)
Hilda Kuper
(1987)
Quentin Lauer
University of California, Los Angeles
Lewis R. Lancaster
Fordham University, Bronx
(emeritus)
University of California, Berkeley
HEGEL, G. W. F. (1987)
SWAZI RELIGION (1987)
(emeritus); President, University of the
Jean-Pierre Laurant
Janı¯na Kursı¯te
West
Centre National de la Recherche
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS:
University of Latvia
Scientifique, Paris
CANON AND CANONIZATION (1987
BALTIC RELIGION: HISTORY OF STUDY
AND 2005)
BURCKHARDT, TITUS (2005)
(2005)
MAITREYA (1987)
Bruce B. Lawrence
BALTIC SANCTUARIES (2005)
Günter Lanczkowski
Duke University
MA¯RA (AND GREAT MOTHERS) (2005)
Ruprecht-Karl-Universität Heidelberg
BI¯RU
¯ NI¯, AL- (1987)
TWINS: BALTIC TWIN DEITIES (2005)
BERTHOLET, ALFRED (1987)
KHA
¯ NAGA¯H (1987)
Kenshi Kusano
NUBU
¯ WAH (2005)
Gary G. Land
Otani University
SHAHRASTA
¯ NI¯, AL- (1987)
Andrews University
RENNYO (2005)
SHAHRASTA
¯ NI¯, AL- (1987)
SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISM (2005)
Matti Kuusi
Frederick G. Lawrence
Hermann Landolt
Helsingin Yliopisto
Boston College
Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill
POLITICAL THEOLOGY (1987)
ILMARINEN (1987)
University
LEMMINKÄINEN (1987)
WALA¯YAH (1987)
Peter Lawrence
VÄINÄMÖINEN (1987)
David Christopher Lane
University of Sydney
Per Kvaerne
Mount San Antonio College
CARGO CULTS [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
NEW GUINEA RELIGIONS [FIRST
Universiteit i Oslo
ECKANKAR (2005)
EDITION] (1987)
BON (1987 AND 2005)
Ruth Langer
TIBETAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
Edmund Leach
Boston College
(1987 AND 2005)
University of Cambridge (emeritus)
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
STRUCTURALISM [FIRST EDITION]
André LaCocque
JEWISH WORSHIP (2005)
(1987)
Chicago Theological Seminary
J. Stephen Lansing
Gary Lease
SIN AND GUILT (1987)
University of Southern California
BALINESE RELIGION (1987)
University of California, Santa Cruz
Catherine Mowry LaCugna
MEGALITHIC RELIGION: HISTORICAL
MERCIER, DÉSIRÉ JOSEPH (1987)
University of Notre Dame
CULTURES (1987)
Miguel C. Leatham
TRINITY (1987)
Richard W. Lariviere
Texas Christian University
William R. LaFleur
University of Texas at Austin
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
University of California, Los Angeles
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN LATIN
BIOGRAPHY (1987)
RELIGION IN HINDUISM (2005)
AMERICA (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Jean Leclercq
Leonard H. Lesko
Guenter Lewy
Abbaye Saint-Maurice, Clervaux
Brown University
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX (1987)
AMUN (1987)
REVOLUTION (1987)
ATUM (1987)
David Adams Leeming
Richard L. Libowitz
EGYPTIAN RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
University of Connecticut, Storrs
Saint Joseph’s University
(1987)
QUESTS (1987 AND 2005)
HATHOR (1987)
KAPLAN, MORDECAI (1987 AND 2005)
Gordon Leff
HORUS (1987)
Murray H. Lichtenstein
University of York
OSIRIS (1987)
Hunter College, City University of
CATHARI (1987)
PTAH (1987)
New York
WALDENSIANS (1987 AND 2005)
RE (1987)
H
. OKHMAH (1987)
WILLIAM OF OCKHAM (1987 AND 2005)
SETH (1987)
THOTH (1987)
Charles S. Liebman
Frederic K. Lehman (Chit Hlaing)
Julia Leslie
Bar-Ilan University
University of Illinois, Urbana-
(deceased)
ORTHODOX JUDAISM [FIRST
Champaign
EDITION] (1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
BURMESE RELIGION (1987)
AND HINDUISM (2005)
Samuel N. C. Lieu
Lisa Soleymani Lehmann
SATI (2005)
Macquarie University, Sydney
Harvard Medical School and Brigham
William A. Lessa
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM IN
and Women’s Hospital
University of California, Los Angeles
CENTRAL ASIA AND CHINA (2005)
MEDICAL ETHICS (2005)
(emeritus)
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM IN
John H. Leith
THE ROMAN EMPIRE (2005)
MICRONESIAN RELIGIONS: AN
Union Theological Seminary,
OVERVIEW (1987)
Bruce Lincoln
Richmond
Rebecca M. Lesses
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
FAREL, GUILLAUME (1987)
Ithaca College
BEVERAGES (1987)
KNOX, JOHN (1987)
LILITH (2005)
CATTLE (1987)
PRESBYTERIANISM, REFORMED (1987)
DISMEMBERMENT (1987)
Miriam Levering
Mary Joan Winn Leith
HUMAN BODY: MYTHS AND
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
SYMBOLISM (1987)
Stonehill College
KS.ITIGARBHA (1987)
INDO-EUROPEAN RELIGIONS: AN
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Baruch A. Levine
OVERVIEW (1987)
AND ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN
New York University
INITIATION: WOMEN’S INITIATION
RELIGIONS (2005)
BIBLICAL TEMPLE (1987)
(1987)
David Lelyveld
LEVITES (1987)
WAR AND WARRIORS: AN OVERVIEW
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
PRIESTHOOD: JEWISH PRIESTHOOD
(1987)
AMEER ALI, SYED (1987)
(1987)
David C. Lindberg
Harris Lenowitz
Lee I. Levine
University of Wisconsin—Madison
University of Utah
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
PECHAM, JOHN (1987)
DÖNMEH (2005)
PATRIARCHATE (2005)
John Lindow
FRANK, JACOB (2005)
Nehemia Levtzion
University of California, Berkeley
Bill Leonard
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
BALDR (2005)
Wake Forest University
ISLAM: ISLAM IN SUB-SAHARAN
BERSERKERS (1987 AND 2005)
BAPTIST CHURCHES (2005)
AFRICA (1987)
FYLGJUR (1987 AND 2005)
Miguel Léon-Portilla
Leonard W. Levy
LANDVÆTTIR (1987 AND 2005)
LOKI (2005)
Institute of Historical Research,
Claremont Graduate School
VALHO
˛ LL (1987 AND 2005)
National University of Mexico
BLASPHEMY: CHRISTIAN CONCEPT
(1987)
VALKYRIES (1987 AND 2005)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS: PRE-
COLUMBIAN RELIGIONS (1987 AND
F. D. Lewis
Galina Lindquist
2005)
Emory University
University of Stockholm
Françoise Le Roux
T.ARI¯QAH (2005)
SHAMANISM: NEOSHAMANISM (2005)
Université de Haute Bretagne
Leonard Lewisohn
Elaine Lindsay
EPONA (1987)
Institute of Ismaili Studies, London
Sydney, Australia
MAPONOS (1987)
EAT.T.A¯R, FARI¯D AL-DI¯N (2005)
FICTION: AUSTRALIAN FICTION AND
MATRES (1987)
BIST.A¯MI¯, ABU¯ YAZI¯D AL- (2005)
RELIGION (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxvii
Gillian Lindt
Naftali Loewenthal
Phillip Charles Lucas
Columbia University
University College London
Stetson University
LEADERSHIP (1987)
SCHNEERSON, MENACHEM M. (2005)
ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH AND
Edward Lipin´ski
ENLIGHTENMENT (2005)
Roger Ivar Lohmann
CHURCH UNIVERSAL AND
Catholic University of Leuven,
Trent University
TRIUMPHANT (2005)
Belgium
CULTURE (2005)
HOLY ORDER OF MANS (2005)
ADAD (2005)
Charles H. Long
PROPHET, MARK AND ELIZABETH
ADONIS (2005)
CLARE (2005)
ATHIRAT (2005)
University of California, Santa
RELIGIOUS BROADCASTING (2005)
RESHEF (2005)
Barbara (emeritus)
Rodney Lucas
John Lippitt
ANCESTORS: MYTHIC ANCESTORS
Adelaide University
University of Hertfordshire
(1987)
COSMOGONY (1987)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
HUMOR AND RELIGION: HUMOR,
RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
POPULAR RELIGION (1987)
IRONY, AND THE COMIC IN
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
WESTERN THEOLOGY AND
Theodore M. Ludwig
PHILOSOPHY (2005)
AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Valparaiso University
Roger Lipsey
J. Bruce Long
GODS AND GODDESSES (1987 AND
New York, New York
Claremont Graduate School
2005)
COOMARASWAMY, ANANDA (1987)
LIFE (1987)
INCANTATION (1987)
REINCARNATION (1987)
Donald P. Little
MONOTHEISM (1987 AND 2005)
UNDERWORLD (1987)
Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill
ORDINATION (1987 AND 2005)
WEBS AND NETS (1987)
University
Katharine Luomala
CRUSADES: MUSLIM PERSPECTIVE
Jerome H. Long
University of Hawaii, Manoa
(1987)
Wesleyan University
(emeritus)
MA¯WARDI¯, AL- (1987)
CULTURE HEROES (1987)
HAWAIIAN RELIGION (1987)
C. Scott Littleton
Donald S. Lopez, Jr.
MICRONESIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
Occidental College
THEMES (1987)
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
MA¯UI (1987)
DUMÉZIL, GEORGES (2005)
BUDDHIST STUDIES (2005)
INDO-EUROPEAN RELIGIONS:
Manfred Lurker
HISTORY OF STUDY (1987 AND 2005)
David N. Lorenzen
Forschungskreis für Symbolik,
WAR AND WARRIORS: INDO-
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
Salzburg
EUROPEAN BELIEFS AND PRACTICES
México
SNAKES (1987)
(1987 AND 2005)
DURGA¯ HINDUISM (1987)
F. Stanley Lusby
B. A. Litvinskii
GORA
¯ KHNA¯TH (1987)
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R.,
HAT.HAYOGA (1987)
HASTINGS, JAMES (1987)
Moscow
S´AIVISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
HAYDON, A. EUSTACE (1987)
S´AIVISM: KA
¯ PA¯LIKAS (1987)
PREHISTORIC RELIGIONS: THE
HEAVEN AND HELL (1987)
EURASIAN STEPPES AND INNER ASIA
S´AIVISM: PA
¯ S´UPATAS (1987)
LAITY (1987)
(1987)
S´AN
˙ KARA (1987)
MOORE, GEORGE FOOT (1987)
SHEEP AND GOATS (1987)
David W. Lotz
Philip Lutgendorf
James J. Y. Liu
Union Theological Seminary,
University of Iowa
Stanford University
New York
MONKEYS (2005)
POETRY: CHINESE RELIGIOUS POETRY
HARNACK, ADOLF VON (1987)
John E. Lynch
(1987)
PAUCK, WILHELM (1987)
Catholic University of America
James C. Livingston
RICHARDSON, CYRIL C. (1987)
CHURCH: CHURCH POLITY (1987 AND
College of William and Mary
RITSCHL, ALBRECHT (1987)
2005)
MARITAIN, JACQUES (1987)
Steven M. Lowenstein
Arabella Lyon
Ann Loades
University of Judaism, Los Angeles
State University of New York at
University of Durham (emeritus)
SOFER, MOSHEH (1987)
Buffalo
SAYERS, DOROTHY L. (2005)
Juan Manuel Lozano
LANGER, SUSANNE (2005)
Michael Loewe
Claret House, Chicago
John J. MacAloon
University of Cambridge
EREMITISM (1987)
University of Chicago
XI WANG MU (1987)
RETREAT (1987)
GAMES (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Proinsias Mac Cana
Kenneth Maddock
KARMAN: HINDU AND JAIN
(deceased)
Macquarie University
CONCEPTS (1987)
CELTIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
ALL-FATHER (1987)
R.TA (1987)
(1987 AND 2005)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
SPIRITUAL DISCIPLINE (1987)
CONALL CERNACH (1987 AND 2005)
RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
UPANIS.ADS (1987)
FERGHUS MAC ROICH (1987 AND 2005)
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Bernhard Maier
HEAD: THE CELTIC HEAD CULT (1987
HARTLAND, E. SIDNEY (1987)
University of Bonn
AND 2005)
HOWITT, A. W. (1987)
DRUIDS (2005)
SÍDH (1987 AND 2005)
Wilfred Madelung
John S. Major
TÁIN BÓ CUAILNGE (1987 AND 2005)
Oriental Institute, University of
Asia Society, New York
Carol P. MacCormack
Oxford
QI (1987)
London School of Hygiene and
IMAMATE (1987)
SHANGDI (1987)
Tropical Medicine, University of
SHIISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
George Makdisi
London
SHIISM: ISMA
¯ EI¯LI¯YAH (1987)
University of Pennsylvania
CLITORIDECTOMY (1987)
Enrique Maestas
H
. ANA
¯ BILAH (1987)
Judith Macdonald
Cuelgahen Nde Lipan Apache of Texas
IBN TAYMI¯YAH (1987)
University of Waikato, New Zealand
APACHE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
John Makeham
(2005)
ATUA (2005)
University of Adelaide
FIRTH, RAYMOND (2005)
Michel Maffesoli
MOZI (2005)
TIKOPIA RELIGION (2005)
Université Sorbonne Paris V
John Makransky
Mary N. MacDonald
ORGY: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Boston College
Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York
Elaine Magalis
TATHA¯GATA (2005)
GARDENS: GARDENS IN INDIGENOUS
New York, New York
Krikor H. Maksoudian
TRADITIONS (2005)
ANCHOR (1987)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
CROWN (1987)
Arlington, Massachusetts
AND OCEANIC RELIGIONS (2005)
DIAMOND (1987)
GREGORY THE ILLUMINATOR (1987)
LAWRENCE, PETER (2005)
FEET (1987)
MASHTOTSE, MESROP (1987)
NEW GUINEA RELIGIONS [FURTHER
KEYS (1987)
NERSE¯S THE GREAT (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
NIMBUS (1987)
SAHAK PARTHEV (1987)
SPIRITUALITY (2005)
Shaul Magid
Michael Maliszewski
Wyatt MacGaffey
Indiana University
University of Chicago
Haverford College
HASIDISM: HABAD HASIDISM (2005)
MARTIAL ARTS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN SUB-SAHARAN
JEWISH RENEWAL MOVEMENT (2005)
George A. Maloney
AFRICA (1987 AND 2005)
Sabina Magliocco
Saint Patrick’s Novitiate, Midway
Geddes MacGregor
California State University,
City, California
University of Southern California
Northridge
SYMEON THE NEW THEOLOGIAN (1987)
DOUBT AND BELIEF (1987)
WITCHCRAFT: CONCEPTS OF
Lawrence H. Mamiya
SOUL: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS (1987)
WITCHCRAFT (2005)
Vassar College
Elizabeth Mackinlay
Aldo Magris
ELIJAH MUHAMMAD (1987 AND 2005)
University of Queensland
University of Trieste
MALCOLM X (1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM FROM ITS
Peter Manchester
INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIA (2005)
ORIGINS TO THE MIDDLE AGES
State University of New York at Stony
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Sam Mackintosh
Brook
KERÉNYI, KÁROLY (2005)
Saint Joseph’s University
ETERNITY (1987)
STOICISM (2005)
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: CHRISTIAN
Pietro Mander
Jean-Pierre Mahé
PRACTICES (1987)
Universita’ di Napoli “L’Orientale,”
Université de Paris III (Sorbonne-
John Macquarrie
Italy
Nouvelle)
Christ Church, University of Oxford
ASHUR (2005)
HERMES TRISMEGISTOS (1987)
DUMUZI (2005)
EXISTENTIALISM (1987)
William K. Mahony
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
Mark W. MacWilliams
Davidson College
AND MEDICINE IN THE ANCIENT
St. Lawrence University
CAKRAVARTIN (1987)
NEAR EAST (2005)
CAMPBELL, JOSEPH (2005)
ENLIGHTENMENT (1987 AND 2005)
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN THE ANCIENT
NAKAYAMA MIKI (2005)
FLIGHT (1987)
MEDITERRANEAN WORLD (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxix
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxix
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY
Michael E. Marmura
Martin E. Marty
OF STUDY (2005)
University of Toronto
University of Chicago
SOUL: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN
FALSAFAH (1987)
PAUL VI (1987)
CONCEPTS (2005)
SOUL: ISLAMIC CONCEPTS (1987)
PROTESTANTISM (1987)
UTU (2005)
SCHWEITZER, ALBERT (1987)
George M. Marsden
Clyde L. Manschreck
University of Notre Dame
Maxwell Gay Marwick
Rice University
EVANGELICAL AND FUNDAMENTAL
Chipping Norton, England
MELANCHTHON, PHILIPP (1987)
CHRISTIANITY (1987 AND 2005)
WITCHCRAFT: AFRICAN WITCHCRAFT
Georgios I. Mantzaridis
(1987)
Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyud Marsot
Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki
University of California, Los Angeles
Attilio Mastrocinque
GREGORY PALAMAS (1987)
University of Verona
MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD (1987)
HERMES (2005)
Pierre Maranda
Dale B. Martin
LARES (2005)
Université Laval, Québec
Yale University
OSIRIS (2005)
SOLOMON ISLANDS RELIGIONS (2005)
ANGLICANISM (2005)
Tomoko Masuzawa
Grazia Marchianò
Joel W. Martin
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
University of Siena, Arezzo
University of California, Riverside
WORLD RELIGIONS (2005)
ZOLLA, ELÉMIRE (2005)
TECUMSEH (2005)
Richard B. Mather
Francisco Marco Simón
James Alfred Martin, Jr.
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Universidad de Zaragoza
Wake Forest University (emeritus);
KOU QIANZHI (1987)
FLAMEN (2005)
Columbia University (emeritus)
Bimal Krishna Matilal
IBERIAN RELIGION (2005)
AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL
All Souls College, University of Oxford
Clemente Marconi
AESTHETICS (1987 AND 2005)
CA¯RVA¯KA (1987)
Columbia University
Judith G. Martin
GAUD
. APA
¯ DA (1987)
TEMPLE: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN
JÑA¯NA (1987)
University of Dayton
AND MEDITERRANEAN TEMPLES
MI¯MA¯M
. SA¯ (1987)
ASHRAM (2005)
(2005)
NIMBA¯RKA (1987)
Kathleen J. Martin
VIJÑA
¯ NABHIKS
Ileana Marcoulesco
.U (1987)
California Polytechnic State
International Circle for Research in
Matsumae Takeshi
University
Philosophy, Houston
Ritsumeikan University
LAKOTA RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM (1987)
IZANAGI AND IZANAMI (1987)
(2005)
INTUITION (1987)
Bruce Matthews
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
REDEMPTION (1987)
Acadia University
OF THE PLAINS (2005)
David Marcus
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
Nancy M. Martin
Jewish Theological Seminary of
AND BUDDHISM (2005)
Chapman University
America
Walter Harding Maurer
MIRABAI (2005)
ENLIL (1987)
University of Hawaii, Manoa
ISRAELITE LAW: PROPERTY LAW (1987)
R. M. Martin
PAÑCATANTRA (1987)
NANNA (1987)
(deceased)
Laurent Mayali
NERGAL (1987)
LOGIC (1987)
University of California, Berkeley
SEMANTICS (1987)
Ivan G. Marcus
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND
Jewish Theological Seminary of
Richard C. Martin
RELIGION IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE
America
Arizona State University
(2005)
ASHKENAZIC HASIDISM (1987)
LEFT AND RIGHT (1987)
Mayeda Sengaku
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN NORTHERN
PILGRIMAGE: MUSLIM PILGRIMAGE
University of Tokyo
AND EASTERN EUROPE TO 1500
(1987)
NANJO
¯ BUNYU¯ (1987)
(1987)
TILA¯WAH (1987)
Ann Elizabeth Mayer
RASHI (1987)
Paul V. Martinson
Wharton School of the University of
Nanno Marinatos
Lutheran Northwestern Seminary,
Pennsylvania
University of Illinois
Saint Paul, Minnesota
ISLAMIC LAW: SHARI¯EAH (1987 AND
AEGEAN RELIGIONS (2005)
MORRISON, ROBERT (1987)
2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxx
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Michel M. Mazzaoui
Ian A. McFarland
William H. McNeill
University of Utah
University of Aberdeen
Colebrook, Connecticut
EALAWI¯YU¯N (1987)
JUSTIFICATION (2005)
MIGRATION AND RELIGION (1987)
Jane Dammen McAuliffe
Bernard McGinn
James Kale McNeley
Emory University
University of Chicago Divinity School
Diné College
EA¯DISHAH BINT ABI¯ BAKR (1987)
ANTICHRIST (1987 AND 2005)
ATHAPASKAN RELIGIOUS
TRADITIONS: ATHAPASKAN
William Leon McBride
MYSTICAL UNION IN JUDAISM,
CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM (2005)
CONCEPTS OF WIND AND POWER
Purdue University
(2005)
ROUSSEAU, JEAN-JACQUES (1987)
Thomas McGonigle
Dominican Motherhouse, Sinsinawa,
John R. McRae
Richard P. McBrien
Wisconsin
Indiana University
University of Notre Dame
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: CHINESE
DOMINIC (1987)
ROMAN CATHOLICISM [FIRST
BUDDHISM (2005)
DOMINICANS (1987)
EDITION] (1987)
CHAN (2005)
William McGuire
Ernest G. McClain
HUINENG (2005)
Princeton University Press
Brooklyn College, City University of
Joseph M. McShane
KERÉNYI, KÁROLY (1987)
New York (emeritus)
Le Moyne College
NEUMANN, ERICH (1987)
GEOMETRY (1987)
GIBBONS, JAMES (1987)
C. T. McIntire
LEO XIII (1987)
Sara L. McClintock
University of Toronto
University of Wisconsin—Madison
C. A. Meier
FREE WILL AND PREDESTINATION:
KAMALAS´I¯LA (2005)
Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule,
CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS (1987 AND
S´A¯NTARAKS.ITA (2005)
Zurich
2005)
ASKLEPIOS (1987)
Aminah Beverly McCloud
HISTORY: CHRISTIAN VIEWS (1987
DePaul University
AND 2005)
Michael W. Meister
ISLAM: ISLAM IN THE AMERICAS (2005)
University of Pennsylvania
Catherine McKenna
KRAMRISCH, STELLA (2005)
James F. McCue
Queens College and the Graduate
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
University of Iowa
Center, City University of New York
COMPOUNDS IN SOUTH ASIA (2005)
CLEMENT OF ROME (1987)
BRIGHID (2005)
TEMPLE: HINDU TEMPLES (1987)
PETER THE APOSTLE (1987)
Alyce M. McKenzie
Renée Levine Melammed
Rachel Fell McDermott
Southern Methodist University
Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies,
Barnard College
PARABLES AND PROVERBS (2005)
Jerusalem
BENGALI RELIGIONS (2005)
Edward H. McKinley
MARRANOS (2005)
GODDESS WORSHIP: THE HINDU
Asbury College
Sabine Melchior-Bonnet
GODDESS (2005)
BOOTH, WILLIAM (1987 AND 2005)
Collège de France
Robert A. McDermott
SALVATION ARMY (1987 AND 2005)
MIRRORS (2005)
California Institute of Integral Studies
Ian McMorran
J. Gordon Melton
ANTHROPOSOPHY (1987 AND 2005)
Oriental Institute, University of
Institute for the Study of American
MONISM (1987)
Oxford
Religion
RADHAKRISHNAN, SARVEPALLI (1987)
WANG FUZHI (1987)
HUBBARD, L. RON (2005)
STEINER, RUDOLF (1987 AND 2005)
I AM (2005)
I. J. McMullen
Heather McDonald
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS:
Oriental Institute, University of
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and
HISTORY OF STUDY (2005)
Oxford
Torres Strait Islander Studies
NUWAUBIANS (2005)
KUMAZAWA BANZAN (1987)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
SCIENTOLOGY (2005)
RELIGIONS: NEW RELIGIOUS
Ernan McMullin
Annabelle M. Melville
MOVEMENTS (2005)
University of Notre Dame
Bridgewater, Massachusetts
Sheila McDonough
MATERIALISM (1987)
SETON, ELIZABETH (1987)
Concordia University
Michael D. McNally
Paul R. Mendes-Flohr
MAWDU
¯ DI¯, SAYYID ABU¯ AL-AELA¯ (1987)
Carleton College
Hewbrew University of Jerusalem
ORTHODOXY AND HETERODOXY
NATIVE AMERICAN CHRISTIANITIES
JEWISH THOUGHT AND PHILOSOPHY:
(1987)
(2005)
MODERN THOUGHT (1987 AND 2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxi
Ruth I. Meserve
EVANS-PRITCHARD, E. E. (1987)
CANDRAKI¯RTI (1987)
Indiana University, Bloomington
LUGBARA RELIGION (1987)
S´I¯LABHADRA (1987)
INNER ASIAN RELIGIONS (1987)
MAGIC: THEORIES OF MAGIC (1987
Paul M. Minus
AND 2005)
Michel Meslin
Methodist Theological School in Ohio
NUER AND DINKA RELIGION (1987)
Université de Paris IV (Paris-
(retired)
Sorbonne)
Thomas Mikelson
RAUSCHENBUSCH, WALTER (1987 AND
BAPTISM (1987)
Cambridge, Massachusetts
2005)
EYE (1987)
LEGITIMATION (1987)
Nathan D. Mitchell
HEAD: SYMBOLISM AND RITUAL USE
Silvia Milanezi
Dallas, Texas
(1987)
École des Hautes Études en Sciences
RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES:
HEART (1987)
Sociales, Collège de France
CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS ORDERS (1987)
Ellen Messer
MUSES (1987)
Ogi Mitsuo
George Washington University
Alan L. Miller
Niigata University
RAPPAPORT, ROY A. (2005)
Miami University, Oxford, Ohio
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
Peter Metcalf
(emeritus)
JAPAN (2005)
University of Virginia
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: POPULAR
Miyakawa Hisayuki
BORNEAN RELIGIONS (1987)
RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
Kanagawa, Japan
TOMBS (2005)
POWER (1987 AND 2005)
LIANG WUDI (1987)
Jeffrey F. Meyer
Barbara Stoler Miller
PARAMA¯RTHA (1987)
University of North Carolina at
Barnard College, Columbia University
TANYAO (1987)
Charlotte
JAYADEVA (1987)
XINXING (1987)
TOWERS (2005)
James Miller
Miyamoto Youtaro
Michael A. Meyer
Queen’s University
Kansai University
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
SHOTOKU TAISHI (2005)
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati
AND DAOISM (2005)
Judith S. Modell
REFORM JUDAISM (1987 AND 2005)
Stuart S. Miller
Carnegie-Mellon University
Paul Meyvaert
University of Connecticut
BENEDICT, RUTH (1987)
Medieval Academy of America,
BEIT HILLEL AND BEIT SHAMMAI
A. George Molland
Cambridge, Massachusetts
(1987)
University of Aberdeen
BEDE (1987)
GAMLI’EL THE ELDER (1987 AND 2005)
BACON, ROGER (1987)
GREGORY I (1987)
HILLEL (1987 AND 2005)
HINCMAR (1987)
Arnaldo Momigliano
Timothy Miller
INNOCENT I (1987)
(deceased)
University of Kansas
FORTUNA (1987)
Susan O. Michelman
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
HISTORIOGRAPHY: WESTERN STUDIES
University of Kentucky
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
CLOTHING: CLOTHING AND
UNITED STATES (2005)
PENATES (1987)
RELIGION IN THE WEST (2005)
William D. Miller
ROMAN RELIGION: THE IMPERIAL
Michio Araki
Lloyd, Florida
PERIOD (1987)
University of Tsukuba
SIBYLLINE ORACLES (1987)
DAY, DOROTHY (1987)
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: JAPANESE
WEIL, SIMONE (1987)
Bruce W. Monserud
BUDDHISM (1987)
University of Florida
KAMI (2005)
Kenneth Mills
BENNETT, JOHN G. (2005)
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
University of Toronto
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
William Monter
MODERN JAPAN (2005)
OF THE COLONIAL ANDES (2005)
Northwestern University (emeritus)
Robert Middlekauff
Margaret A. Mills
INQUISITION, THE: THE INQUISITION
IN THE OLD WORLD (2005)
Huntington Library, San Marino,
Ohio State University
California
FOLK RELIGION: FOLK ISLAM (2005)
Dominic V. Monti
MATHER FAMILY (1987)
ORAL TRADITION (1987)
St. Bonaventure University
John Middleton
Mimaki Katsumi
FRANCISCANS (1987 AND 2005)
Yale University
Kyoto University
Joseph N. Moody
EAST AFRICAN RELIGIONS: AN
A
¯ RYADEVA (1987)
Boston College, Saint John’s Seminary
OVERVIEW (1987)
BUDDHAPA¯LITA (1987)
GALLICANISM (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Beverly Moon
John Morton
Francis X. Murphy
New York, New York
La Trobe University
Holy Redeemer College, Washington
ARCHETYPES (1987)
GILLEN, FRANCIS JAMES, AND
D.C.
PEARL (1987)
BALDWIN SPENCER (2005)
JOHN XXIII (1987)
Catherine M. Mooney
RÓHEIM, GÉZA (2005)
Joseph M. Murphy
Weston Jesuit School of Theology
Lotte Motz
Georgetown University
NUNS: CHRISTIAN NUNS AND SISTERS
Hunter College, City University of
SANTERÍA (1987)
(2005)
New York
Barbara G. Myerhoff
Alexander Moore
DVERGAR (1987)
(deceased)
University of California, Los Angeles
Richard M. Moyle
RITES OF PASSAGE: AN OVERVIEW
CUNA RELIGION (1987)
University of Auckland
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Peter Moore
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
Jody Elizabeth Myers
University of Kent
OCEANIA (2005)
California State University,
MYSTICISM [FURTHER
Susanne Mrozik
Northridge
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Mount Holyoke College
KALISCHER, TSEVI HIRSCH (1987 AND
Rebecca Moore
S´A¯NTIDEVA (2005)
2005)
San Diego State University
Karol Mysliwiec
JONES, JIM (2005)
Lewis S. Mudge
San Francisco Theological Seminary
Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw
Walter L. Moore
CHURCH: ECCLESIOLOGY (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY: EGYPTIAN
Florida State University
ICONOGRAPHY (1987)
ECK, JOHANN (1987)
Ru¯ta Muktupa¯vela
Eden Naby
Matti Moosa
Latvian Academy of Culture
Harvard University
Gannon University
ANCESTORS: BALTIC CULT OF
EALI¯ SHI¯R NAVA¯DI¯ (1987)
NESTORIAN CHURCH (1987)
ANCESTORS (2005)
Pamela S. Nadell
Claudio Moreschini
Valdis Muktupa¯vels
American University
University of Pisa
University of Latvia
CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM (2005)
PLATONISM (2005)
BALTIC RELIGION: NEW RELIGIOUS
MOVEMENTS (2005)
Joseph F. Nagy
David Morgan
University of California, Los Angeles
Valparaiso University
Patrick B. Mullen
CELTIC RELIGION: HISTORY OF STUDY
VISUAL CULTURE AND RELIGION: AN
Ohio State University
(2005)
OVERVIEW (2005)
FOLKLORE (2005)
Kate Wildman Nakai
Michael L. Morgan
Werner Muller
Indiana University
Sophia University
Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen
FUJIWARA SEIKA (1987)
FACKENHEIM, EMIL (2005)
(emeritus)
HAYASHI RAZAN (1987 AND 2005)
Morioka Kiyomi
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
YAMAZAKI ANSAI (1987 AND 2005)
Seijo University
OF THE FAR NORTH (1987)
Azim Nanji
RISSHO
¯ KO¯SEIKAI (1987)
Mark R. Mullins
Institute of Ismaili Studies, London
Howard Morphy
Sophia University
ASSASSINS (1987)
Centre for Cross-Cultural Research,
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN ASIA
GARDENS: ISLAMIC GARDENS (2005)
Australian National University
(2005)
ISLAM: AN OVERVIEW [FURTHER
ICONOGRAPHY: AUSTRALIAN
Hasan Qasim Murad
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
ABORIGINAL ICONOGRAPHY (1987
University of Karachi
ISLAMIC STUDIES [FURTHER
AND 2005)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
H
. ASAN AL-BAS.RI¯ (1987)
James Winston Morris
ZAKA¯T (2005)
Institute of Ismaili Studies, Paris
Murakami Shigeyoshi
Vasudha Narayanan
TAQI¯YAH (1987)
Tokyo
University of Florida
O
¯ MOTOKYO¯ (1987)
Lawrence P. Morris
DEVOTION (2005)
Fitzwilliam College
Murano Senchu
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
AFTERLIFE: GERMANIC CONCEPTS
Nichiren Sect Mission of Hawaii
AND HINDUISM (2005)
(2005)
NIKKO
¯ (1987)
HINDUISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxxiii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxiii
Karl J. Narr
Jacob Neusner
Robert Nisbet
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität
Brown University
Columbia University
Münster
MISHNAH AND TOSEFTA (1987)
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY AND
PALEOLITHIC RELIGION (1987)
RABBINIC JUDAISM IN LATE
RELIGION [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
ANTIQUITY (1987)
Kathleen S. Nash
David S. Nivison
YOH
. ANAN BEN ZAKK’AI (1987)
Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York
Stanford University
KENYON, KATHLEEN (2005)
Venetia Newall
CHINESE PHILOSOPHY (1987 AND
University College, University of
Manning Nash
2005)
London
University of Chicago
LI (1987)
EGG (1987)
NATS (1987)
ZHANG XUECHENG (1987)
FAIRIES (1987)
Seyyed Hossein Nasr
Khaliq Ah.mad Nizami
Andrew B. Newberg
George Washington University
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,
University of Pennsylvania Health
DARWI¯SH (1987 AND 2005)
India
System
GUÉNON, RENÉ (1987 AND 2005)
SAMA¯E (1987)
NEUROSCIENCE AND RELIGION:
SHIISM: ITHNA¯ EASHARI¯YAH (1987 AND
S
NEUROEPISTEMOLOGY (2005)
.UH
. BAH (1987)
2005)
NEUROSCIENCE AND RELIGION:
J. H. Kwabena Nketia
Maurice Natanson
NEUROTHEOLOGY (2005)
University of Pittsburgh
Yale University
Gordon D. Newby
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN SUB-
SARTRE, JEAN-PAUL (1987)
Emory University
SAHARAN AFRICA (1987)
Walter G. Neevel, Jr.
KAEBAH (2005)
James Anthony Noel
University of Wisconsin—Madison
John W. Newman
San Francisco Theological Seminary
RAMAKRISHNA (1987)
Earlham College
AFRICAN-AMERICAN RELIGIONS: AN
YA¯MUNA (1987 AND 2005)
HALL, G. STANLEY (1987)
OVERVIEW (2005)
Lisias Noguera Negra¯o
Carol A. Newsom
ALLEN, RICHARD (2005)
Universidade de São Paulo
Emory University
CRUMMELL, ALEXANDER (2005)
KARDECISM (1987)
GARVEY, MARCUS (2005)
ECCLESIASTES (2005)
Stephen C. Neill
JOB (2005)
JONES, ABSALOM (2005)
(deceased)
LIELE, GEORGE (2005)
On-cho Ng
BONIFACE (1987)
SEYMOUR, WILLIAM (2005)
Pennsylvania State University
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN ASIA
TURNER, HENRY MCNEAL (2005)
LU XIANGSHAN (2005)
(1987)
Suzanne Noffke
MISSIONS: CHRISTIAN MISSIONS (1987)
Cuong Tu Nguyen
Sisters of Saint Dominic, Middleton,
WILLIBRORD (1987)
George Mason University
Wisconsin
John K. Nelson
STHIRAMATI (2005)
CATHERINE OF SIENA (1987)
University of San Francisco
H. B. Nicholson
Mary Lee Nolan
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
University of California, Los Angeles
AND JAPANESE RELIGIONS (2005)
(emeritus)
Oregon State University
PILGRIMAGE: ROMAN CATHOLIC
Leon Nemoy
ICONOGRAPHY: MESOAMERICAN
PILGRIMAGE IN THE NEW WORLD
Annenberg Research Institute,
ICONOGRAPHY (1987)
(1987)
Philadelphia
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS:
E
POSTCLASSIC CULTURES (1987 AND
ANAN BEN DAVID (1987)
Hetty Nooy-Palm
2005)
KARAITES (1987)
Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen,
Tiran Nersoyan
Jørgen S. Nielsen
Amsterdam
New York, New York
University of Birmingham
TORAJA RELIGION (1987)
ISLAM: ISLAM IN MODERN EUROPE
ARMENIAN CHURCH (1987)
Richard A. Norris
(2005)
Eleanor Nesbitt
Union Theological Seminary, New York
Paul K. Nietupski
Cheylesmore, United Kingdom
GREGORY OF NYSSA (1987)
John Carroll University
GURU
¯ GRANTH SA¯HIB (2005)
ONTOLOGY (1987)
BUDDHIST BOOKS AND TEXTS:
THEURGY (1987)
Arnaldo Nesti
CANON AND CANONIZATION—
International Center for Studies on
VINAYA (2005)
Richard North
Contemporary Religions, Siena
MONASTICISM: BUDDHIST
University College London
IMPLICIT RELIGION (2005)
MONASTICISM (2005)
PAGANISM, ANGLO-SAXON (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxxiv
cxxiv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Peter Nosco
Leo J. O’Donovan
John J. O’Meara
University of British Columbia
Society of Jesus, Maryland Province
University College, Dublin, National
CONFUCIANISM IN JAPAN (1987 AND
RAHNER, KARL (1987)
University of Ireland
2005)
ERIUGENA, JOHN SCOTTUS (1987)
Schubert M. Ogden
KOKUGAKU (2005)
Southern Methodist University
Thomas F. O’Meara
David Novak
BULTMANN, RUDOLF (1987)
University of Notre Dame
University of Toronto
ECKHART, JOHANNES (1987)
David Ògúngbilé
HALAKHAH: STRUCTURE OF
GRACE (1987)
Obafemi Awolowo University
HALAKHAH (1987)
SCHELLING, FRIEDRICH (1987 AND
KASHRUT (1987 AND 2005)
GOD: AFRICAN SUPREME BEINGS
2005)
(2005)
Philip Novak
Mary R. O’Neil
Dominican University of California
Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney
University of Washington
ATTENTION (1987 AND 2005)
University of Wisconsin—Madison
SUPERSTITION (1987)
AINU RELIGION (1987)
Ronald L. Numbers
Isabelle Onians
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
University of Wisconsin—Madison
University of Oxford
AND MEDICINE IN JAPAN (2005)
VAJRADHARA (2005)
SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISM (1987)
VAJRAPA¯N
WHITE, ELLEN GOULD (1987)
Felix J. Oinas
. I (2005)
Indiana University, Bloomington
Johannes van Oort
Hugo G. Nutini
LÖNNROT, ELIAS (1987)
University of Utrecht / University of
University of Pittsburgh
TUONELA (1987)
Nijmegen
DAY OF THE DEAD (2005)
MANICHAEISM: MANICHAEISM AND
TLAXCALAN RELIGION (1987 AND
Oyeronke Olajubu
CHRISTIANITY (2005)
2005)
University of Ilorin
Eric M. Orlin
Guy Oakes
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
AND AFRICAN RELIGIOUS
University of Puget Sound
Monmouth College, West Long
TRADITIONS (2005)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
Branch, New Jersey
AND ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN
DILTHEY, WILHELM (1987)
Jennifer Oldstone-Moore
RELIGIONS (2005)
Wittenberg University
Francis Oakley
Heather S. Orr
SEIDEL, ANNA KATHARINA (2005)
Williams College
Western State College of Colorado
BONIFACE VIII (1987)
Maurice Olender
BALLGAMES: MESOAMERICAN
Gananath Obeyesekere
École Pratique des Hautes Études,
BALLGAMES (2005)
Princeton University
Collège de France
Charles D. Orzech
BAUBO (1987)
SINHALA RELIGION (1987)
University of North Carolina at
PRIAPUS (1987)
Susan O’Brien
Greensboro
Margaret Beaufort Institute of
Deise Lucy Oliveira Montardo
AMOGHAVAJRA (1987)
MAHA¯VAIROCANA (1987)
Theology, Cambridge, United
Anthropology Museum of the Federal
S´UBHA
¯ KARASM.HA (1987)
Kingdom
University of Santa Catarina
VAJRABODHI (1987)
WARD, MARY (2005)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
ZHENYAN (1987)
SOUTH AMERICA (2005)
Joseph T. O’Connell
Juan M. Ossio
University of Toronto
Patrick Olivelle
Pontificia Universidad Católica del
CAITANYA (2005)
University of Texas at Austin
Perú
RITES OF PASSAGE: HINDU RITES (1987
Marvin R. O’Connell
MESSIANISM: SOUTH AMERICAN
AND 2005)
University of Notre Dame
MESSIANISM (2005)
SAM
. NYA
¯ SA (1987 AND 2005)
BELLARMINO, ROBERTO (1987)
Eckart Otto
BORROMEO, CARLO (1987)
Miguel Angel Olivera
University of Munich
SUÁREZ, FRANCISCO (1987)
Buenos Aires
COVENANT (2005)
TORQUEMADA, TOMÁS DE (1987)
MAPUCHE RELIGION (1987)
ISRAELITE LAW: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
TRENT, COUNCIL OF (1987)
Carl Olson
Daniel L. Overmyer
June O’Connor
Allegheny College
University of British Columbia
University of California, Riverside
TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION
CHINESE RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
AUROBINDO GHOSE (1987)
(2005)
(1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxxv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxv
David Ownby
Raphael Patai
Olivier Pelon
Université de Montréal
Forest Hills, New York
Université Lyon II
FALUN GONG (2005)
FOLK RELIGION: FOLK JUDAISM (1987)
AEGEAN RELIGIONS (1987)
Willard G. Oxtoby
Anne Pattel-Gray
Christian Pelras
Trinity College, University of Toronto
Tauondi Incorporated
Centre National de la Recherche
HOLY, IDEA OF THE (1987)
AUSTRALIAN INDIGENOUS
Scientifique, Paris
PRIESTHOOD: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
RELIGIONS: ABORIGINAL
BUGIS RELIGION (1987)
Andrea Pacini
CHRISTIANITY (2005)
Robert D. Pelton
Edoardo Agnelli Centre for
Laurie Louise Patton
Madonna House, Combemere,
Comparative Religious Studies, Turin,
Emory University
Canada
Italy
COSMOLOGY: HINDU COSMOLOGY
TRICKSTERS: AFRICAN TRICKSTERS
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
(2005)
(1987)
MIDDLE EAST (2005)
LIFE (2005)
John Pemberton III
William E. Paden
SUBALTERN STUDIES (2005)
Amherst College
University of Vermont
Robert S. Paul
ICONOGRAPHY: TRADITIONAL
COMPARATIVE RELIGION (2005)
Austin Presbyterian Theological
AFRICAN ICONOGRAPHY (1987 AND
André Padoux
Seminary
2005)
Centre National de la Recherche
MINISTRY (1987)
YORUBA RELIGION (1987)
Scientifique, Paris
Richard K. Payne
Kenneth Pennington
CAKRAS (1987)
Institute of Buddhist Studies,
Syracuse University
S´AIVISM: PRATYABHIJN
˜ A¯ (1987)
Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley
INNOCENT III (1987)
S´AIVISM: VI¯RAS´AIVAS (1987)
FUDO
¯ (2005)
M. Basil Pennington
Anthony Padovano
SHINGONSHU
¯ (2005)
Ramapo College of New Jersey
St. Joseph’s Abbey, Spencer,
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
Massachusetts
MERTON, THOMAS (1987)
BUDDHIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE IN
EAST ASIA (2005)
CISTERCIANS (1987)
Crispin Paine
University College Chichester
James L. Peacock
Juha Pentikäinen
MUSEUMS AND RELIGION (2005)
University of North Carolina at
Helsingin Yliopisto (University of
Helsinki)

Susan J. Palmer
Chapel Hill
BATHS (2005)
Dawson College
DRAMA: JAVANESE WAYANG (1987 AND
2005)
CASTRÉN, MATTHIAS ALEXANDER
RAËLIANS (2005)
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS: NEW
(2005)
TWELVE TRIBES (2005)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN
DONNER, KAI (2005)
Raimundo Panikkar
INSULAR CULTURES (1987 AND 2005)
FINNISH RELIGIONS (2005)
University of California, Santa
FINNO-UGRIC RELIGIONS: AN
Birger A. Pearson
Barbara (emeritus)
OVERVIEW (2005)
University of California, Santa
DEITY (1987)
FINNO-UGRIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY
Barbara
Geoffrey Parrinder
OF STUDY (2005)
HYPOSTASIS (1987)
HAAVIO, MARTTI (2005)
University of London
Joanne E. Pearson
HONKO, LAURI (2005)
GHOSTS (1987)
KARELIAN RELIGION (2005)
PEACE (1987)
Cardiff University
LAESTADIUS, LARS LEVI (2005)
TOUCHING (1987)
WICCA (2005)
MARI AND MORDVIN RELIGION (1987)
TRIADS (1987)
Karen Pechilis
SAMI RELIGION (2005)
William B. Parsons
Drew University
SAMOYED RELIGION (2005)
Rice University
S´IVA [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
TUONELA (2005)
PSYCHOLOGY: PSYCHOLOGY OF
(2005)
Jean Pépin
RELIGION (2005)
SOUL: INDIAN CONCEPTS (2005)
Centre National de la Recherche
Harry B. Partin
Jaroslav Pelikan
Scientifique, Paris
Duke University
Yale University
LOGOS (1987)
CLASSIFICATION OF RELIGIONS (1987)
CHRISTIANITY: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
PARADISE (1987)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
Sabino Perea Yébenes
PINARD DE LA BOULLAYE, HENRI
WESTERN EUROPE (1987)
Universidad de Murcia, Spain
(1987)
FAITH (1987)
DIANA (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxvi
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Andrés Alejandro Pérez Diez
Giovanni Pettinato
S. Brent Plate
Centro Argentino de Etnológia
Università degli Studi di Roma “La
Texas Christian University
Americana, Buenos Aires
Sapienza”
FILM AND RELIGION (2005)
WARAO RELIGION (1987)
AKITU (2005)
Cicerone Poghirc
ATRAHASIS (2005)
Pheme Perkins
Centre Roumain de Recherches, Paris
EBLAITE RELIGION (2005)
Boston College
BENDIS (1987)
ENKI (2005)
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM AS A
DACIAN RIDERS (1987)
ENLIL (2005)
CHRISTIAN HERESY (1987)
GETO-DACIAN RELIGION (1987)
ENUMA ELISH (2005)
SABAZIOS (1987)
James W. Perkinson
GILGAMESH (2005)
INANNA (2005)
THRACIAN RELIGION (1987)
Marygrove College and Ecumenical
MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS: AN
THRACIAN RIDER (1987)
Theological Seminary
OVERVIEW [FURTHER
ZALMOXIS (1987)
PERCUSSION AND NOISE (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
John Polkinghorne
Bernard C. Perley
NERGAL (2005)
Queens’ College, Cambridge
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee
NINHURSAGA (2005)
CHAOS THEORY (2005)
NINURTA (2005)
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
COSMOLOGY: SCIENTIFIC
OF THE NORTHWEST COAST
Lloyd W. Pflueger
COSMOLOGIES (2005)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Truman State University
Edgar C. Polomé
TRICKSTERS: NORTH AMERICAN
I
¯S´VARA (2005)
University of Texas at Austin
TRICKSTERS [FURTHER
Giulia Piccaluga
FREYJA (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Università degli Studi, Rome
FREYR (1987)
Moshe Perlmann
BINDING (1987)
GERMANIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
University of California, Los Angeles
CALENDARS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
(1987)
CHRONOLOGY (1987)
POLEMICS: MUSLIM-JEWISH
HEIMDALLR (1987)
KNOTS (1987)
NJO
¸ RD
POLEMICS (1987)
¯ R (1987)
Nelson Pike
THOR (1987)
Henry Pernet
University of California, Irvine
Françoise Pommaret
Carpinteria, California
EMPIRICISM (1987)
Centre National de la Recherche
MASKS (2005)
HUME, DAVID (1987)
Scientifique, Paris
Michelene E. Pesantubbee
Sarah M. Pike
TIBETAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
University of Iowa
California State University, Chico
STUDY (2005)
CHEROKEE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
NEOPAGANISM (2005)
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
(2005)
RITES OF PASSAGE: NEOPAGAN RITES
BUDDHIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE IN
(2005)
F. E. Peters
TIBET (2005)
New York University
Anthony B. Pinn
Mu-chou Poo
JERUSALEM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
Rice University
Institute of History and Philology,
NATION OF ISLAM (2005)
Academia Sinica
Rudolph Peters
AFTERLIFE: CHINESE CONCEPTS (2005)
Nederlands Instituut voor Archaeologie
Andrea Piras
University of Bologna
en Arabische Studien, Cairo
Deborah A. Poole
ANGELS (2005)
JIHA
¯ D (1987)
Johns Hopkins University
MANI (2005)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN
Ted Peters
Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge
RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF STUDY
Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary
Université de Liège
(1987 AND 2005)
SCIENCE AND RELIGION (2005)
APHRODITE (2005)
Fitz John Porter Poole
Gregory R. Peterson
Andrew H. Plaks
University of California, San Diego
South Dakota State University
Princeton University; Hebrew
MELANESIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
NEUROSCIENCE AND RELIGION: AN
University of Jerusalem
THEMES (1987)
OVERVIEW (2005)
GOLDEN RULE (2005)
Ismail K. Poonawala
Indira Viswanathan Peterson
Xavier De Planhol
University of California, Los Angeles
Mount Holyoke College
Université de Paris IV (Paris-
AL-AZHAR (2005)
GANGES RIVER (1987)
Sorbonne)
IKHWA¯N AL-S.AFA¯D (1987)
S´AIVISM: NA
¯ YA¯N.A¯RS (1987)
DESERTS (1987)
QARA
¯ MIT.AH (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxxvii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxvii
Richard H. Popkin
Hanns J. Prem
Reinhard Pummer
Washington University, Saint Louis
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
University of Ottawa
RELATIVISM (1987)
München
SAMARITANS (2005)
SKEPTICS AND SKEPTICISM (1987)
TOLTEC RELIGION (1987)
Michael Pye
Gregory F. Porter
John Prest
Philipps-Universität Marburg
San Francisco, California
Balliol College, University of Oxford
MERIT: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
UNDERHILL, EVELYN (1987)
GARDENS: AN OVERVIEW (1987 AND
MERIT: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS (1987)
2005)
UPA¯YA (1987)
Gary G. Porton
University of Illinois, Urbana-
James J. Preston
Christopher S. Queen
Champaign
State University of New York, College
Harvard University
EAQIVAD BEN YOSEF (1987)
at Oneonta
ENGAGED BUDDHISM (2005)
ELISHAE BEN AVUYAH (1987 AND 2005)
GODDESS WORSHIP: AN OVERVIEW
Andrew Quintman
YEHUDAH HA-NASID (1987 AND 2005)
(1987)
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
YISHMAEE’L BEN ELISHAE (1987)
GODDESS WORSHIP: THEORETICAL
MI LA RAS PA (2005)
PERSPECTIVES (1987)
Stephen G. Post
PURIFICATION: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
Gilles Quispel
Case Western Reserve University
Eleanor M. Preston-Whyte
Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht
SOROKIN, PITIRIM ALEKSANDROVICH
GNOSTICISM: GNOSTICISM FROM ITS
(2005)
University of Natal
ORIGINS TO THE MIDDLE AGES
ZULU RELIGION (1987)
Karl H. Potter
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Universtiy of Washington
Richard Price
SOPHIA (1987)
Johns Hopkins University
GUN
. AS (1987)
B. Tahera Qutbuddin
MADHVA (1987)
AFRO-SURINAMESE RELIGIONS (1987)
University of Chicago
Robert Potter
Simon Price
ZAYNAB BINT EALI¯ (2005)
University of California, Santa
University of Oxford
Albert J. Raboteau
Barbara
ROMAN RELIGION: THE IMPERIAL
Princeton University
PERIOD (2005)
HROTSVIT (2005)
AFRICAN AMERICAN RELIGIONS:
Anne Primavesi
William K. Powers
MUSLIM MOVEMENTS (1987)
University of London
Rutgers, The State University of New
KING, MARTIN LUTHER, JR. (1987)
GAIA (2005)
Jersey, New Brunswick Campus
Kathryn Allen Rabuzzi
DRAMA: NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN
Leonard Norman Primiano
Syracuse University
DANCE AND DRAMA (1987)
University of Pennsylvania
FAMILY (1987)
LAKOTA RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
ALL FOOLS’ DAY (1987)
HOME (1987)
(1987)
HALLOWEEN (1987)
Friedhelm K. Radandt
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
Stephen Prothero
The King’s College, New York
OF THE PLAINS (1987)
Boston University
HERDER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (1987
Judith L. Poxon
OLCOTT, HENRY STEEL (2005)
AND 2005)
California State University,
Wayne Proudfoot
Rosemary Rader
Sacramento
Columbia University
St. Paul’s Priory, Saint Paul,
FEMINISM: FRENCH FEMINISTS ON
PHILOSOPHY: PHILOSOPHY OF
Minnesota
RELIGION (2005)
RELIGION (1987)
FASTING (1987)
Carlo Prandi
James H. Provost
MENDICANCY (1987)
University of Parma
Catholic University of America
D. S. Raevskii
INVISIBLE RELIGION (2005)
EXCOMMUNICATION (1987)
Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R.,
Charles S. Prebish
Leo M. Pruden
Moscow
Pennsylvania State University
American University of Oriental
SARMATIAN RELIGION (1987)
COUNCILS: BUDDHIST COUNCILS
Studies, Los Angeles
SCYTHIAN RELIGION (1987)
(1987)
KO
¯ BEN (1987)
Habibeh Rahim
Riv-Ellen Prell
TIANTAI (1987)
Hunter College, City University of
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Michael J. Puett
New York
MYERHOFF, BARBARA G. (1987 AND
Harvard University
ALCHEMY: ISLAMIC ALCHEMY (1987)
2005)
BONES (2005)
INCENSE (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxviii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Fazlur Rahman
EAST AFRICAN RELIGIONS:
Bryan S. Rennie
University of Chicago
NORTHEAST BANTU RELIGIONS
Westminster College
IQBAL, MUHAMMAD (1987)
(1987)
ELIADE, MIRCEA [FURTHER
LANG, ANDREW (1987)
ISLAM: AN OVERVIEW [FIRST
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
TURNER, VICTOR (1987)
EDITION] (1987)
Marie-Simone Renou
MULLA¯ S.ADRA¯ (1987)
J. D. Ray
Paris, France
Karl Rahner
University of Cambridge
RENOU, LOUIS (1987)
PYRAMIDS: EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS (1987)
(deceased)
Richard J. Resch
DOGMA (1987)
Reginald Ray
Loras College
VATICAN COUNCILS: VATICAN II
The Naropa Institute, Boulder
LOISY, ALFRED (1987)
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
MAHA¯SIDDHAS (1987)
RENAN, ERNEST (1987)
NA¯ RO PA (1987)
Jill Raitt
Matthew Restall
University of Missouri, Columbia
Kay A. Read
Pennsylvania State University
BEZA, THEODORE (1987)
DePaul University
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS:
CANISIUS, PETER (1987)
HUMAN SACRIFICE: AN OVERVIEW
COLONIAL CULTURES (2005)
POLITICS AND RELIGION: POLITICS
(1987 AND 2005)
John Reumann
AND CHRISTIANITY (2005)
RITES OF PASSAGE: MESOAMERICAN
RITES (2005)
Lutheran Theological Seminary at
Aaron Rakeffet-Rothkoff
Karen Ready
Philadelphia (emeritus)
Michlala, Jerusalem
New York, New York
MARY: AN OVERVIEW (1987 AND 2005)
REVEL, BERNARD (1987)
WORK (1987)
Frank E. Reynolds
Lewis R. Rambo
Bernard M. G. Reardon
University of Chicago
San Francisco Theological Seminary
University of Newcastle upon Tyne
BUDDHA (1987)
CONVERSION (1987 AND 2005)
BUDDHISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
MODERNISM: CHRISTIAN
Velcheru Narayana Rao
DUT
MODERNISM (1987 AND 2005)
. T.HAGA¯MAN
. I¯ (1987)
MONGKUT (1987)
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Donald B. Redford
THERAVA
¯ DA (1987)
BALARA¯MA (1987)
University of Toronto
HANUMA
¯ N (1987)
David M. Rhoads
EGYPTIAN RELIGION: THE
RA
¯ MA (1987)
Lutheran School of Theology at
LITERATURE (1987)
RA
¯ MA¯YAN.A (1987)
Chicago
Anthony Redmond
TULSI¯DA
¯ S (1987)
ZEALOTS (1987 AND 2005)
Australian National University
VA
¯ LMI¯KI (1987)
Alfred Ribi
UNGARINYIN RELIGION (2005)
Melissa Raphael
C. G. Jung-Institut Küsnacht/Zürich
Marjorie E. Reeves
University of Gloucestershire
DEMONS: PSYCHOLOGICAL
Oxford, England
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
PERSPECTIVES (1987)
JOACHIM OF FIORE (1987)
AND JUDAISM (2005)
Gaetano Riccardo
MENSTRUATION (2005)
Janice Reid
Istituto Universitario Orientale,
PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY (2005)
University of Western Sydney
Naples, Italy
THEALOGY (2005)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
KINGSHIP: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
AND MEDICINE IN INDIGENOUS
Ada Rapoport-Albert
AUSTRALIA (2005)
Audrey I. Richards
University College London
(deceased)
MAID OF LUDMIR (2005)
Jennifer I. M. Reid
BEMBA RELIGION (1987)
University of Maine at Farmington
Ravi Ravindra
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
James T. Richardson
Dalhousie University
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
University of Nevada, Reno
EINSTEIN, ALBERT (1987)
MODERN CANADA (2005)
JESUS MOVEMENT (2005)
GALILEO GALILEI (1987)
Marie-Louise Reiniche
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND NEW
KEPLER, JOHANNES (1987)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS (2005)
École des Hautes Études en Sciences
NEWTON, ISAAC (1987)
Sociales, Collège de France
Mac Linscott Ricketts
Benjamin C. Ray
DI¯VA¯LI¯ (1987)
Louisburg College (emeritus)
University of Virginia
HINDU RELIGIOUS YEAR (1987)
LEACH, EDMUND (2005)
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW
HOLI¯ (1987)
TRICKSTERS: NORTH AMERICAN
(1987)
NAVARA¯TRI (1987)
TRICKSTERS [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxxix
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxix
Paul Ricoeur
MERLIN (1987 AND 2005)
Holmes Rolston III
Université de Paris IV (Paris-
TALIESIN (1987 AND 2005)
Colorado State University
Sorbonne) and University of Chicago
Noel Robertson
SOCIOBIOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY
(emeritus)
Brock University
PSYCHOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
EVIL (1987)
ANTHESTERIA (2005)
András Róna-Tas
MYTH: MYTH AND HISTORY (1987)
Roland Robertson
Budapest
Julien Ries
University of Pittsburgh
CHUVASH RELIGION (1987)
Université Catholique de Louvain-la-
ECONOMICS AND RELIGION (1987)
Neuve
Annmari Ronnberg
FUNCTIONALISM (1987)
FALL, THE (1987)
Archive for Research in Archetypal
RADCLIFFE-BROWN, A. R. (1987)
IDOLATRY (1987)
Symbolism, New York
Francis Robicsek
Nancy C. Ring
SPITTLE AND SPITTING (1987)
Sanger Clinic, P.A., Charlotte, North
Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York
Carolina
Wayne R. Rood
SÖLLE, DOROTHEE (2005)
SMOKING (1987)
Pacific School of Religion, Berkeley
VATICAN COUNCILS: VATICAN II
COMENIUS, JOHANNES AMOS (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Françoise Robin
Institut National des Langues et
Wade Clark Roof
Helmer Ringgren
Civilisations Orientales, Paris
University of California, Santa
Uppsala Universitet
GESAR (2005)
Barbara
COMPARATIVE MYTHOLOGY (1987)
SOCIETY AND RELIGION [FURTHER
JUDGMENT OF THE DEAD (1987)
Isabelle Robinet
MESSIANISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
Institut des Langues Orientales,
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
RESURRECTION (1987)
Valpuiseaux, France
Sidney H. Rooy
Marlene Dobkin de Rios
GUO XIANG (1987)
Educación Teológica, Buenos Aires
University of California, Irvine;
ZHANG DAOLING (1987)
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN
emerita, California State University,
ZHANG JUE (1987)
LATIN AMERICA (1987)
Fullerton
ZHANG LU (1987)
LAS CASAS, BARTOLOMÉ DE (1987)
PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS (2005)
David Robinson
Miriam Rosen
Andrew Rippin
Michigan State University
New York, New York
University of Victoria
FULBE RELIGION (1987)
CALLIGRAPHY: HEBREW
EUMAR TA¯L (1987)
BAYD
. A¯WI¯, AL- (1987)
MICROGRAPHY (1987)
T.ABARI¯, AL- (2005)
Thomas A. Robinson
Jean E. Rosenfeld
TAFSI¯R (1987)
University of Lethbridge
ZAMAKHSHARI¯, AL- (1987)
University of California, Los Angeles
HERESY: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS (2005)
MAORI RELIGION [FURTHER
Claude Rivière
Ludo Rocher
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Université de Paris V, Sorbonne
University of Pennsylvania
LÉVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN (1987)
Richard A. Rosengarten
MANU (1987)
SOUL: CONCEPTS IN INDIGENOUS
S´A
¯ STRA LITERATURE (1987)
University of Chicago
RELIGIONS (1987 AND 2005)
SU
¯ TRA LITERATURE (1987)
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
Sajjad H. Rizvi
AND LITERATURE (2005)
E. Burke Rochford, Jr.
University of Bristol
Middlebury College
Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal
H
. USAYN IBN EALI¯, AL- (2005)
PRABHUPADA, A. C. BHAKTIVEDANTA
Fordham University
SHAYKHI¯YAH (2005)
(2005)
MEREZHKOVSKII, DMITRII (1987 AND
Ronald G. Roberson
Susan Rodgers
2005)
United States Conference of Catholic
Ohio University
SOLOVDEV, VLADIMIR (1987 AND 2005)
Bishops, Washington, D.C.
BATAK RELIGION (1987)
Franz Rosenthal
SYRIAC ORTHODOX CHURCH OF
Yale University (emeritus)
ANTIOCH (2005)
Peter T. Rohrbach
Potomac, Maryland
IBN KHALDU
¯ N (1987)
Brynley F. Roberts
TERESA OF ÁVILA (1987)
Cardiff University (Honorary
Harold D. Roth
THÉRÈSE OF LISIEUX (1987)
Professor)
Brown University
ANNWN (1987 AND 2005)
Lynn E. Roller
FANGSHI (1987 AND 2005)
ARTHUR (1987 AND 2005)
University of California, Davis
LIU AN (1987 AND 2005)
MABINOGION (1987 AND 2005)
CYBELE (2005)
ZHUANGZI (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxx
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Fritz A. Rothschild
MYSTERY RELIGIONS (1987)
Dario Sabbatucci
Jewish Theological Seminary of
RELIGIONSGESCHICHTLICHE SCHULE
Università degli Studi, Rome
America
(1987)
MORTIFICATION (1987)
HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA (1987)
WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS (1987)
ORDEAL (1987)
WISDOM (1987)
Leroy S. Rouner
Thomas F. Sable
Boston University
Rosemary Radford Ruether
University of Scranton
HOCKING, WILLIAM ERNEST (1987)
Garrett-Evangelical Theological
UNIATE CHURCHES (1987 AND 2005)
IDEALISM (1987)
Seminary, Evanston, Illinois
Abdullah Saeed
Jean-Paul Roux
ANDROCENTRISM (1987)
University of Melbourne
École du Louvre, Paris
Jeffrey C. Ruff
QURDA¯N: TRADITION OF
BLOOD (1987)
Marshall University
SCHOLARSHIP AND
TENGRI (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
INTERPRETATION (2005)
TURKIC RELIGIONS (1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION IN NORTH
Omid Safi
Elizabeth Ashman Rowe
AMERICA (2005)
Colgate University
Somerville, Massachusetts
Frithiof Rundgren
MODERNISM: ISLAMIC MODERNISM
ÁLFAR (2005)
(2005)
DVERGAR (2005)
Uppsala Universitet
EDDAS (2005)
NYBERG, H. S. (1987)
Klaus Sagaster
FREYJA (2005)
Jörg Rüpke
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-
FREYR (2005)
University of Erfurt
Universität Bonn
GERMANIC RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
CHINGGIS KHAN (1987)
FASTI (2005)
(2005)
ERLIK (1987)
GERMANIC RELIGION: HISTORY OF
ROMAN RELIGION: THE EARLY
ÜLGEN (1987)
STUDY (2005)
PERIOD (2005)
HEIMDALLR (2005)
Donald P. St. John
Brian O. Ruppert
JÖTNAR (2005)
Moravian College
University of Illinois, Urbana-
NJO
¸ RD
¯ R (2005)
HANDSOME LAKE (1987)
Champaign
ÓD
¯ INN (2005)
IROQUOIS RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
RUNES [FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS]
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN JAPAN
(1987)
(2005)
(2005)
NEOLIN (1987 AND 2005)
SAGAS (2005)
J. R. Russell
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
TY´R (2005)
Columbia University
OF THE NORTHEAST WOODLANDS
Christopher Rowland
ARMENIAN RELIGION (1987)
(1987 AND 2005)
University of Oxford
Jeffrey Burton Russell
John A. Saliba
BIBLICAL EXEGESIS: CHRISTIAN VIEWS
University of California, Santa
University of Detroit Mercy
(2005)
UFO RELIGIONS (2005)
Barbara
Gonzalo Rubio
WITCHCRAFT: CONCEPTS OF
Richard C. Salter
Pennsylvania State University
WITCHCRAFT (1987)
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
DAGAN (2005)
RASTAFARIANISM (2005)
DRAMA: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN
T. C. Russell
RITUAL DRAMA [FURTHER
University of Manitoba
Judy D. Saltzman
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
TAO HONGJING (2005)
California Polytechnic State
PHILISTINE RELIGION (2005)
University
J. Joseph Ryan
Jean Rudhardt
GURDJIEFF, G. I. (2005)
(deceased)
Université de Genève
JUDGE, WILLIAM Q. (2005)
DAMIAN, PETER (1987)
FLOOD, THE (1987)
OUSPENSKY, P. D. (2005)
WATER (1987)
Jennifer Rycenga
Geoffrey Samuel
Erwin P. Rudolph
San Jose State University
Cardiff University
Wheaton College, Illinois
STANTON, ELIZABETH CADY (2005)
HEALING AND MEDICINE: HEALING
LAW, WILLIAM (1987)
Michael A. Rynkiewich
AND MEDICINE IN TIBET (2005)
Kurt Rudolph
Asbury Theological Seminary,
Norbert M. Samuelson
Phillipps-Universität Marburg
Wilmore, Kentucky
Arizona State University
HERESY: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
MICRONESIAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
ABRAVANEL, ISAAC (1987)
KULTURKREISELEHRE (1987)
THEMES (2005)
GERSONIDES (1987 AND 2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxxi
IBN DAUD, AVRAHAM (1987)
Richard Schacht
MARS (1987)
IBN GABIROL, SHELOMOH (1987 AND
University of Illinois, Urbana-
NUMEN (1987)
2005)
Champaign
PARENTALIA (1987)
PONTIFEX (1987)
Alexis Sanderson
NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH (1987)
ROMAN RELIGION: THE EARLY
Oriental Institute, University of
Kurtis R. Schaeffer
PERIOD (1987)
Oxford
University of Alabama
VENUS (1987)
ABHINAVAGUPTA (1987)
KARMA PAS (2005)
VESTA (1987)
S´AIVISM: KRAMA S´AIVISM (1987)
Robert P. Scharlemann
Annemarie Schimmel
S´AIVISM: S´AIVISM IN KASHMIR (1987)
University of Virginia (retired)
Harvard University
S´AIVISM: TRIKA S´AIVISM (1987)
TILLICH, PAUL JOHANNES (1987 AND
2005)
ANDRAE, TOR (1987)
James Hugh Sanford
CALLIGRAPHY: ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY
University of North Carolina at
David A. Schattschneider
(1987)
Chapel Hill
Moravian Theological Seminary
CATS (1987)
MORAVIANS (1987)
IKKYU
¯ SO¯JUN (1987)
H
. ALLA
¯ J, AL- (1987)
ZINZENDORF, NIKOLAUS (1987 AND
Marc Saperstein
HEILER, FRIEDRICH (1987)
2005)
ICONOGRAPHY: ISLAMIC
George Washington University
Richard Schechner
ICONOGRAPHY (1987)
ADRET, SHELOMOH BEN AVRAHAM
New York University
ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS YEAR (1987)
(1987)
PERFORMANCE AND RITUAL (1987
LULL, RAMÓN (1987)
ASHER BEN YEH
. IDEL (1987)
AND 2005)
NUMBERS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
IBN EEZRAD, AVRAHAM (1987 AND 2005)
Bernhard Scheid
NU
¯ R MUH.AMMAD (1987)
Jonathan D. Sarna
Austrian Academy of Sciences
QURRAT AL-EAYN T.A¯HIRAH (1987)
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
RA
¯ BIEAH AL-EADAWI¯YAH (1987)
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati
AND SHINTO
¯ (2005)
RU
¯ MI¯, JALA¯L AL-DI¯N (1987)
SZOLD, HENRIETTA (1987)
John Scheid
Robert S. Schine
Nahum M. Sarna
Collège de France
Middlebury College
ARVAL BROTHERS (1987 AND 2005)
Brandeis University
COHEN, HERMANN (2005)
DEA DIA (2005)
BIBLICAL LITERATURE: HEBREW
Conrad Schirokauer
FASTI (1987)
SCRIPTURES (1987)
LUDI SAECULARES (1987)
City College, City University of New
David Sassian
LUSTRATIO (1987)
York
New York, New York
Raymond P. Scheindlin
ZHU XI (1987 AND 2005)
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1987)
Jewish Theological Seminary of
Eva Schmidt
Nicholas J. Saunders
America
Magyar Tudományos Akadémia,
BAH
. YE IBN PAQUDA (1987 AND 2005)
Budapest
University College London
KHANTY AND MANSI RELIGION (1987)
JAGUARS (2005)
George L. Scheper
Johns Hopkins University
Sandra M. Schneiders
Deborah F. Sawyer
CHARISMA (2005)
Jesuit School of Theology, Berkeley
Lancaster University
CURSING (2005)
JOHN OF THE CROSS (1987 AND 2005)
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Lawrence H. Schiffman
AND ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN
Juliane Schober
New York University
RELIGIONS (2005)
Arizona State University
ESSENES (1987)
U NU (2005)
William S. Sax
DEAD SEA SCROLLS (1987)
South Asia Institute, University of
SADDUCEES (2005)
J. Matthew Schoffeleers
Heidelberg
Robert Schilling
Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
KUMBHA MELA
¯ (1987)
École Pratique des Hautes Études,
MBONA (1987)
PILGRIMAGE: HINDU PILGRIMAGE
Collège de France, and Université de
Steven Scholl
(2005)
Strasbourg II
Kalimat Press, Los Angeles
DIANA (1987)
Roberta A. Schaafsma
SHAYKHI¯YAH (1987)
JANUS (1987)
Duke University Divinity School
JUNO (1987)
Karine Schomer
Library
JUPITER (1987)
University of California, Berkeley
REFERENCE WORKS (2005)
LUPERCALIA (1987)
SU
¯ RDA¯S (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxxii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Ismar Schorsch
Anna Seidel
Paul Shankman
Jewish Theological Seminary of
École Française d’Extrême-Orient,
University of Colorado at Boulder
America
Kyoto
MEAD, MARGARET (2005)
FRANKEL, ZACHARIAS (1987)
HUANGDI (1987)
Thomas A. Shannon
JEWISH STUDIES: JEWISH STUDIES
MASPERO, HENRI (1987)
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
FROM 1818 TO 1919 (1987)
TAIPING (1987)
BIOETHICS (2005)
SCHECHTER, SOLOMON (1987)
YU (1987)
Vernon James Schubel
YUHUANG (1987)
Robert H. Sharf
Kenyon College
Robert M. Seltzer
University of California, Berkeley
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
Hunter College and the Graduate
SUZUKI, D. T. (2005)
MUSLIM WORSHIP (2005)
School, City University of New York
Arvind Sharma
Michael J. Schuck
HISTORY: JEWISH VIEWS (1987)
McGill University
Loyola University Chicago
JEWISH PEOPLE (1987 AND 2005)
DEVILS (1987)
KROCHMAL, NAH
. MAN (1987)
ROMAN CATHOLICISM [FURTHER
ECSTASY (1987)
MENDELSSOHN, MOSES (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
OBEDIENCE (1987 AND 2005)
David G. Schultenover
H. L. Seneviratne
SATAN (1987 AND 2005)
Creighton University
University of Virginia
Eric J. Sharpe
SAM
. GHA: SAM
. GHA AND SOCIETY IN
TYRRELL, GEORGE (1987)
University of Sydney
SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA (1987)
Hillel Schwartz
BRANDON, S. G. F. (1987)
Bernard Septimus
University of California, San Diego
DIALOGUE OF RELIGIONS (1987)
Harvard University
MILLENARIANISM: AN OVERVIEW
JAMES, E. O. (1987)
ABULAFIA, MEDIR (1987)
(1987)
MANISM (1987)
YA!AQOV BEN ASHER (1987)
SACRED TIME (2005)
MANNHARDT, WILHELM (1987)
MARETT, R. R. (1987)
Steven S. Schwarzschild
Susan Sered
PREANIMISM (1987)
Washington University, Saint Louis
Harvard University
HEALING AND MEDICINE: AN
TYLOR, E. B. (1987)
COHEN, HERMANN (1987)
OVERVIEW (2005)
ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ (1987)
Richard Shek
California State University,
Nathan A. Scott, Jr.
R. B. Serjeant
Sacramento
University of Virginia
University of Saint Andrews
H
. ARAM AND H
. AWT.AH (1987)
MILLENARIANISM: CHINESE
LITERATURE: RELIGIOUS DIMENSIONS
MILLENARIAN MOVEMENTS (1987
OF MODERN WESTERN LITERATURE
Scott Sessions
AND 2005)
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Amherst College
R. Kevin Seasoltz
INQUISITION, THE: THE INQUISITION
Massey H. Shepherd, Jr.
Saint Anselm’s Abbey, Washington,
IN THE NEW WORLD (2005)
Church Divinity School of the Pacific,
D.C.
T. K. Seung
Berkeley
BENEDICTINES (1987)
University of Texas at Austin
ANGLICANISM (1987)
BENEDICT OF NURSIA (1987)
KANT, IMMANUEL (1987 AND 2005)
CRANMER, THOMAS (1987)
HOOKER, RICHARD (1987)
Anthony Seeger
William A. Shack
WYCLIF, JOHN (1987)
Indiana University, Bloomington
University of California, Berkeley
GE MYTHOLOGY (1987)
EAST AFRICAN RELIGIONS:
Gerald T. Sheppard
Robert A. Segal
ETHIOPIAN RELIGIONS (1987)
Emmanuel College, University of
University of Lancaster, United
Meir Shahar
Toronto
Kingdom
Tel Aviv University
CANON (1987)
PROPHECY: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
GASTER, THEODOR H. (2005)
MARTIAL ARTS: CHINESE MARTIAL
HEROES (2005)
ARTS (2005)
Byron L. Sherwin
JUNG, C. G. (2005)
Reza Shah-Kazemi
Spertus College of Judaica
SMITH, W. ROBERTSON (2005)
Institute of Ismaili Studies, London
LÖW, YEHUDAH BEN BETSALDEL OF
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY AND
EALI¯ IBN ABI¯ T.A¯LIB (2005)
PRAGUE (1987)
RELIGION [FURTHER
T.ABA¯T.ABA¯D I¯, EALLA¯MA (2005)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Amnon Shiloah
SOCIOLOGY: SOCIOLOGY OF
Muhammad Kazem Shaker
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
RELIGION [FURTHER
Qom University
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN THE
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
HAWZAH (2005)
MIDDLE EAST (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxxiii
Edward Shils
Joseph Sievers
Tadeusz Skorupski
University of Chicago
Pontifical Biblical Institute
School of Oriental and African
INTELLECTUALS (1987)
SMITH, MORTON (2005)
Studies, University of London
Shimazono Susumu
Alejandra Siffredi
PRAJÑA¯ (1987)
University of Tokyo
Universidad de Buenos Aires
DHARMA: BUDDHIST DHARMA AND
DHARMAS (1987)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
TEHUELCHE RELIGION (1987)
SAUTRA
¯ NTIKA (1987)
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN JAPAN
Pierre André Sigal
TATHATA¯ (1987)
(2005)
Université de Montpellier III (Paul
O
¯ MOTOKYO¯ (2005)
Laura A. Skosey
Valéry)
SO
¯ KA GAKKAI (2005)
University of Chicago
PILGRIMAGE: ROMAN CATHOLIC
Larry D. Shinn
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW AND
PILGRIMAGE IN EUROPE (1987)
Berea College
RELIGION IN CHINESE RELIGIONS
Anna-Leena Siikala
(2005)
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR
Helsingin Yliopisto
KRISHNA CONSCIOUSNESS (1987
Vieda Skultans
DESCENT INTO THE UNDERWORLD
AND 2005)
University of Bristol
(1987)
Roger Lincoln Shinn
SHAMANISM: SIBERIAN AND INNER
AFFLICTION: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
University of Chicago
ASIAN SHAMANISM (1987)
Peter Slater
NIEBUHR, REINHOLD (1987 AND 2005)
UKKO (1987)
Trinity College, University of Toronto
Jan Shipps
Laurence J. Silberstein
BAKHTIN, M. M. (2005)
Purdue University
Lehigh University
HOPE (1987)
SMITH, WILFRED CANTWELL (2005)
YOUNG, BRIGHAM (1987)
BUBER, MARTIN (1987 AND 2005)
KAUFMANN, YEH
. EZKEL (1987)
R. C. Sleigh, Jr.
Moshe Shokeid
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Tel-Aviv University
George Eaton Simpson
Oberlin College
LEIBNIZ, GOTTFRIED WILHELM (1987)
PILGRIMAGE: CONTEMPORARY
CARIBBEAN RELIGIONS: AFRO-
JEWISH PILGRIMAGE (1987 AND 2005)
Ninian Smart
CARIBBEAN RELIGIONS (1987)
Frank Shuffelton
University of Lancaster, United
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
University of Rochester
Kingdom and University of
CARIBBEAN REGION (1987)
California, Santa Barbara
HOOKER, THOMAS (1987)
Khushwant Singh
COMPARATIVE-HISTORICAL METHOD
Neelima Shukla-Bhatt
Bombay, India
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York
SINGH, GOBIND (1987)
SOTERIOLOGY (1987)
A¯NANDAMAYI¯ MA¯ (2005)
Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
Brian K. Smith
S´A¯RA¯DA DEVI¯ (2005)
Colby College
University of California, Riverside
Kwong-loi Shun
DASAM GRANTH (2005)
SAM
. SA
¯ RA (1987)
University of Toronto
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
TANTRISM: HINDU TANTRISM (2005)
REN AND YI (2005)
AND SIKHISM (2005)
VARN
. A AND JA¯TI (2005)
NA¯NAK (2005)
Anson Shupe
VEDA¯N
˙ GAS (2005)
SIKHISM (2005)
Indiana University–Purdue University
D. Moody Smith
Fort Wayne
Denis Sinor
Duke University
ANTICULT MOVEMENTS (2005)
Indiana University
JOHN THE EVANGELIST (1987 AND
DEPROGRAMMING (2005)
HUN RELIGION (1987)
2005)
UMAI (1987)
Muzammil H. Siddiqi
LUKE THE EVANGELIST (1987 AND
Islamic Society, Garden Grove,
Nathan Sivin
2005)
MARK THE EVANGELIST (1987 AND
California
University of Pennsylvania
ALCHEMY: CHINESE ALCHEMY (1987
2005)
S.ALA¯T (1987)
AND 2005)
MATTHEW THE EVANGELIST (1987
James T. Siegel
AND 2005)
Peter Skilling
Cornell University
Lumbini International Research
E. Gene Smith
ACEHNESE RELIGION (1987)
Institute
Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center,
Lee Siegel
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
New York
University of Hawaii, Manoa
BUDDHIST DEVOTIONAL LIFE IN
KONG SPRUL BLO GROS MTHA’ YAS
BHAGAVADGI¯TA¯ (1987)
SOUTHEAST ASIA (2005)
(KONGTRUL LODRO TAYE) (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxxiv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Frederick M. Smith
Aidan Southall
Aaron Stalnaker
University of Iowa
University of Wisconsin—Madison
Indiana University
MANTRA (2005)
TSWANA RELIGION (1987)
XUNZI (2005)
Jane I. Smith
Susanna W. Southard
Joan Stambaugh
Harvard University
Vanderbilt University
Hunter College, City University of
AFTERLIFE: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
RUTH AND NAOMI (2005)
New York
I
¯MA¯N AND ISLA¯M (1987)
Joseph J. Spae
PHILOSOPHY: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
John E. Smith
Oud-Heverlee, Belgium
James J. Stamoolis
Yale University
ITO
¯ JINSAI (1987)
International Fellowship of Evangelical
PHILOSOPHY: PHILOSOPHY AND
Johanna Spector
Students, Jeannette, Pennsylvania
RELIGION (1987)
Jewish Theological Seminary of
INNOKENTII VENIAMINOV (1987)
Jonathan Z. Smith
America
Shaul Stampfer
University of Chicago
CHANTING (1987)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
AGES OF THE WORLD (1987)
Susan A. Spectorsky
KAGAN, YISRADEL MEDIR (1987)
DYING AND RISING GODS (1987)
Queens College, City University of
KOTLER, AHARON (1987)
GOLDEN AGE (1987)
New York
YESHIVAH (1987)
SLEEP (1987)
MA¯LIK IBN ANAS (1987)
Robert J. Smith
Michael Stanislawski
MAS.LAH.AH (1987)
Cornell University
Columbia University
R. Marston Speight
DOMESTIC OBSERVANCES: JAPANESE
ELIYYAHU BEN SHELOMOH ZALMAN
Hartford Seminary
PRACTICES (1987)
(1987)
CREEDS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
ISSERLES, MOSHEH (1987)
Warren Thomas Smith
MA¯TURI¯DI¯, AL- (1987)
LURIA, SHELOMOH (1987)
Interdenominational Theological
S. David Sperling
Center, Atlanta
John E. Stanton
Hebrew Union College–Jewish
AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO (1987)
University of Western Australia
Institute of Religion, New York
BERNDT, RONALD (2005)
Stuart W. Smithers
GOD: GOD IN THE HEBREW
TJURUNGAS (1987)
San Francisco, California
SCRIPTURES (1987 AND 2005)
JEREMIAH (1987)
SPIRITUAL GUIDE (1987)
Vincent Stanzione
Moses Mesoamerican Archive, Peabody
David L. Snellgrove
Lewis W. Spitz
Museum
School of Oriental and African
Stanford University
BRUNO, GIORDANO (1987)
MAXIMÓN (2005)
Studies, University of London
FICINO, MARSILIO (1987)
(emeritus)
Michael Stausberg
HUMANISM (1987)
BUDDHAS AND BODHISATTVAS:
University of Bergen
PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, GIOVANNI
CELESTIAL BUDDHAS AND
KLIMKEIT, HANS-JOACHIM (2005)
(1987)
BODHISATTVAS (1987)
Alan Sponberg
Alessandro Stavru
Moshe Sokol
Princeton University
Università degli Studi di Napoli
Lander College for Men, Touro College
KUIJI (1987)
“L’Orientale”
SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH BAER (2005)
XUANZANG (1987)
BACHOFEN, J. J. (2005)
Robert Somerville
OTTO, WALTER F. (2005)
Dragoslav Srejovic´
Columbia University
SOCRATES (2005)
Univerzitet u Beogradu
GREGORY VII (1987 AND 2005)
NEOLITHIC RELIGION (1987)
Stephen J. Stein
LEO I (1987)
Smriti Srinivas
Indiana University, Bloomington
Deborah Sommer
University of California, Davis
EDWARDS, JONATHAN (1987)
Gettysburg College
CITIES (2005)
Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt
CHENG HAO (1987 AND 2005)
SAI BABA MOVEMENT (2005)
University of Pennsylvania
CHENG YI (1987 AND 2005)
Max L. Stackhouse
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
ICONOGRAPHY: CONFUCIAN
Princeton Theological Seminary
COMPOUNDS IN EAST ASIA (2005)
ICONOGRAPHY (2005)
CHRISTIAN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS (1987
TEMPLE: CONFUCIAN TEMPLE
Sergio Sorrentino
AND 2005)
COMPOUNDS (1987 AND 2005)
University of Salerno
MISSIONS: MISSIONARY ACTIVITY
TEMPLE: DAOIST TEMPLE
SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH (2005)
(1987 AND 2005)
COMPOUNDS (1987 AND 2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxxxv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxxv
Ernst Steinkellner
Jon R. Stone
HEALING AND MEDICINE: AN
Universität Wien
California State University, Long
OVERVIEW (2005)
DHARMAKI¯RTI (1987)
Beach
HIEROPHANY (1987)
NATURE: WORSHIP OF NATURE (1987)
William H. Stemper, Jr.
MÜLLER, F. MAX (2005)
ORIENTATION (1987)
Forum for Corporate Responsibility,
Jeffrey Stout
SUPREME BEINGS (1987)
New York
Princeton University
TRICKSTERS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
FREEMASONS (1987)
NATURALISM (1987)
TRICKSTERS: MESOAMERICAN AND
Mikael Stenmark
Yuri Stoyanov
SOUTH AMERICAN TRICKSTERS
Uppsala University
University of London
(1987)
SOCIOBIOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY
DUALISM (2005)
Winnifred Fallers Sullivan
PSYCHOLOGY: DARWINISM AND
Frederick J. Streng
University of Chicago
RELIGION (2005)
Southern Methodist University
LAW AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
Walter Stephens
S´U
¯ NYAM AND S´U¯NYATA¯ (1987)
(2005)
Johns Hopkins University
TRUTH (1987)
Sunao Taira
DEMONS: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Ivan Strenski
Tsukuba University
Barry Stephenson
University of California, Riverside
OKINAWAN RELIGION (2005)
University of Calgary
DURKHEIM, ÉMILE (2005)
Bengt Sundkler
RITES OF PASSAGE: AN OVERVIEW
John S. Strong
Uppsala Universitet
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Bates College
SHEMBE, ISAIAH (1987)
David Stern
MA¯RA (2005)
University of Pennsylvania
MERIT: BUDDHIST CONCEPTS (1987)
Kenneth Surin
Duke University
AFTERLIFE: JEWISH CONCEPTS (1987)
PRZYLUSKI, JEAN (2005)
COHEN, ARTHUR A. (2005)
RELICS (1987 AND 2005)
LIBERATION (2005)
Carole Lynn Stewart
Peter T. Struck
A. Rand Sutherland
University of Calgary
University of Pennsylvania
Florida Southern College
CIVIL RELIGION (2005)
SYMBOL AND SYMBOLISM (2005)
BOETHIUS (1987)
Devin J. Stewart
David Stuart
William L. Svelmoe
Emory University
Harvard University
St. Mary’s College, Notre Dame
MA¯LIK IBN ANAS (2005)
MAYA RELIGION (2005)
EVANGELICAL AND FUNDAMENTAL
CHRISTIANITY (2005)
Dianne M. Stewart
Kocku von Stuckrad
Emory University
University of Amsterdam
Mark N. Swanson
AFRICAN AMERICAN RELIGIONS:
ENCYCLOPEDIAS (2005)
Luther Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota
HISTORY OF STUDY (2005)
FESTSCHRIFTEN (2005)
COPTIC CHURCH (2005)
Norman A. Stillman
Theodore Stylianopoulos
Paul L. Swanson
State University of New York at
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of
Nanzan Institute of Religion and
Binghamton
Theology, Brookline, Massachusetts
Culture, Nagoya, Japan
BERBER RELIGION (1987)
EPHRAEM OF SYRIA (1987)
ENNIN (1987)
ISAAC THE SYRIAN (1987)
Elettra Stimilli
SERAFIM OF SAROV (1987)
Michael Swartz
University of Salerno
Emilio Suárez de la Torre
Ohio State University
TAUBES, JAKOB (2005)
University of Valladolid
JUDAISM: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
George W. Stocking, Jr.
PINDAR (2005)
Samy Swayd
University of Chicago
SIBYLLINE ORACLES (2005)
San Diego State University
CODRINGTON, R. H. (1987 AND 2005)
Sharada Sugirtharajah
DRUZE (2005)
F. Ernest Stoeffler
University of Birmingham
Donald K. Swearer
Temple University
RAMABAI, PANDITA (2005)
Swarthmore College (emeritus);
FRANCKE, AUGUST HERMANN (1987)
Lawrence E. Sullivan
Harvard Divinity School
PIETISM (1987)
University of Notre Dame
ARHAT (1987)
SPENER, PHILIPP JAKOB (1987)
AXIS MUNDI (1987)
BUDDHADA¯SA (2005)
Jacqueline I. Stone
CENTER OF THE WORLD (1987)
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN
Princeton University
DEUS OTIOSUS (1987)
SOUTHEAST ASIA (1987)
NICHIRENSHU
¯ (2005)
EARTH (1987)
BUDDHIST RELIGIOUS YEAR (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxxvi
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
Karl Taube
J. A. Theuws
AND BUDDHISM (2005)
University of California, Riverside
Vaalbeck, Belgium
FOLK RELIGION: FOLK BUDDHISM
DRAMA: MESOAMERICAN DANCE AND
LUBA RELIGION (1987)
(1987)
DRAMA (2005)
Jacqueline M. C. Thomas
Daniel M. Swetschinski
JADE (2005)
Centre National de la Recherche
University of Arizona
Rhonda Taube
Scientifique, Paris
MARRANOS (1987)
University of California, San Diego
PYGMY RELIGIONS (1987)
DRAMA: MESOAMERICAN DANCE AND
Laura Furlan Szanto
DRAMA (2005)
Louis-Vincent Thomas
University of California, Santa
Universite de Paris V (Rene Descartes)
Barbara
Ann Taves
FUNERAL RITES: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
FICTION: NATIVE AMERICAN FICTION
Claremont School of Theology and
AND RELIGION (2005)
Claremont Graduate University
Laurence G. Thompson
POETRY: NATIVE AMERICAN POETRY
JAMES, WILLIAM (2005)
University of Southern California
AND RELIGION (2005)
RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE (2005)
CHINESE RELIGIOUS YEAR (1987)
JIAO (1987)
James D. Tabor
Bron Taylor
TIAN (1987)
University of North Carolina at
University of Florida
EARTH FIRST! (2005)
Chapel Hill
Linus J. Thro
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
KORESH, DAVID (2005)
Saint Louis University
AND NATURE RELIGIONS (2005)
GILSON, ÉTIENNE (1987)
Ikael Tafari
Eugene Taylor
University of the West Indies
Robert A. F. Thurman
Harvard University
RASTAFARIANISM (2005)
Amherst College
CONSCIOUSNESS, STATES OF (2005)
TATHA¯GATA-GARBHA (1987)
Suha Taji-Farouki
Mark C. Taylor
University of Exeter
Richard W. Thurn
Williams College
QUTB, SAYYID (2005)
New York, New York
KIERKEGAARD, SØREN (1987)
ASHES (1987)
Sarolta A. Takács
Rodney L. Taylor
BLADES (1987)
Rutgers, the State University of
University of Colorado at Boulder
CARDS (1987)
New Jersey
ZHANG ZAI (1987 AND 2005)
FOUNTAIN (1987)
ISIS (2005)
ZHOU DUNYI (1987 AND 2005)
Antoine Tibesar
Charles H. Talbert
Barbara Tedlock
Academy of American Franciscan
Wake Forest University
State University of New York at
History, West Bethesda, Maryland
REIMARUS, HERMANN SAMUEL (1987)
Buffalo
SERRA, JUNIPERO (1987)
DREAMS (1987 AND 2005)
Thomas J. Talley
Mihaela Timus
General Theological Seminary, New
Stephen F. Teiser
Center for the History of Religions,
York
Princeton University
BUDDHISM: BUDDHISM IN CHINA
University of Bucharest
CHRISTIAN LITURGICAL YEAR (1987)
(2005)
WIKANDER, STIG (2005)
WORSHIP AND DEVOTIONAL LIFE:
CHRISTIAN WORSHIP (1987)
Javier Teixidor
Tink Tinker
Centre National de la Recherche
Iliff School of Theology, Denver,
Frank Talmage
Scientifique, Paris
Colorado
University of Toronto
ARAMEAN RELIGION (1987)
OSAGE RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS (2005)
KIMH
. I, DAVID (1987)
S. D. Temkin
SUN DANCE [FURTHER
Elsa Tamez
University of Miami
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Universidad Bíblica Latinoamericana,
VISION QUEST (2005)
WISE, ISAAC M. (1987)
Costa Rica
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
Hava Tirosh-Samuelson
LIBERATION THEOLOGY (2005)
Metta Forest Monastery, Valley Center,
Arizona State University
Kenneth Tanaka
California
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
Albany, California
EIGHTFOLD PATH (2005)
AND JUDAISM (2005)
HUIYUAN (1987)
James S. Thayer
Francis V. Tiso
Gary Michael Tartakov
Oklahoma State University
Institute of Noetic Sciences, Petaluma,
Iowa State University
MAWU-LISA (1987)
California
MU
¯ RTI (1987)
UNKULUNKULU (1987)
ORGY: ORGY IN ASIA (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxxvii
Linda M. Tober
Diane Treacy-Cole
Edith Turner
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
University of Bristol
University of Virginia
HEAVEN AND HELL (1987)
EDDY, MARY BAKER (2005)
BODILY MARKS (2005)
MARY MAGDALENE (2005)
Dale Todaro
LIMINALITY (2005)
New York, New York
Lucio Troiani
MARRIAGE (1987)
NDEMBU RELIGION (1987)
KUMA¯RAJI¯VA (1987)
Università di Pavia
CICERO (2005)
PILGRIMAGE: AN OVERVIEW (1987
Toki Masanori
AND 2005)
Kokugakuin University
Christian W. Troll
RITES OF PASSAGE: AN OVERVIEW
PRIESTHOOD: SHINTO
¯ PRIESTHOOD
Vidyajyoti Institute, Delhi
[FIRST EDITION] (2005)
(1987)
AHMAD KHAN, SAYYID (1987)
Karen Turner
R. A. Tomlinson
Garry W. Trompf
Holy Cross College
University of Birmingham
University of Sydney
LEGALISM (2005)
TEMPLE: ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN
CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN THE
AND MEDITERRANEAN TEMPLES
PACIFIC ISLANDS [FURTHER
Victor Turner
(1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
(deceased)
COSMOLOGY: OCEANIC
Chiara Ombretta Tommasi
BODILY MARKS (1987)
COSMOLOGIES (2005)
Università degli Studi di Pisa
Thomas A. Tweed
JEVONS, F. B. (1987)
APOTHEOSIS (2005)
OCEANIC RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
University of North Carolina at
ASCENSION (2005)
STUDY [FURTHER
Chapel Hill
ORGY: ORGY IN MEDIEVAL AND
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
ADAMS, HANNAH (2005)
MODERN EUROPE (2005)
SHARPE, ERIC J. (2005)
Isadore Twersky
ORGY: ORGY IN THE ANCIENT
SPENCER, HERBERT (1987)
MEDITERRANEAN WORLD (2005)
Harvard University
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
AVRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIÈRES
Robert Tonkinson
STUDY OF RELIGION IN AUSTRALIA
(1987)
University of Western Australia
AND OCEANIA (2005)
TRANSCULTURATION AND RELIGION:
MAIMONIDES, MOSES (1987)
MARDU RELIGION (1987 AND 2005)
RELIGION IN THE FORMATION OF
Ruel W. Tyson, Jr.
James B. Torrance
MODERN OCEANIA (2005)
University of North Carolina at
University of Aberdeen
UTOPIA (1987)
Chapel Hill
BARTH, KARL (1987)
Mary Evelyn Tucker
JOURNALISM AND RELIGION (1987)
Sandy Toussaint
Bucknell University
Ueda Kenji
University of Western Australia
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: AN
Kokugakuin University
KABERRY, PHYLLIS M. (2005)
OVERVIEW (2005)
ECOLOGY AND RELIGION: ECOLOGY
HIRATA ATSUTANE (1987)
Richard F. Townsend
AND CONFUCIANISM (2005)
MOTOORI NORINAGA (1987)
Art Institute of Chicago
KAIBARA EKKEN (1987)
NORITO (1987)
GEOGRAPHY (1987)
NAKAE TO
¯ JU (1987)
Uehara Toyoaki
LAKES (1987)
William Tuladhar-Douglas
Indiana University, Bloomington
David Tracy
Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies
TENRIKYO
¯ (1987)
University of Chicago
PU
¯ JA¯: BUDDHIST PU¯JA¯ (2005)
THEOLOGY: COMPARATIVE
Ellen M. Umansky
Diana G. Tumminia
THEOLOGY (1987)
Fairfield University
California State University,
ELECTION (1987)
J. B. Trapp
Sacramento
EXILE (1987 AND 2005)
Warburg Institute, University of
UNARIUS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE (2005)
MONTAGU, LILY (1987)
London
Robert Turcan
YATES, FRANCES AMELIA (2005)
Frederic B. Underwood
Université Lyon III (Jean Moulin)
Upperco, Maryland
John Travis
AGNO
¯ STOS THEOS (1987 AND 2005)
MEDITATION (1987)
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of
APOCATASTASIS (1987)
Theology, Brookline, Massachusetts
APOTHEOSIS (1987)
Taitetsu Unno
CERULARIOS, MICHAEL (1987)
CATHARSIS (1987 AND 2005)
Smith College
GREGORY OF CYPRUS (1987)
DEIFICATION (1987)
KARUN
. A¯ (1987)
NIKEPHOROS (1987)
DIETERICH, ALBRECHT (1987)
MAPPO
¯ (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxxxviii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
E. E. Urbach
Charlotte Vaudeville
DÖMÖTÖR, TEKLA (2005)
Israel Academy of Sciences and
Université de Paris III (Sorbonne-
HUNGARIAN RELIGION (2005)
Humanities, Jerusalem
Nouvelle) and École Pratique des
REGULY, ANTAL (2005)
TOSAFOT [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Hautes Études, Collège de France
John O. Voll
KABI¯R (1987)
Hugh B. Urban
Georgetown University
Ohio State University
Juan Adolfo Vázquez
IBN EABD AL-WAHHA¯B, MUH.AMMAD
(1987 AND 2005)
CAKRAS (2005)
University of Pittsburgh
WAHHA
¯ BI¯YAH (1987 AND 2005)
CROWLEY, ALEISTER (2005)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN
KUN
RELIGIONS: MYTHIC THEMES (1987)
. D
. ALINI¯ (2005)
John E. Vollmer
POLITICS AND RELIGION: AN
Anuradha Veeravalli
New York, New York
OVERVIEW (2005)
Delhi University
CLOTHING: CLOTHING AND
TAGORE, RABINDRANATH (2005)
INDIAN PHILOSOPHIES (2005)
RELIGION IN THE EAST (2005)
TEXTILES (1987 AND 2005)
Gary Urton
NYA¯YA (2005)
Harvard University
Franciscus Verellen
M. Heerma van Voss
ETHNOASTRONOMY (1987 AND 2005)
Institute of Chinese Studies, Chinese
University of Amsterdam (emeritus)
ANUBIS (1987 AND 2005)
Paul Valliere
University of Hong Kong
DU GUANGTING (2005)
BLEEKER, C. JOUCO (1987)
Butler University
SIMA CHENGZHEN (2005)
Hent de Vries
TRADITION (1987 AND 2005)
Donald Phillip Verene
Johns Hopkins University
F. Van Ommeslaeghe
Emory University
ORIENTALISM (2005)
Société des Bollandistes, Brussels
CASSIRER, ERNST (1987)
Jacques Waardenburg
CHRYSOSTOM (1987)
VICO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1987)
Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht
John Van Seters
Jean-Pierre Vernant
BREUIL, HENRI (1987)
University of North Carolina at
Collège de France
CHANTEPIE DE LA SAUSSAYE, P. D.
Chapel Hill
GREEK RELIGION [FIRST EDITION]
(1987)
ABRAHAM (1987)
(1987)
GOLDZIHER, IGNÁCZ (1987)
DAVID [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
Marilyn Notah Verney
ISLAMIC STUDIES [FIRST EDITION]
ELIJAH (1987)
University of California, Santa
(1987)
ELISHA (1987)
LEEUW, GERARDUS VAN DER (1987)
Barbara
EZRA (1987)
MASSIGNON, LOUIS (1987)
NAVAJO RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS
JOSIAH (1987)
TIELE, C. P. (1987)
(2005)
MOSES (1987)
WENSINCK, A. J. (1987)
Alec Vidler
NATHAN (1987)
Roy Wagner
NEHEMIAH (1987)
Friars of the Sack, Rye, England
University of Virginia
SAMUEL (1987)
BLONDEL, MAURICE (1987)
AFTERLIFE: OCEANIC CONCEPTS
SAUL (1987)
Vaira Vı¯k¸e-Freiberga
(2005)
SOLOMON (1987)
President of the Republic of Latvia
GOLDENWEISER, ALEXANDER A. (1987)
Nomikos Michael Vaporis
SAULE (2005)
MANA (2005)
Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of
Shafique N. Virani
TABOO (1987)
Theology, Brookline, Massachusetts
Harvard University
TOTEMISM (1987)
KOSMAS AITOLOS (1987)
AHL AL-BAYT (2005)
Rudolf G. Wagner
SCHOLARIOS, GENNADIOS (1987)
David R. Vishanoff
University of Heidelberg
H. Paul Varley
Emory University
WANG BI (1987 AND 2005)
Columbia University
NAZ.Z.A¯M, AL- (2005)
Sally Roesch Wagner
JAPANESE RELIGIONS: RELIGIOUS
Burton L. Visotzky
Matilda Joslyn Gage Foundation,
DOCUMENTS (1987)
Jewish Theological Seminary
Fayetteville, New York
Kapila Vatsyayan
MIDRASH AND AGGADAH [FURTHER
GAGE, MATILDA JOSLYN (2005)
Government of India, Department of
CONSIDERATONS] (2005)
Erik Wahlgren
Culture, New Delhi
Vilmos Voigt
University of California, Los Angeles
DRAMA: INDIAN DANCE AND DANCE
Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem,
(emeritus)
DRAMA (1987)
Budapest (Institute of Ethnography)
RUNES [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxxxix
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxxxix
Manabu Waida
Sheila S. Walker
Manabu Watanabe
University of Alberta
University of California, Berkeley
Nanzan University
AUTHORITY (1987)
HARRIS, WILLIAM WADE (1987)
AUM SHINRIKYO
¯ (2005)
BIRDS (1987)
Vesna A. Wallace
Henry Jay Watkin
COCKS (1987)
University of California, Santa
New York, New York
ELEPHANTS (1987)
Barbara
FOXES (1987)
WISSOWA, GEORG (1987)
FROGS AND TOADS (1987)
KA¯LACAKRA (2005)
W. Montgomery Watt
HEDGEHOGS (1987)
Dewey D. Wallace, Jr.
University of Edinburgh
INCARNATION (1987)
Professor of Religion, George
CREEDS: ISLAMIC CREEDS (1987)
INSECTS (1987)
Washington University
FREE WILL AND PREDESTINATION:
KINGSHIP: KINGSHIP IN EAST ASIA
FREE WILL AND PREDESTINATION: AN
ISLAMIC CONCEPTS (1987)
(1987)
OVERVIEW (1987 AND 2005)
GHAZA
¯ LI, ABU¯ H.A¯MID AL- (1987)
MIRACLES: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
THEOCRACY (1987 AND 2005)
PIGS (1987)
Alex Wayman
RABBITS (1987)
James Waller
Columbia University
TURTLES AND TORTOISES (1987)
New York, New York
BUDDHISM, SCHOOLS OF: TANTRIC
EVOLUTION: EVOLUTIONISM (1987)
David Waines
RITUAL SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM
PREHISTORIC RELIGIONS: AN
University of Lancaster, United
[FIRST EDITION] (1987)
OVERVIEW (1987)
Kingdom
R. K. Webb
EUMAR IBN AL-KHAT
Glenn Wallis
. T.A¯B (1987)
University of Maryland, Baltimore
University of Georgia
Geoffrey Wainwright
County
GLASENAPP, HELMUTH VON (2005)
Duke University
MARTINEAU, JAMES (1987)
BERENGAR OF TOURS (1987 AND 2005)
Neal H. Walls
Val Webb
LORD’S PRAYER (1987 AND 2005)
Wake Forest University Divinity
Augsburg College
Jeanette A. Wakin
School
NIGHTINGALE, FLORENCE (2005)
Columbia University
ANAT (2005)
Sabra J. Webber
BAAL (2005)
ABU
¯ YU¯SUF (1987)
EL (2005)
Ohio State University
Paul Waldau
HUMOR AND RELIGION: HUMOR AND
Michael L. Walter
Tufts University
ISLAM (2005)
Indiana University Libraries,
ANIMALS (2005)
Bloomington
Timothy P. Weber
Marilyn Robinson Waldman
TIBETAN RELIGIONS: HISTORY OF
Denver Conservative Baptist Seminary
Ohio State University
STUDY (1987)
IRVING, EDWARD (1987)
ESCHATOLOGY: ISLAMIC
Jonathan S. Walters
George Weckman
ESCHATOLOGY (1987)
Whitman College
Ohio University
NUBU
¯ WAH (1987)
COMMUNITY (1987)
SUNNAH (1987)
AS´OKA (2005)
MISSIONS: BUDDHIST MISSIONS (2005)
MONASTICISM: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
William S. Waldron
SECRET SOCIETIES (1987 AND 2005)
Middlebury College
Aihe Wang
David L. Weddle
A¯LAYA-VIJÑA¯NA (2005)
University of Hong Kong
YINYANG WUXING (2005)
Colorado College
Stanley Walens
JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES (2005)
University of California, San Diego
Richard G. Wang
Kirk Wegter-McNelly
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
University of Florida
OF THE NORTHWEST COAST [FIRST
FICTION: CHINESE FICTION AND
Boston University
EDITION] (1987)
RELIGION (2005)
PHYSICS AND RELIGION (2005)
POTLATCH (1987)
Kallistos Ware
Tu Wei-ming
THERIANTHROPISM (1987)
Pembroke College, University of
Harvard University
Muhammad Isa Waley
Oxford
SOUL: CHINESE CONCEPTS (1987)
The British Library
CYRIL I (1987)
TAIJI (1987)
KUBRA¯, NAJM AL-DI¯N (2005)
PETR MOGHILA (1987)
WANG YANGMING (1987)
J. H. Walgrave
Watanabe Ho¯yo¯
Donald Weinstein
(deceased)
Rissho University
University of Arizona
NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY (1987)
NICHIREN (1987)
SAVONAROLA, GIROLAMO (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

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cxl
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
John Weinstock
KARO, YOSEF (1987)
Brannon Wheeler
University of Texas at Austin
LIGHT AND DARKNESS (1987)
University of Washington
OLAF THE HOLY (1987)
MESSIANISM: JEWISH MESSIANISM
STUDY OF RELIGION: THE ACADEMIC
SAXO GRAMMATICUS (1987 AND 2005)
(1987)
STUDY OF RELIGION IN NORTH
SNORRI STURLUSON (1987 AND 2005)
POLYTHEISM (1987)
AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST
Robert Weisbrot
SHABBETAI TSEVI [FIRST EDITION]
(2005)
Colby College
(1987)
UMMAH (2005)
FATHER DIVINE (2005)
TRANSMIGRATION (1987)
Wade T. Wheelock
James A. Weisheipl
Eric Werner
James Madison University
(deceased)
New York, New York
LANGUAGE: SACRED LANGUAGE (1987)
ALBERTUS MAGNUS (1987)
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
Charles S. J. White
ANSELM (1987)
GREECE, ROME, AND BYZANTIUM
American University, Washington,
NOMINALISM (1987)
(1987)
D.C.
SCHOLASTICISM (1987)
THOMAS AQUINAS (1987)
Jack Wertheimer
ELIXIR (2005)
Jewish Theological Seminary of
GIFT GIVING (1987 AND 2005)
Bernard G. Weiss
KRISHNAMURTI, JIDDU (1987 AND
University of Utah
America
2005)
IJMA
¯ E (1987)
BAECK, LEO (1987)
IJTIH A
¯ D (1987)
David Gordon White
L. P. Wessell, Jr.
QA¯D
. I¯ (1987)
University of California, Santa
University of Colorado
US.U¯L AL-FIQH (1987)
Barbara
LESSING, G. E. (1987)
Mitchell G. Weiss
ALCHEMY: INDIAN ALCHEMY (1987
Robert Wessing
Harvard University
AND 2005)
Nothern Illinois University
DOGS (2005)
A¯YURVEDA (1987)
SUNDANESE RELIGION (1987)
TANTRISM: AN OVERVIEW (2005)
Chava Weissler
Lehigh University
Catherine Wessinger
J. Daniel White
TEKHINES (2005)
Loyola University New Orleans
University of North Carolina at
Charlotte

G. R. Welbon
BESANT, ANNIE (2005)
TOWERS (2005)
University of Pennsylvania
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: AN
OVERVIEW (2005)
BURNOUF, EUGÈNE (1987 AND 2005)
Peter M. Whiteley
LÉVI, SYLVAIN (1987 AND 2005)
NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS: NEW
Sarah Lawrence College
OLDENBERG, HERMANN (1987 AND
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
2005)
MILLENNIALISM (2005)
OF THE SOUTHWEST (1987)
VAIKHA¯NASAS (1987 AND 2005)
YOGANANDA (2005)
Norman E. Whitten, Jr.
VAS.N.AVISM: BHA¯GAVATAS (1987 AND
Cornel West
2005)
University of Illinois, Urbana-
Yale University
VAS.N.AVISM: PA¯ÑCARA¯TRAS (1987 AND
Champaign
2005)
METAPHYSICS (1987)
AMAZONIAN QUECHUA RELIGIONS
ZAEHNER, R. C. (1987)
M. L. West
(1987)
ZIMMER, HEINRICH ROBERT (1987
Royal Holloway College and Bedford
G. M. Wickens
AND 2005)
College, University of London
University of Toronto
Mary Wellemeyer
EROS (1987)
H
. A
¯ FIZ. SHI¯RA¯ZI¯ (1987)
Unitarian Universalist Church,
HESIOD (1987)
SAEDI¯ (1987)
Manchester, New Hampshire
THESMOPHORIA (1987)
Kathleen O’Brien Wicker
SERVETUS, MICHAEL (2005)
Joan Goodnick Westenholz
Scripps College
Willeke Wendrich
Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem
MAMI WATA (2005)
University of California, Los Angeles
GODDESS WORSHIP: GODDESS
Christian Wiese
EGYPTIAN RELIGION: HISTORY OF
WORSHIP IN THE ANCIENT NEAR
STUDY (2005)
University of Erfurt
EAST (2005)
JONAS, HANS (2005)
R. J. Zwi Werblowsky
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
E. J. Westlake
James B. Wiggins
ANTHROPOMORPHISM (1987)
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Syracuse University
ESCHATOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
DRAMA: DRAMA AND RELIGION (2005)
EXPULSION (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxli
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
cxli
Robert L. Wilken
Michael Winkelman
Mark R. Woodward
University of Notre Dame
Arizona State University
Arizona State University
EBIONITES (1987)
SHAMANISM: AN OVERVIEW
SOUTHEAST ASIAN RELIGIONS:
MARCION (1987)
[FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
HISTORY OF STUDY (2005)
MARCIONISM (1987)
Hasso von Winning
Marcia Wright
NESTORIANISM (1987)
Southwest Museum, Los Angeles,
Columbia University
NESTORIUS (1987)
KINJIKITILE (1987)
PELAGIANISM (1987)
California
PELAGIUS (1987)
MESOAMERICAN RELIGIONS:
Robin M. Wright
FORMATIVE CULTURES (1987)
John Alden Williams
State University of Campinas
University of Texas at Austin
Donald F. Winslow
COSMOLOGY: SOUTH AMERICAN
COSMOLOGIES (2005)
KHA
¯ RIJI¯S (1987)
Episcopal Divinity School, Cambridge,
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
Paul Williams
Massachusetts
OF THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN
University of Bristol
GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS (1987)
AMAZON (2005)
BODHISATTVA PATH (2005)
David Winston
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
Roberto Williams-Garcia
Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley
OF THE NORTHWEST AMAZON
(2005)
Universidad Veracruzana
(emeritus)
TOTONAC RELIGION (1987)
PHILO JUDAEUS (1987 AND 2005)
Donna Marie Wulff
SPINOZA, BARUCH (2005)
Brown University
Jane Williams-Hogan
RA
¯ DHA¯ (1987)
Bryn Athyn College
William J. Wolf
SARASVATI¯ (1987)
SWEDENBORG, EMANUEL (2005)
Episcopal Divinity School, Cambridge,
SWEDENBORGIANISM (2005)
Massachusetts (emeritus)
Ina Wunn
University of Hannover
Janice D. Willis
ATONEMENT: CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS
(1987)
ETHOLOGY OF RELIGION (2005)
Wesleyan University
WARBURG, ABY (2005)
BU STON (1987)
Elliot R. Wolfson
Walter S. Wurzburger
Edwin N. Wilmsen
New York University
Congregation Shaaray Tefila,
Boston University
SHEKHINAH (2005)
Lawrence, New York
KHOI AND SAN RELIGION (1987)
Allan B. Wolter
ATONEMENT: JEWISH CONCEPTS
Bryan R. Wilson
Catholic University of America
(1987)
All Souls College, University of Oxford
(emeritus)
Turrell V. Wylie
SECULARIZATION (1987)
DUNS SCOTUS, JOHN (1987)
(deceased)
John F. Wilson
Mari Womack
DALAI LAMA (1987)
Princeton University
San Pedro, California
Teri Shaffer Yamada
MODERNITY (1987)
SPORTS AND RELIGION (2005)
California State University, Long
Liz Wilson
Isabel Wong
Beach
Miami University
University of Illinois, Urbana-
FICTION: SOUTHEAST ASIAN FICTION
NUDITY (2005)
Champaign
AND RELIGION (2005)
Monica Wilson
MUSIC: MUSIC AND RELIGION IN
Samuel Hideo Yamashita
(deceased)
CHINA, KOREA, AND TIBET (1987)
Pomona College
NYAKYUSA RELIGION (1987)
Allen W. Wood
OGYU
¯ SORAI (1987)
SOUTHERN AFRICAN RELIGIONS: AN
Cornell University
YAMAGA SOKO
¯ O¯ (1987)
OVERVIEW (1987)
DEISM (1987)
Philip Yampolsky
Robert R. Wilson
ENLIGHTENMENT, THE (1987)
Columbia University
Yale University
Juliette Wood
HAKUIN (1987)
PROPHECY: BIBLICAL PROPHECY (1987)
Cardiff University
HUINENG (1987)
Thomas A. Wilson
GENDER AND RELIGION: GENDER
Ehsan Yarshater
Hamilton College
AND CELTIC RELIGIONS (2005)
Columbia University
CONFUCIANISM: THE IMPERIAL CULT
Hiram Woodward
MAZDAKISM (2005)
(2005)
Walters Art Museum
NOWRU
¯ Z (1987 AND 2005)
Walter Wink
TEMPLE: BUDDHIST TEMPLE
Neguin Yavari
Auburn Theological Seminary
COMPOUNDS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
Columbia University
JOHN THE BAPTIST (1987)
(2005)
NIZ.A¯M AL-MULK (2005)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxlii
cxlii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Robert A. Yelle
HENOTHEISM (1987 AND 2005)
Grover A. Zinn, Jr.
University of Toronto
NISHIDA KITARO
¯ (2005)
Oberlin College
LAW AND RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW
PARADOX AND RIDDLES (1987 AND
HUGH OF SAINT-VICTOR (1987)
(2005)
2005)
Eric Ziolkowski
LAW AND RELIGION: LAW, RELIGION,
Dario Zadra
Lafayette College
AND PUNISHMENT (2005)
Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana
FICTION: THE WESTERN NOVEL AND
Vasileios Yioultsis
SYMBOLIC TIME (1987)
RELIGION (2005)
Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki
Dominique Zahan
WACH, JOACHIM [FURTHER
PHOTIOS (1987)
CONSIDERATIONS] (2005)
Université de Paris V (René Descartes)
Angela Yiu
BAMBARA RELIGION (1987)
Steven J. Zipperstein
Sophia University
WEST AFRICAN RELIGIONS (1987)
Stanford University
FICTION: JAPANESE FICTION AND
GINZBERG, ASHER (2005)
Tzvee Zahavy
RELIGION (2005)
JUDAISM: JUDAISM IN NORTHERN
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Glenn E. Yocum
AND EASTERN EUROPE SINCE 1500
BERURYAH (1987)
Whittier College
(1987)
MEDIR (1987)
MA¯N
. IKKAVA¯CAKAR (1987)
Theodore Zissis
SHIMEON BAR YOH.DAI (1987)
MEYKAN
. T.A¯R (1987)
Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki
SHIMEON BEN GAMLIDEL II (1987)
UMA
¯ PATI S´IVA¯CA¯RYA (1987)
BARLAAM OF CALABRIA (1987)
T.ARFON (1987)
Serinity Young
EUTYCHES (1987)
YEHOSHU!A BEN H.ANANYAH (1987)
Hunter College, City University of
JEREMIAS II (1987)
YEHUDAH BAR ILEAI (1987)
MAKARIOS OF EGYPT (1987)
New York
YOSE BEN H
. ALAFTA’ (1987)
PACHOMIUS (1987)
STARS (1987)
Shamoon Zamir
SEVERUS OF ANTIOCH (1987)
Suzanne Youngerman
King’s College London
THEODORET OF CYRRHUS (1987)
Laban-Bartenieff Institute of
SAID, EDWARD W. (2005)
Michael J. Zogry
Movement Studies, New York,
Edwin Zehner
University of Kansas
New York
DeKalb, Illinois
BALLGAMES: NORTH AMERICAN
DANCE: THEATRICAL AND
DHAMMAKA¯YA MOVEMENT (2005)
INDIAN BALLGAMES (2005)
LITURGICAL DANCE [FIRST
NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS: INDIANS
EDITION] (1987)
Eleanor Zelliot
OF THE SOUTHEAST WOODLANDS
Anthony C. Yu
Carleton College
(2005)
University of Chicago
AMBEDKAR, B. R. (1987 AND 2005)
Laurie Zoloth
LITERATURE: LITERATURE AND
MARATHI RELIGIONS (1987 AND 2005)
Northwestern University
RELIGION (1987)
Otto Zerries
GENETICS AND RELIGION (2005)
Chun-fang Yü
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
Evan M. Zuesse
Rutgers, The State University of New
München
South Australian College of Advanced
Jersey, New Brunswick Campus
FROBENIUS, LEO (1987)
Education
ZHUHONG (1987)
JENSEN, ADOLF E. (1987)
AFRICAN RELIGIONS: MYTHIC
Yü Ying-shih
LORD OF THE ANIMALS (1987)
THEMES (1987)
Yale University
PREUSS, KONRAD T. (1987)
DIVINATION: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN
WANG CHONG (1987)
RITUAL [FIRST EDITION] (1987)
RELIGIONS: AN OVERVIEW (1987)
Jan Yün-hua
R. Tom Zuidema
McMaster University
Madeline C. Zilfi
University of Illinois, Urbana-
University of Maryland at College
FAXIAN (1987)
Champaign
TAIXU (1987)
Park
CALENDARS: SOUTH AMERICAN
YIJING (1987)
SHAYKH AL-ISLA¯M (1987)
CALENDARS (1987)
Michiko Yusa
Michael E. Zimmerman
Erik Zürcher
Western Washington University
Tulane University
Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden
CHANCE (1987 AND 2005)
HEIDEGGER, MARTIN (1987)
AMITA¯BHA (1987)
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxliii
A B B R E V I A T I O N S A N D S Y M B O L S
U S E D I N T H I S W O R K
abbr. abbreviated; abbreviation
3 Bar. 3 Baruch
2 Chr. 2 Chronicles
abr. abridged; abridgment
4 Bar. 4 Baruch
Ch. Slav. Church Slavic
AD anno Domini, in the year of the
B.B. BavaD batraD
cm centimeters
(our) Lord
BBC British Broadcasting
col. column (pl., cols.)
Afrik. Afrikaans
Corporation
Col. Colossians
AH anno Hegirae, in the year of the
BC before Christ
Colo. Colorado
Hijrah
BCE before the common era
comp. compiler (pl., comps.)
Akk. Akkadian
B.D. Bachelor of Divinity
Conn. Connecticut
Ala. Alabama
Beits. Beitsah
cont. continued
Alb. Albanian
Bekh. Bekhorot
Copt. Coptic
Am. Amos
Beng. Bengali
1 Cor. 1 Corinthians
AM ante meridiem, before noon
Ber. Berakhot
2 Cor. 2 Corinthians
amend. amended; amendment
Berb. Berber
corr. corrected
annot. annotated; annotation
Bik. Bikkurim
C.S.P. Congregatio Sancti Pauli,
Ap. Apocalypse
bk. book (pl., bks.)
Congregation of Saint Paul
Apn. Apocryphon
B.M. BavaD metsiEaD
(Paulists)
app. appendix
BP before the present
d. died
Arab. Arabic
B.Q. BavaD qammaD
D Deuteronomic (source of the
EArakh. EArakhin
Bra¯h. Bra¯hman.a
Pentateuch)
Aram. Aramaic
Bret. Breton
Dan. Danish
Ariz. Arizona
B.T. Babylonian Talmud
D.B. Divinitatis Baccalaureus,
Ark. Arkansas
Bulg. Bulgarian
Bachelor of Divinity
Arm. Armenian
Burm. Burmese
D.C. District of Columbia
art. article (pl., arts.)
c. circa, about, approximately
D.D. Divinitatis Doctor, Doctor of
AS Anglo-Saxon
Calif. California
Divinity
Asm. Mos. Assumption of Moses
Can. Canaanite
Del. Delaware
Assyr. Assyrian
Catal. Catalan
Dem. DemaDi
A.S.S.R. Autonomous Soviet Socialist
CE of the common era
dim. diminutive
Republic
Celt. Celtic
diss. dissertation
Av. Avestan
cf. confer, compare
Dn. Daniel
EA.Z. EAvodah zarah
Chald. Chaldean
D.Phil. Doctor of Philosophy
b. born
chap. chapter (pl., chaps.)
Dt. Deuteronomy
Bab. Babylonian
Chin. Chinese
Du. Dutch
Ban. Bantu
C.H.M. Community of the Holy
E Elohist (source of the Pentateuch)
1 Bar. 1 Baruch
Myrrhbearers
Eccl. Ecclesiastes
2 Bar. 2 Baruch
1 Chr. 1 Chronicles
ed. editor (pl., eds.); edition; edited by
cxliii

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cxliv
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
EEduy. EEduyyot
Hung. Hungarian
Lith. Lithuanian
e.g. exempli gratia, for example
ibid. ibidem, in the same place (as the
Lk. Luke
Egyp. Egyptian
one immediately preceding)
LL Late Latin
1 En. 1 Enoch
Icel. Icelandic
LL.D. Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws
2 En. 2 Enoch
i.e. id est, that is
Lv. Leviticus
3 En. 3 Enoch
IE Indo-European
m meters
Eng. English
Ill. Illinois
m. masculine
enl. enlarged
Ind. Indiana
M.A. Master of Arts
Eph. Ephesians
intro. introduction
Ma Eas. MaEaserot
EEruv. EEruvin
Ir. Gael. Irish Gaelic
Ma Eas. Sh. MaE aser sheni
1 Esd. 1 Esdras
Iran. Iranian
Mak. Makkot
2 Esd. 2 Esdras
Is. Isaiah
Makh. Makhshirin
3 Esd. 3 Esdras
Ital. Italian
Mal. Malachi
4 Esd. 4 Esdras
J Yahvist (source of the Pentateuch)
Mar. Marathi
esp. especially
Jas. James
Mass. Massachusetts
Est. Estonian
Jav. Javanese
1 Mc. 1 Maccabees
Est. Esther
Jb. Job
2 Mc. 2 Maccabees
et al. et alii, and others
Jdt. Judith
3 Mc. 3 Maccabees
etc. et cetera, and so forth
Jer. Jeremiah
4 Mc. 4 Maccabees
Eth. Ethiopic
Jgs. Judges
Md. Maryland
EV English version
Jl. Joel
M.D. Medicinae Doctor, Doctor of
Ex. Exodus
Jn. John
Medicine
exp. expanded
1 Jn. 1 John
ME Middle English
Ez. Ezekiel
2 Jn. 2 John
Meg. Megillah
Ezr. Ezra
3 Jn. 3 John
Me Eil. MeEilah
2 Ezr. 2 Ezra
Jon. Jonah
Men. Menah.ot
4 Ezr. 4 Ezra
Jos. Joshua
MHG Middle High German
f. feminine; and following (pl., ff.)
Jpn. Japanese
mi. miles
fasc. fascicle (pl., fascs.)
JPS Jewish Publication Society trans-
Mi. Micah
fig. figure (pl., figs.)
lation (1985) of the Hebrew Bible
Mich. Michigan
Finn. Finnish
J.T. Jerusalem Talmud
Mid. Middot
fl. floruit, flourished
Jub. Jubilees
Minn. Minnesota
Fla. Florida
Kans. Kansas
Miq. MiqvaDot
Fr. French
Kel. Kelim
MIran. Middle Iranian
frag. fragment
Ker. Keritot
Miss. Mississippi
ft. feet
Ket. Ketubbot
Mk. Mark
Ga. Georgia
1 Kgs. 1 Kings
Mo. Missouri
Gal. Galatians
2 Kgs. 2 Kings
MoEed Q. MoEed qat.an
Gaul. Gaulish
Khois. Khoisan
Mont. Montana
Ger. German
Kil. Kil Dayim
MPers. Middle Persian
Git.. Git.t.in
km kilometers
MS. manuscriptum, manuscript (pl.,
Gn. Genesis
Kor. Korean
MSS)
Gr. Greek
Ky. Kentucky
Mt. Matthew
H
. ag. H
. agigah
l. line (pl., ll.)
MT Masoretic text
H
. al. H
. allah
La. Louisiana
n. note
Hau. Hausa
Lam. Lamentations
Na. Nahum
Hb. Habakkuk
Lat. Latin
Nah. Nahuatl
Heb. Hebrew
Latv. Latvian
Naz. Nazir
Heb. Hebrews
L. en Th. Licencié en Théologie,
N.B. nota bene, take careful note
Hg. Haggai
Licentiate in Theology
N.C. North Carolina
Hitt. Hittite
L. ès L. Licencié ès Lettres, Licentiate
n.d. no date
Hor. Horayot
in Literature
N.Dak. North Dakota
Hos. Hosea
Let. Jer. Letter of Jeremiah
NEB New English Bible
H
. ul. H
. ullin
lit. literally
Nebr. Nebraska
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxlv
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
cxlv
Ned. Nedarim
pop. population
sp. species (pl., spp.)
Neg. Nega Eim
Port. Portuguese
Span. Spanish
Neh. Nehemiah
Prv. Proverbs
sq. square
Nev. Nevada
Ps. Psalms
S.S.R. Soviet Socialist Republic
N.H. New Hampshire
Ps. 151 Psalm 151
st. stanza (pl., ss.)
Nid. Niddah
Ps. Sol. Psalms of Solomon
S.T.M. Sacrae Theologiae Magister,
N.J. New Jersey
pt. part (pl., pts.)
Master of Sacred Theology
Nm. Numbers
1Pt. 1 Peter
Suk. Sukkah
N.Mex. New Mexico
2 Pt. 2 Peter
Sum. Sumerian
no. number (pl., nos.)
Pth. Parthian
supp. supplement; supplementary
Nor. Norwegian
Q hypothetical source of the synoptic
Sus. Susanna
n.p. no place
Gospels
s.v. sub verbo, under the word (pl.,
n.s. new series
Qid. Qiddushin
s.v.v.)
N.Y. New York
Qin. Qinnim
Swed. Swedish
Ob. Obadiah
r. reigned; ruled
Syr. Syriac
O.Cist. Ordo Cisterciencium, Order
Rab. Rabbah
Syr. Men. Syriac Menander
of Cîteaux (Cistercians)
rev. revised
TaE an. TaEanit
OCS Old Church Slavonic
R. ha-Sh. RoDsh ha-shanah
Tam. Tamil
OE Old English
R.I. Rhode Island
Tam. Tamid
O.F.M. Ordo Fratrum Minorum,
Rom. Romanian
Tb. Tobit
Order of Friars Minor
Rom. Romans
T.D. Taisho¯ shinshu¯ daizo¯kyo¯, edited
(Franciscans)
R.S.C.J. Societas Sacratissimi Cordis
by Takakusu Junjiro¯ et al.
OFr. Old French
Jesu, Religious of the Sacred Heart
(Tokyo,1922–1934)
Ohal. Ohalot
RSV Revised Standard Version of the
Tem. Temurah
OHG Old High German
Bible
Tenn. Tennessee
OIr. Old Irish
Ru. Ruth
Ter. Terumot
OIran. Old Iranian
Rus. Russian
T
. ev. Y. T
. evul yom
Okla. Oklahoma
Rv. Revelation
Tex. Texas
ON Old Norse
Rv. Ezr. Revelation of Ezra
Th.D. Theologicae Doctor, Doctor of
O.P. Ordo Praedicatorum, Order of
San. Sanhedrin
Theology
Preachers (Dominicans)
S.C. South Carolina
1 Thes. 1 Thessalonians
OPers. Old Persian
Scot. Gael. Scottish Gaelic
2 Thes. 2 Thessalonians
op. cit. opere citato, in the work cited
S.Dak. South Dakota
Thrac. Thracian
OPrus. Old Prussian
sec. section (pl., secs.)
Ti. Titus
Oreg. Oregon
Sem. Semitic
Tib. Tibetan
EOrl. EOrlah
ser. series
1 Tm. 1 Timothy
O.S.B. Ordo Sancti Benedicti, Order
sg. singular
2 Tm. 2 Timothy
of Saint Benedict (Benedictines)
Sg. Song of Songs
T. of 12 Testaments of the Twelve
p. page (pl., pp.)
Sg. of 3 Prayer of Azariah and the
Patriarchs
P Priestly (source of the Pentateuch)
Song of the Three Young Men
T
. oh. t.ohorot
Pa. Pennsylvania
Shab. Shabbat
Tong. Tongan
Pahl. Pahlavi
Shav. ShavuEot
trans. translator, translators; translated
Par. Parah
Sheq. Sheqalim
by; translation
para. paragraph (pl., paras.)
Sib. Or. Sibylline Oracles
Turk. Turkish
Pers. Persian
Sind. Sindhi
Ukr. Ukrainian
Pes. Pesahim
Sinh. Sinhala
Upan. Upanis.ad
Ph.D. Philosophiae Doctor, Doctor
Sir. Ben Sira
U.S. United States
of Philosophy
S.J. Societas Jesu, Society of Jesus
U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet Socialist
Phil. Philippians
(Jesuits)
Republics
Phlm. Philemon
Skt. Sanskrit
Uqts. Uqtsin
Phoen. Phoenician
1 Sm. 1 Samuel
v. verse (pl., vv.)
pl. plural; plate (pl., pls.)
2 Sm. 2 Samuel
Va. Virginia
PM post meridiem, after noon
Sogd. Sogdian
var. variant; variation
Pol. Polish
Sot.. Sot.ah
Viet. Vietnamese
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

eorel_fmv1 3/15/05 3:29 PM Page cxlvi
cxlvi
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
viz. videlicet, namely
Yad. Yadayim
* hypothetical
vol. volume (pl., vols.)
Yev. Yevamot
? uncertain; possibly; perhaps
Vt. Vermont
Yi. Yiddish
° degrees
Wash. Washington
Yor. Yoruba
+ plus
Wel. Welsh
Zav. Zavim
minus
Wis. Wisconsin
Zec. Zechariah
= equals; is equivalent to
Wis. Wisdom of Solomon
Zep. Zephaniah
× by; multiplied by
W.Va. West Virginia
Zev. Zevah.im
→ yields
Wyo. Wyoming
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N



v o l u m e o n e
a c r e d t i m
s
S A C e
R E D T I M E
Time takes many different forms, and one of the primary tasks
of visual culture in religious life is to articulate and maintain
particular forms of time. Tracing the descent of one’s people, customs, or teachers is
common. The portrait of a Tibetan lama
or teacher shown here (a) is surrounded
by a long lineage of Indian and Tibetan
gurūs. These figures include in the center,
perched above the large figure, the histori-
cal Buddha himself, the source of knowl-
edge and spiritual authority that extends
through the generations of Buddhist sages
to the large figure who now assumes the
pose of a buddha. The royal court of the
Luba people of southeastern Democratic
Republic of the Congo relies on lukasa,
or the memory board (b), to remember
the stories of heroes, clan migrations, king
lists, and genealogies. This item is used on
ritual occasions, often to install new rulers,
inscribing them into the narrative of the
court and people, as well as the cosmos. By
making them part of the sacred time that
envelopes a people and universe, the lukasa
and its interpreters ensure the legitimacy
of the king and consecrate his reign.
Other groups rely on ritual observa-
tions to secure the collective memory of
their people. Jews annually celebrate the
(a) Tibeten thang ka depicting Stag lung pa
(Taglung Thangpa) and arhats, c. 1300 ce, dis-
temper on canvas. [©Réunion des Musées Nation-
aux/Art Resource, N.Y.]

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SACRED TIME
Passover with a ceremonial meal or Seder (c), using the
occasion to retell the sacred story of Israel’s deliverance
from bondage, as in the case of the rabbi shown here,
who ritually poses historical and theological questions to
a boy. Jews who came to the United States in the early
twentieth century often purchased postcards, such as the
one shown here (d), in order to demonstrate visually the
preservation of their rites to those who had remained in
Eastern Europe. This visual mediation of the ritual keep-
ing of the liturgical calendar or sacred time (the rite of
Tashlikh, a prayer service held on the first day of Ro’sh
(b) LEFT. Luba chief with a memory board (lukasa) and staff,
1989, Democratic Republic of the Congo. [Photograph by Mary
N. Roberts and Allen F. Roberts]
(c) B OTTOM.
A rabbi poses histori-
cal and theological questions to a Jewish boy during the Seder.
[©Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis]
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SACRED TIME
ha-Shanah) established a link that persisted in spite of
distance. Other immigrants to the United States, Swedish
Lutherans, invented certificates for display in the home
(e) to commemorate such important events as marriage
or confirmation in the faith. Memory is especially impor-
tant for immigrants or displaced populations as a way of
maintaining identity in spite of significant, even violent,
change.

Another kind of reminder is the memento mori, or a
reminder of human mortality, which may be older even
(d) RIGHT. A postcard depicting a Jewish Tashlikh service
near the Brooklyn Bridge in New York, c. 1915. [©Snark/Art
Resource, N.Y.] (e) B OTTOM. Swedish-American Lutheran
confirmation certificate, designed by John Gast, 1902. [Photo
by Michel Raguin/Courtesy of Virginia Raguin]
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SACRED TIME
than Christianity, but was used by Christians from the
Middle Ages to the modern age, as in the Dutch paint-
ing by Willem Claesz Heda (f ). The artist embeds in
this modest still life a number of reminders of the mortal
nature of human existence. The open pocket watch recalls
the passing moments of life, the need for vigilance, and
a dutiful attending to what is needful. The momentary
freshness of the food and its frugal presentation signals the
urgency and propriety of a mindful, ordered life. Remem-
bering the transience of human existence and the caution
to live in light of the inevitable end is often a message
conveyed by those who construct roadside shrines like
the one reproduced here (g). These mark the site where
(f ) TOP. Willem Claesz Heda, Breakfast Still Life, 1629, oil on
canvas. [©Scala/Art Resource, N.Y.] (g) LEFT. A roadside shrine for
a man who was killed in an automobile accident on Highway 20
in northwest Indiana. [Photograph by David Morgan]
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SACRED TIME
a loved one or friend died, but also warn passersby to be
(h) Aboriginal rock painting of a Wanjana figure, from Nour-
careful and reflective.
langie, Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia.
[©Archivo Iconografico, S.A./Corbis]

Images may also evoke the experience of a primor-
dial time, one before, or outside of, or encompassing the
present world. Australian Aboriginals refer to this time as
dreamtime, which is the ancestral past and primordial age
when the physical world was created as it now appears.
The two most common forms of imagery associated with
the portrayal of dreamtime are rock paintings and engrav-
ings, and bark painting. The rock painting (h) from the
Australia Northern Territory shows a splayed, transparent
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SACRED TIME
male figure that displays its skeletal structure and promi-
nent sexual organs in what is called x-ray style. The bark
painting (i), also from northern Australia, features dream-
time figures. Originally created on the portions of bark
used as covering for shelters during the rainy season, bark
paintings are now made by Aboriginals as fine art. Other
cultures visualize the link between present time and the
transcendent by capturing the shaman’s transformation
into totemic animals, such as in the Mochican earthen-
ware figure from the northern coast of Peru, a deer-headed
anthromorph that may represent a shaman undergoing
metamorphosis (j).
(i) TOP. Australian Aboriginal dreamtime figures painted on
bark. [©Penny Tweedie/Corbis] (j) LEFT. Mochican earthenware
figure from Peru depicting a deer-headed anthromorph that may
represent a shaman undergoing metamorphosis. [©Werner
Forman/Art Resource, N.Y.]

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SACRED TIME

In Christian, Jewish, and Muslim religious tradi-
(k) Twelfth-century carving of the Last Judgement adorning a
tions images have often visualized the future arrival of an
tympanum above the western portal of the Church of Saint Foy
apocalyptic figure who brings with him the end of the
in Conques, France. [©Vanni Archive/Corbis]
world. Rather than looking back to primordial moments,
these images anticipate the end, as in the carving of the
Last Judgment (k) from a twelfth-century church in
France, in which the enthroned figure of Christ oversees
the blessing of those chosen to enter heaven and the
damnation of those (seen below) who enter the realm of
eternal suffering and doom. For Shīcī Muslims, images of
a mounted Shīcī rider portray the “hidden imām” or the
mahdī (the well guided), a ninth-century leader of the
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Imamite Shīcah, Abul Qaim Muh.ammad, who vanished
in the tenth century and will return at the end of time
to usher in justice. Such mass-produced images have a
modern, Christian counterpart in two printed items from
the United States (l and m), which offer a meticulous
diagramming of time from biblical prophecies as millen-
nialist Christians interpreted them in the Hebrew Bible to
the second coming of Christ.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Caruana, Wally. Aboriginal Art. New York, 1993; rev. ed., 2003.
Coe, Michael D., et al. The Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership.
Princeton, 1995.
Flood, Josephine. Rock Art of the Dreamtime: Images of Ancient
Australia. Sydney, 1997.
Pal, Pratapaditya. Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure. Chicago,
2003.
Roberts, Mary Nooter, and Allen F. Roberts, eds. Memory: Luba
Art and the Making of History. New York and Munich, 1996.
David Morgan ()
(l) LEFT. A Chronological Chart of the Visions of Daniel and
John
, 1482, hand-tinted lithograph on cloth after an original
design by Charles Fitch and Apollos Hale. [Courtesy of James R.
Nix]
(m) BELOW.
Clarence Larkin, Dispensationalist diagram
titled The Mountain Peaks of Prophecy, 1920. [Used with permission
of the Rev. Clarence Larkin Estate, P. O. Box 334, Glenside, Pa. 19038,

U.S.A.; 215-576-5590.]
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A
AARON, or, in Hebrew, Aharon; Israelite leader and priest who flourished, according
to tradition, in the thirteenth century BCE. In its redacted form, the Pentateuch provides
a fairly complete biography of Aaron, the first priest in the biblical tradition. Born to
Amram and Jochebed of the Levite tribe when the Israelites were slaves in Egypt, he was
the elder brother by three years of the great prophet-leader Moses, and he assisted Moses
in liberating the Israelites and leading them through the Sinai wilderness to the Promised
Land of Israel. Israel’s God, YHVH, instructed Moses to appoint Aaron and his sons as
the exclusive priests of the people, and Aaron ministered in the capacity of chief priest
until he died, in the last year of the journey.
Most Bible scholars, however, regard this unified picture of the life and role of Aaron
as a relatively late invention of the so-called Priestly school (the P source). Biblical tradi-
tions concerning Aaron present diverse views. In addition to the Priestly representation,
in which the functions of Aaron and his sons establish precedents for the official priests
of all succeeding generations (see, for example, Exodus 30:10, 40:15, and Leviticus 6:11),
Aaron is remembered as a military-political leader who acts as a lieutenant of Moses in
the Israelites’ battle against the Amalekites (Ex. 17:12) and who serves as a magistrate in
Moses’ absence (Ex. 24:14). Aaron is cited as a leader of the Exodus in Micah 6:4 and
in Psalms 77:21.
Aaron also fulfills an apparently prophetic role. He serves as Moses’ spokesman to
the Israelites and to the pharaoh of Egypt, performing magical feats by the power of
YHVH. In Numbers 12, Aaron and his sister Miriam challenge Moses’ unique prophetic
status, claiming revelation for themselves as well, but YHVH rebukes them.
Two Pentateuchal narratives revolve around the legitimacy of Aaron’s priesthood.
In Numbers 17:16ff. Moses vindicates Aaron: he inscribes the names of the tribes on
twelve poles, but only the pole of the Levite tribe, bearing Aaron’s name, sprouts blos-
soms. In Exodus 32 Aaron succumbs to the people’s plea to construct a physical image
of God and makes a golden calf. The Pentateuch (Ex. 32:35, Dt. 9:20) condemns Aaron
C LOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT CORNER. Fourteenth-century BCE terra-cotta hedgehog of Aegean Rhyton,
from Ugarit, Syria. Louvre, Paris. [©Erich Lessing/Art Resource, N.Y.]; Facsimile of prehistoric
paintings in Lascaux Cave in southwestern France. Musée des Antiquites Nationales, France.
[©Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, N.Y.]; Ancient Egyptian underworld god Anubis.
Cairo Museum. [©Roger Wood/Corbis]; Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan, Mexico.
[©Charles & Josette Lenars/Corbis]; Late-nineteenth-century brass Altar of the Hand shrine from
Benin. British Museum, London. [©HIP/Scala/Art Resource, N.Y.].
1

2
ABBAHU
for this apostasy and appears to favor those Levites associated
and a remark ascribed to Abbahu to the effect that “if a man
with Moses over the priests represented by Aaron.
tells you ‘I am God’ he is lying” (J.T., Ta Ean. 2.1, 65b). Ab-
Aaron’s golden calf is generally associated with the
bahu is also said to have brought about a change in the legal
calves set up centuries later by King Jeroboam I (r. 928–907
status of the Samaritans in the Jewish community so that
now they were to be considered Gentiles in all respects (J.T.,
BCE) in the far northern town of Dan and in the central town
E
of Bethel after the northern tribes of Israel seceded from the
A. Z. 5.4, 44d).
Israelite empire circa 920 BCE. On the basis of this, and of
Abbahu engaged in secular studies and, to his col-
the connection of Aaronite priests to Bethel mentioned in
leagues’ consternation, taught his daughter Greek (J.T.,
Judges 20:26–28, some scholars have concluded that Aaron
Shab. 6.1, 7d). His familiarity with the surrounding culture
was the founder of the northern priesthood, which was later
gave him relatively easy access to the Roman authorities, a
assimilated into the Jerusalem priesthood. Others believe
privilege that he used to intercede for his brethren when the
that the Aaronites originated in the south and because of
occasion demanded (B.T., Ket. 17a). This combination of
their traditional legitimacy were appointed to positions in
openness to the surrounding culture and willingness to com-
the northern cult.
bat rival religious movements made Abbahu an effective ad-
As the various traditions were combined in the Penta-
vocate of the rabbinic viewpoint. He was able to insist on the
teuch, Aaron became the paradigm of the priest and Moses
exclusive legitimacy of rabbinic teachings without seeming
of the prophet, but Aaron’s role was clearly subordinated to
to demand that Jews live in isolation from their surroundings
that of his younger brother.
or that they abjure any interest in the activities of their
neighbors.
SEE ALSO Levites; Priesthood, article on Jewish Priesthood.
Some of Abbahu’s ritual enactments, most notably con-
cerning the sounding of the ram’s horn on RoDsh ha-Shanah,
BIBLIOGRAPHY
the New Year festival (B.T., R. ha-Sh. 34a), became norma-
The most commonly held reconstruction of the history of the Isra-
tive practice in Jewish life. Despite his polemical activities,
elite priesthood and the place of Aaron and the Aaronites in
he was remembered within his own community as a peace-
it is Aelred Cody’s A History of Old Testament Priesthood
maker and a man of modesty (B.T., Sot. 40a). He was said
(Rome, 1969), which also contains a comprehensive bibliog-
to have been a man of wealth and good looks. His disciples
raphy. An important revision of the common theory is Frank
included leading scholars of the next generation.
Moore Cross’s Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the
History of the Religion of Israel
(Cambridge, Mass., 1973),
pp. 195–215. For the view that Aaron was the founder of the
BIBLIOGRAPHY
northern Israelite priesthood, see Theophile J. Meek’s He-
Hyman, Aaron. Toledot tanna Dim ve-amoraDim (1910). Reprint,
brew Origins (1936; reprint, New York, 1960), pp. 31–33,
Jerusalem, 1964.
119–147. Extensive analyses of the Aaron passages in the
Levine, Lee I. “R. Abbahu of Caesarea.” In Christianity, Judaism
Pentateuch can be found in Hugo Gressmann’s Mose und
and Other Greco-Roman Cults, edited by Jacob Neusner, vol.
seine Zeit: Ein Kommentar zu den Mose-sagen (Göttingen,
4, pp. 56–76. Leiden, 1975.
1913), pp. 199–218, 264–283, 338–344. The most compre-
hensive history of the scholarly debate, with a detailed liter-
New Sources
Lachs, Samuel Tobias. “Rabbi Abbahu and the Minim.” Jewish
ary-historical analysis of the pertinent biblical passages, is
Quarterly Review 60 (1970): 197–212.
Heinrich Valentin’s Aaron: Eine Studie zur vor-
priesterschriftlichen Aaron-Überlieferung
(Göttingen, 1978).
ROBERT GOLDENBERG (1987)
Revised Bibliography
EDWARD L. GREENSTEIN (1987)
ABBAYE (d. c. 338), a leading fourth-generation Babylo-
ABBAHU (fl. toward the turn of the fourth century CE),
nian amora. Abbaye, who studied with his uncle Rabbah bar
Palestinian amora. Abbahu was the younger contemporary
Nahmani and with Yosef bar H:iyyaD of Pumbedita, drew on
of both ShimEon ben Laqish (“Resh Laqish”) and ElEazar ben
teachings both from Babylonia and, indirectly, from Pales-
Pedat, with whom he studied, but his main teacher was
tine; his teachings relay his erudition and subtle analytic abil-
Yoh:anan bar Nappah:aD. Abbahu eventually settled in Caesa-
ity. At Yosef’s death (c. 323), Abbaye became the leading
rea, where he became head of the rabbinic academy. Because
teacher in Pumbedita, where he taught legal, aggadic, and ex-
of the cosmopolitan nature of that city he had frequent con-
egetical subjects to students individually and, in pirqa D gath-
tacts with Christians, Samaritans, and other “heretics”; sur-
erings held on sabbaths and special occasions, to the public
viving reports suggest that Abbahu engaged in frequent po-
at large. He applied rabbinic law in his role as judge of the
lemics against these rivals.
local Jewish court and supervisor of the market’s weights and
Among the reports of these polemics are an exegesis at-
measures.
tributed to Abbahu in which Isaiah 44:6 is taken to be God’s
With an independent mind, he evaluated both sides of
explicit denial of a father or a brother or a son (Ex. Rab. 29.4)
issues and reportedly even resorted to curses to support or
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EABD AL-JABBA¯R
3
oppose a given opinion (B.T., Ber. 29a). Like RavaD, Yosef’s
New Sources
son, he used terminology to conceptualize the Mishnah’s lit-
Schwartz, Howard. Reimagining the Bible: The Storytelling of the
erary characteristics and taught baraitot, his own versions of
Rabbis. New York, 1998.
formulated law that might dispute the Mishnah. RavaD and
BARUCH M. BOKSER (1987)
Abbaye compared earlier teachings and assayed their under-
Revised Bibliography
lying logic and relation to the Mishnah. The Talmud’s re-
cords of these discussions may, however, have been shaped
by postamoraic authorities. Because Abbaye refused to har-
monize disparities between the Mishnah and other sources,
EABD AL-JABBA¯R. Beginning his discussion of the
he limited the Mishnah, saying its ruling did not apply to
eleventh generation of the Mu’tazilah, the biographer of
all cases, or admitted the inconsistency between the sources.
al-Jusham¯ı al-Bayhaq¯ı (d. 494/1100) states:
This sensitivity to the text is likewise seen in his interest in
Belonging to this generation, and in fact the foremost
assessing what are appropriate interpretations of scripture
of them and the leader of them with regards to his excel-
(B.T., H:ul. 133a).
lence, is Chief Judge Abu¯ al-H:asan EAbd al-Jabba¯r ibn
Ah:mad ibn EAbd Alla¯h
EAbd al-Jabba¯r
Stories about Abbaye portray him as humble; dedicated
al-Hamadha¯n¯ı. . . . I cannot conceive of any expres-
to Torah study, even when poor (B.T., Git. 60b); solicitous
sion which will convey his status regarding his excel-
of students (B.T., Shab. 118b–119a), the elderly, and gen-
lence or his elevated rank in [this] discipline [namely
tiles (B.T., Ber. 17a); and a doer of good works (B.T., R. ha-
kala¯m]. He is the one who tore kala¯m open and spread
Sh. 18a). This reputation is reflected in his dictum that “to
it out, producing its major works as a result of which
love the Lord your God” requires a person to make God’s
kala¯m spread far and wide reaching the East and the
name become beloved by others, for people will attribute
West. In these works, he put down the detailed argu-
one’s good deeds to one’s devotion to God (B.T., Yoma D
ments (daq¯ıq) as well as the major theses (jal¯ıl) of kala¯m
in an entirely novel manner. (Sharh: al-’uyu¯n, 365)
86a). Related teachings of Abbaye assert that whoever follows
the sages’ teaching is called a saint, and Torah study and
LIFE. EAbd al-Jabba¯r (Abu¯ al-H:asan EAbd al-Jabba¯r ibn
good deeds bring divine blessings and protection against evil.
Ah:mad al-Hamadha¯n¯ı, Qa¯d:¯ı al-Qud:a¯t) was born in the
Reportedly exhibiting an awareness of God from his youth
town of Asada¯ba¯d in the district of Hamadha¯n around 320/
(B.T., Ber. 48a), he lectured on creation and the manifesta-
932. He began his study of the h:ad¯ıth (traditions of the
tion of the divine in the world as well as on sin and redemp-
Prophet), fiqh (religious law) and other religious sciences
tion, and taught that the divine presence is found in syna-
with local scholars in Asada¯ba¯d and Qazw¯ın. In 340/951 he
gogues, though he elevated the piety of Torah study over that
departed for Hamadha¯n and five years later went to Isfahan
to study there. Soon afterwards he moved to the intellectual
of prayer.
center of Basra, where he participated in debates and study-
More supernatural stories circulated about Abbaye and
circles as an Ash’ar¯ı mutakallim and adherent of the Sha¯fi’¯ı
RavaD than about others in their generation, and in them he
legal school. According to al-Jusham¯ı, he subsequently “rec-
has contact with the divine realm even more frequently than
ognized the truth and was guided,” that is to say, he aban-
RavaD. People believed that Abbaye was protected from de-
doned Ash’ar¯ı kala¯m and embraced Mu’tazil¯ı kala¯m, becom-
mons, a recipient of divine communications, a source of
ing a student of Abu¯ Ish:a¯q ibn EAyya¯sh (his dates are not
practical good advice, and, like some other ancient holy indi-
known). He later moved to Baghdad to study under Abu¯
viduals, a juggler (B.T., Suk. 53a). On the other hand, later
EAbd Alla¯h al-Bas:r¯ı (d. 369/979) who, like Abu¯ Ish:a¯q ibn
circles declared that the law follows RavaD and not Abbaye
EAyya¯sh had studied under the famous Mu’tazil¯ı master, Abu¯
in all but six cases (B.T., B.M. 22b).
Ha¯shim al-Jubba¯’¯ı (d. 321/933), the leader of the
Bahsham¯ıya (namely the Mu’tazil¯ıs who inclined towards
SEE ALSO Amoraim; RavaD.
the views of Abu¯ Ha¯shim). After several years of study during
which he also taught and compiled several works, EAbd
al-Jabba¯r took leave of Abu¯ EAbd Alla¯h al-Bas:r¯ı in 360/970,
BIBLIOGRAPHY
departing for Ra¯mhurmuz where he began to teach and to
A comprehensive treatment and bibliography of Abbaye and his
dictate his magnum opusal-Mughn¯ı f¯ı us:u¯l al-d¯ın. Soon
teachings may be found in Jacob Neusner’s A History of the
after, he joined the retinue of the Mu’tazil¯ı-leaning Bu¯yid
Jews in Babylonia, 5 vols. (Leiden, 1966–1970), esp. vol. 4,
official al-S:a¯h:ib ibn al-’Abba¯d. In 367/977, al-S:a¯h:ib ibn
passim. Note in particular Jacob N. Epstein’s Mavo D le-nusah
al-’Abba¯d became vizier to the Bu¯yid ruler Mu’ayyad al-
ha-Mishnah, 2 vols. (1948; reprint, Jerusalem, 1964),
Dawla and then appointed his protégé, EAbd al-Jabba¯r, to the
pp. 369–381, on Abbaye’s attitude to the Mishnah; and Ra-
phael Loewe’s “The ‘Plain’ Meaning of Scripture in Early
position of Chief Judge (qa¯d:¯ı al-qud:a¯t) of Rayy and its envi-
Jewish Exegesis,” Papers of the Institute of Jewish Studies (Lon-
rons. Intellectually curious, and himself a poet and scholar,
don) 1 (1964): 160–165, on his attitude to scripture. See also
al-S:a¯h:ib ibn al-’Abba¯d had collected a vast library and gath-
David M. Goodblatt’s Rabbinic Instruction in Sasanian Baby-
ered a distinguished group of philosophers, theologians, and
lonia (Leiden, 1975).
literatteurs to his court in Rayy. EAbd al-Jabba¯r implies at the
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4
EABD AL-JABBA¯R
end of al-Mughn¯ı that he profited from his participation at
differences of earlier generations, most significantly Abu¯ EAl¯ı
al-S:a¯h:ib ibn al-’Abba¯d’s court gatherings. EAbd al-Jabba¯r
al-Jubba¯’¯ı and his son Abu¯ Ha¯shim al-Jubba¯’¯ı. The work is
held the position of Chief Judge until the death of his patron
divided into two sections: the first discusses God’s unicity
in 385/995. Subsequently, the Bu¯yid ruler Fakhr al-Dawla
(tawh:¯ıd), namely, a detailed presentation of the argument
seized al-S:a¯h:ib’s property, dismissed his appointees, and con-
that the world is temporally created by an eternal Creator-
fiscated their properties. Fakhr al-Dawla had EAbd al- Jabba¯r
God, the attributes of this Deity, and a refutation of the
arrested, allegedly because of his refusal to recite the funeral
views of non-monotheists.
prayer for al-S:a¯h:ib ibn EAbba¯d. It is likely that EAbd al-Jabba¯r
The second section treats God’s justice ( Eadl), explain-
was released shortly afterwards. After the death of Fakhr al-
ing that God’s acts cannot be evil; that the QurDa¯n is God’s
Dawla in 387/997, Rayy was nominally ruled by his minor
created speech; that persons of sound mind have free will and
son Majd al-Dawla (actual control was wielded by his regent
are under obligation (takl¯ıf) to God to fulfill duties that can
mother al-Sayyida). EAbd al-Jabba¯r was on good terms with
generally be known by reason and that, as acts of kindness
Majd al-Dawla and wrote his Kita¯b al-Majd for him. In 389/
(lut:f), God has specified in the guidance He has provided to
999 he went to Mecca on pilgrimage and was greeted with
human beings in revelation through the institution of proph-
honor during his passage through Baghdad. This was due not
ecy and teachings of prophets; that this guidance, as well as
only to his prestige as judge and author but also because EAbd
the endowment of reason and free will are necessary in order
al-Jabba¯r was considered the leader of the Bahsham¯ıya
for God to be just; that by fulfilling these obligations human
Mu’tazilah after the death of his teacher Abu¯ EAbdalla¯h
beings have the opportunity to earn a reward, namely Para-
al-Bas:r¯ı in 369/979. On his return, he taught in Baghdad
dise, or by rejecting them to be condemned to Hell; that pain
for some time and also in Qazw¯ın. During his later years in
and suffering in the world which is not the result of human
Rayy, EAbd al-Jabba¯r may have had the opportunity to meet
action is created purposefully by God in order to remind
Ibn S¯ına¯ during the philosopher’s stay there in 403–405/
human beings of their obligations and thereby prevent the
1013–1015. The majority of historical sources state that
E
extreme harm of being condemned to Hell—in this sense
Abd al- Jabba¯r died in 415/1024.
they also constitute acts of kindness; and, that God will com-
As a result of his longevity, EAbd al-Jabba¯r was a teacher
pensate minors and mentally incompetent individuals, and
to many students in Rayy and other locations. Some students
generally any person who is incapable of fulfilling obligations
were Ima¯m¯ı or Zayd¯ı Sh¯ıEah, indicative of the spread of
placed on them.
Mu’tazilism among these Muslim denominations. Among
In the Mughn¯ı, the section on God’s justice also in-
the more prominent of his students were Abu¯ Rash¯ıd
cludes the remainder of the “five principles of the Mu’tazila,”
al-Nisa¯bu¯r¯ı (his death year is not known), who studied with
including, “the promise and the threat,” “the intermediate
him in Rayy and assumed the leadership of the Bahsham¯ıya
position,” and the “command to enjoin established and com-
on EAbd al-Jabba¯r’s death; the Sh¯ıE¯ı Ima¯m¯ı scholar al-Shar¯ıf
monly-known virtuous action and to prohibit reprehensible
al-Murtad:a¯ (d. 436/1044), who studied EAbd al-Jabba¯r dur-
action” which is the basis of the institution of post-prophetic
ing his stay in Baghda¯d in 389/999; Abu¯ Muh:ammad
leadership and political authority (ima¯ma).
al-H:usayn ibn Ah:mad ibn Mattawayh (dates unknown),
Abu¯ al-H:usayn al-Bas:rı (d. 432/1040), the Zayd¯ı scholar
Ah:mad Abu¯ Ha¯shim al-H:usayn¯ı also known as Ma¯nakd¯ım
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Shishdev (d. 425/1034), and the Zayd¯ı ima¯m al-Mu’ayyad
The only comprehensive biography of EAbd al-Jabba¯r is EAbd
billa¯h Ah:mad ibn al-H:usayn al-A¯mil¯ı (d. 411/1020)
al-Kar¯ım EUthma¯n’s Qa¯d:¯ı l-Qud:a¯t EAbd al-Jabba¯r b. Ah:mad
al-Hama¯dha¯n¯ı.
Beirut, 1968. Al-Jusham¯ı’s Sharh: al-’uyu¯n,
WRITINGS. EAbd al-Jabba¯r scholarship extends over several
a biographical dictionary of the Mu’tazila, is an important
of the Islamic religious sciences: QurDa¯n commentary (tafs¯ır),
source of information about EAbd al-Jabba¯r and his students.
prophetic tradition (h:ad¯ıth), biography, theology (kala¯m),
Al-Jusham¯ı’s text is published in al-Balkh¯ı, Abu¯ l-Qa¯sim;
principles of jurisprudence (us:ul al-fiqh), and law. Most of
EAbd al-Jabba¯r, Qa¯d:¯ı; al-Jusham¯ı, al-H:a¯kim’s Fad:l al-i’tiza¯l
his works have not survived. As a result of the Zayd¯ı embrace
wa t:aba¯qa¯t al-mu’tazila, edited by Fu’a¯d Sayyid, Tunis,
of Mu’tazilism, Mu’tazil¯ı texts continued to be studied in
1974. The intellectual and social environment at the Bu¯yid
court is the subject of Joel L. Kraemer’s Humanism in the Re-
Yemen, where they held sway, resulting in the preservation
naissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival during the Buyid Age,
of some of the works of EAbd al-Jabba¯r and his students.
Leiden, 1992. EAbd al-Jabba¯r’s short treatise on the five prin-
These works were rediscovered in the late 1950s and many
ciples of the Mu’tazila (Kita¯b us:ul al-khamsa) is available in
of them have been published.
English translation in Richard C. Martin, Mark R. Wood-
ward, and Dwi S. Atmaja’s Defenders of Reason in Islam:
The most significant of these is EAbd al-Jabba¯r’s
Mu’tazilism from Medieval School to Modern Symbol, Oxford,
al-Mughn¯ı f¯ı abwa¯b al-tawh:¯ıd wa l-’adl, which may be trans-
1978. For a general overview of the Basrian Mu’tazilı world-
lated as “What one needs to know regarding God’s unity and
view see Richard M. Frank’s “Several Fundamental Assump-
justice.” Fourteen of the twenty volumes of al-Mughn¯ı have
tions of the Bas:ra School of the Mu’tazila,” Studia Islamica
been recovered. It is the most comprehensive text on classical
33 (1971): 5–18. EAbd al-Jabba¯r’s rationalist ethics is the
Mu’tazil¯ı kala¯m and preserves the doctrines, discussions, and
subject of George F. Hourani’s Islamic Rationalism: the Ethics
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

EABDUH, MUH:AMMAD
5
of EAbd al-Jabba¯r, Oxford, 1971. EAbd al-Jabba¯r’s views on
nevertheless accepted by the ruling elites in Egypt and later
the nature of the QurDa¯n, namely the Mu’tazil¯ı perspective
in most Arab countries. Western-modeled constitutions were
that it is created rather than eternal, is discussed in J.R.T.M.
inaugurated, and the secular nation-state finally emerged in
Peters’sGod’s Created Speech: A Study in the Speculative Theol-
the world of Islam.
ogy of the Mu’tazil¯ı Qa¯d:¯ı l-Qud:a¯t Abu¯ 1-H:asan EAbd al-
Jabba¯r ibn Ah
:mad al-Hamadha¯n¯ı, Leiden, 1976. EAbd al-
B
Jabba¯r’s epistemology is the subject of Marie Bernard’s Le
IBLIOGRAPHY
EAbd al-Ra¯z¯ıq, EAl¯ı. Al-Isla¯m wa-us:u¯l al-h:ukm. Cairo, 1925. A
problème de la connaissance d’après le Mugnı du cadi EAbd
French translation by Léon Bercher, “L’Islam et les bases du
al-Jabba¯r. Algiers, 1982. EAbd al-Jabba¯r’s views on man’s ob-
pouvoir,” appeared in the Revue des études islamiques 7
ligation, suffering, God’s kindness, reward, and compensa-
(1933): 353–390 and 8 (1934): 163–222.
tion are discussed in Margaretha Heemskerk’s Suffering in the
Mu’tazilite Theology: EAbd al-Jabba¯r’s Teaching on Pain and

Adams, Charles C. Islam and Modernism in Egypt (1933). Reprint,
Divine Justice, Leiden, 2000.
New York, 1968. This book remains a valuable study of the
Islamic reform movement in Egypt’s history. Chapter 10 is
ALNOOR DHANANI (2005)
particularly important for the emergence of nonorthodox
ideas.
Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939.
EABD AL-RA¯Z¯IQ, EAL¯I
2d ed. Cambridge U.K., 1983. The best single work on Ara-
(1888–1966), Muslim jurist
bic thought in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
and author. Born in a village of Middle Egypt, EAbd al-Ra¯z¯ıq
Chapter 7, “Abduh’s Egyptian Disciples: Islam and Modern
studied Islamic law at al-Azhar in Cairo, from which he was
Civilization,” is an excellent study of EAbd al-Ra¯z¯ıq’s work
graduated in 1911. In 1912, he went to Oxford to study pol-
in particular and other Muslim reformers in general.
itics and economics, remaining there until the outbreak of
Rosenthal, E. I. J. Islam in the Modern National State. Cambridge
World War I. In 1915, he was appointed a judge in the
U.K., 1965. A general work on the crisis of Islam and the
shar¯ı Eah courts in Alexandria and other provincial towns.
emergence of the secular nation-state in the Islamic world.
The publication of his book Al-Isla¯m wa-us:u¯l al-h:ukm (Islam
Chapter 4, “For and against the Caliphate,” is a comprehen-
and the fundamentals of authority) in 1925 aroused violent
sive review of the debate that took place in the 1920s.
uproar. EAbd al-Ra¯z¯ıq was formally condemned by a council
IBRAHIM I. IBRAHIM (1987)
of twenty-four leading Eulama¯D (Muslim scholars) of al-
Azhar, with the rector at their head. Dismissed from his ap-
pointment and declared unfit to hold public office, he lived
E
the rest of his life privately.
ABD AL-WAHHA¯B SEE IBN EABD AL-WAHHA¯B,
MUH:AMMAD
Al-Isla¯m wa-us:u¯l al-h:ukm, published only one year after
Atatürk’s abolition of the caliphate, is a treatise on the theory
of government and the source of authority in Islam. EAbd
al-Ra¯z¯ıq’s main argument is that there is no such thing as
EABDUH, MUH:AMMAD (AH 1266–1322/1849–
an Islamic system of government. Neither the QurDa¯n nor
1905 CE), Egyptian intellectual regarded as the architect of
h:ad¯ıth (tradition) stipulates the existence of the caliphate or
Islamic modernism and one of the most prominent Islamic
the combination of temporal and religious powers. Ijma¯ E (Is-
reformers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He was
lamic consensus) also provides no basis for the caliphate’s le-
born into a well-to-do family in a village of the Nile Delta.
gitimacy. In fact, historically the caliphate was based on
At the age of thirteen he went to study at the Ah:mad¯ı
power and coercion and is not, therefore, a necessary part of
Mosque in T:ant:a and continued his education at al-Azhar,
the religion of Islam.
the renowned university in Cairo, where he studied logic,
E
philosophy, and mysticism. For a time he came under the
Abd al-Ra¯z¯ıq’s most radical theory had to do with the
influence of the pan-Islamic reformer Jama¯l al-D¯ın
prophecy of Muh:ammad. His view was that, like other
al-Afgha¯n¯ı and became involved in the EUra¯b¯ı revolt against
prophets, Muh:ammad had a spiritual mission: he was sent
the British (1881–1882). Exiled for six years after the revolt
to reveal a truth about God and to guide men to a virtuous
was put down, he worked in Lebanon to establish an Islamic
life; he was not sent to exercise political authority. Thus,
E
school system and collaborated with al-Afgha¯n¯ı in Paris on
Abd al-Ra¯z¯ıq denied any constitutional implications in
a number of activities, including the publication of a popular
shar¯ı Eah (Islamic law). Herein lies his revolutionary depar-
journal, Al- Eurwah al-wuthqa¯ (The firmest bond). The tone
ture from the orthodox position on Muh:ammad’s prophecy
of the paper was radical and agitational, reflecting the revolu-
and the shar¯ı Eah, and hence the violent opposition of the
E
tionary spirit of Afgha¯n¯ı rather than the reformist one of
ulama¯ D.
EAbduh. Although it was naturally banned in Islamic coun-
Muslim theologians had always taught that Islam was
tries under British occupation, its eighteen issues were smug-
unique because it was at once a religious and political com-
gled in and widely followed by Muslim intellectuals. The two
munity. EAbd al-Ra¯z¯ıq disclaimed any political foundation
men also established an association under the same name
in the shar¯ı Eah. Condemned by the Eulama¯D, his ideas were
working for Muslim unity and social reform. In the course
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6
ABEL
of these activities, EAbduh traveled to Britain and Tunis and
Concrete reform and social change were EAbduh’s pri-
reportedly entered Egypt in disguise.
mary concerns. Like other reformers of his time, he ad-
dressed himself primarily to political issues rather than the
During his career EAbduh held a number of important
rethinking of basic religious positions. He believed that the
positions. In 1880, he became the editor of Al-waqa¯ D¯ı
legal system was a crucial factor in the prosperity of countries
al-misr¯ıyah, the official gazette. In 1889 he was appointed
and that laws should change according to circumstances. The
judge and ten years later, he became the mufti of Egypt, the
reform of Islamic law requires that the principle of mas:lah:ah
highest authority on the interpretation of Muslim law. As
be upheld and that jurists exercise talf¯ıq (“piecing together”)
mufti he initiated reform of the religious courts and the ad-
to synthesize judgments from the four Sunn¯ı legal schools.
ministration of awqa¯f (religious endowments).
Stressing the need for social and political reform, he under-
EAbduh’s writings include Risa¯lat al-wa¯rida¯t (Treatise
lined the importance of education and attacked despotic rul-
consisting of mystical inspirations), Risa¯lat al-tawh:¯ıd (trans-
ers; for him the true Muslim leader was once bound by law
lated in English as The Theology of Unity), and the interpreta-
and obliged to consult with the people.
tion of QurDa¯n known as Tafs¯ır al-mana¯r. In these writings,
The essence of EAbduh’s legacy, then, is his attempt to
one finds traces of different Islamic influences: mysticism,
conduct a dialogue between Islam and the modern world; by
MuEtazil¯ı theology, activism, and orthodoxy. Risa¯lat
so doing, he, perhaps more than any other Muslim thinker,
al-tawh:¯ıd was intended to be a brief and simple statement
contributed to the development of modernist and reformist
on theological issues. Distinguishing between the essentials
trends in Islam, especially in the Arab countries and Indone-
and inessentials of religion, EAbduh argued that major source
sia. Ultimately EAbduh owes his prominence to his search for
of the Muslim decline was their inability to make this dis-
an indigenous Islamic philosophy for modern times. He de-
tinction. Revelation and reason are complementary ways to
veloped criteria by which the impact of Western civilization
reach truth, since reason is the power that enables the Mus-
could be differentiated and controlled and elaborated a syn-
lim to distinguish truth from falsehood. Freedom of will also
thesis of Islam and modernity with which Muslims could re-
depends on human knowledge or reason.
main committed to their religion while actively engaged in
E
modern society. His synthesis was subject to criticism, but
Abduh considered Islam the cornerstone of private and
the approach has left a marked impact on modern Islamic
public life. Yet he was struck by the decay of Islamic societies,
thought and society.
which he saw as the main problem that all Muslim thinkers
had to face. He sought to regenerate the religion and purify
BIBLIOGRAPHY
it of what he believed were alien accretions from the past.
The classic work on Muh:ammad EAbduh is Charles C. Adams’s
The aim of his life, as he defined it, was to free the minds
Islam and Modernism in Egypt (1933, reprint, New York,
of Muslims from the shackles of taql¯ıd (blind acceptance of
1968), which includes a detailed analysis of his career and
tradition) and to demonstrate the compatibility of Islam
views. Another important early contribution by an Egyptian
with modernity. For him, the cure for the ills of Muslim so-
professor of philosophy is Osman Amin’s Muhammad
cieties lay in a return to true Islam through the recovery of
Abduh, translated by Charles Wendell (Washington, D.C.,
its essentials in the QurDa¯n and sunnah (traditions of the
1953). A lengthy analysis of his political views appears in
Prophet) and the interpretation of these texts in the light of
Malcolm Kerr’s Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theo-
modern times.
ries of Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida (Berkeley, 1966).
Important analyses and evaluations of his view and influence
The best method to achieve these goals, EAbduh be-
are found in Albert Hourani’s Arabic Thought in the Liberal
lieved, was through ijtiha¯d (the exercise of individual judg-
Age, 1798–1939, 2d ed. (Cambridge U.K., 1983); Kenneth
Cragg’s Counsels in Contemporary Islam (Edinburgh, 1965);
ment) and the establishment of links between certain tradi-
and particularly, Zaki Badawi’s The Reformers of Egypt: A Cri-
tional concepts and the ideas of the modern age. Thus,
tique of Al-Afghani, Abduh and Ridha (London, 1978). For
mas:lah:ah, the public interest, became utility, and shu¯ra¯, the
critical evaluation, see Elie Kedourie’s Afghani and Abduh:
coliph’s council, became a consultative assembly. He main-
An Essay on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Mod-
tained that there was no incompatibility between Islam and
ern Islam (London, 1966).
reason or between revelation and science. Islam encouraged
ALI E. HILLAL DESSOUKI (1987)
reason, condemned blind imitation, attacked fatalism, and
affirmed the exercise of free will. The influence of MuEtazil¯ı
ideas upon his thought is most evident at this point. He ar-
gued that Islam was in harmony with and tolerant of all ra-
ABEL SEE CAIN AND ABEL
tional inquiry and science. Thus, the scientific achievements
of the West, to which the Muslims had contributed in their
classical age, should be adopted without fear or hesitation.
Failure to do so would lead either to stagnation and further
ABELARD, PETER (1079–1142), logician and Chris-
underdevelopment or to the indiscriminate importation of
tian theologian. Peter Abelard was born at Le Pallet, outside
Western ideas, resulting in a loss of Islamic values.
of Nantes (Brittany). He chose to pursue the study and
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ABELARD, PETER
7
teaching of logic and journeyed to hear the lectures of Ros-
it to the Paraclete. Within a short time, however, students
celin of Compiègne at Loches (Anjou); he later went to Paris
came to his retreat. In his teaching, he began to modify his
to attend classes with the renowned dialectician William of
approach in his discussion of the Trinity, and he composed
Champeaux. His celebrated controversy with William on the
the first draft of his second major theological treatise, Chris-
question of universals revealed the persuasiveness of Abe-
tian Theology. Abelard then accepted election as abbot of
lard’s quick mind and penetrating insight. Abelard’s own
Saint-Guildas, a monastery near Vannes (Brittany), and un-
teaching career began in Melun and Corbeil to the south of
successfully attempted monastic reform (c. 1127).
Paris, but he soon returned to Paris, teaching at Nôtre-Dame
and at Mont-Sainte-Geneviève, just across the Seine from
Little is known of Abelard’s public activities after this.
the capital.
But in 1129, Suger, then abbot of Saint-Denis, reclaimed the
lands of Argenteuil from Héloïse’s community. She turned
Abelard’s interest in applying twelfth-century methods
to Peter for assistance, and he gave them the oratory he had
of dialectical inquiry to Christian doctrine led him to study
built. When the foundation was confirmed by Innocent II
theology at Laon (c. 1113) with Anselm of Laon, who was
and the bishop of Troyes (1131), Héloïse became the first
recognized for his lectures on patristic teaching and for his
prioress. As cofounder with Héloïse, Abelard was considera-
role in the formation of a standardized biblical commentary
bly involved in the formation of the ideals that would shape
(Glossa ordinaria). Abelard’s return to Paris before he com-
the community’s life. Héloïse’s critique of the Benedictine
pleted the course of studies was influenced by several factors.
rule (letter 6 of the published correspondence of Héloïse and
He was indeed disenchanted with Anselm’s method, which,
Abelard), for example, elicited two doctrinal letters from Ab-
although it organized information in a systematic fashion, re-
elard: On the Origin of Nuns and Rule of Life (letters 7 and
lied more on repeating past authority than on any personal
8). Abelard also replied to forty-two questions on problemat-
critique. The work at Laon was a formidable accomplish-
ic scriptural texts sent by Héloïse (Problemata Heloissae) and
ment, but Peter wanted more. He was determined to bring
commented extensively on the opening chapters of Genesis
a fresh approach to theology.
(Expositio in Hexaemeron). He prepared a collection of ser-
mons, prayers, a breviary, and 143 hymns as well. His recom-
It was at this time that Abelard met Héloïse, the niece
mendations about the study of biblical languages (letter 9)
of Fulbert, a canon of Nôtre-Dame. Peter became her tutor,
and his instruction on reading scripture gave Héloïse extraor-
friend, and lover. Much of their early relationship—the love
dinary directives concerning the relationship of study to un-
affair, the birth of their son Astrolabe, a secret marriage fol-
derstanding the scriptures.
lowed by the punitive castration of Abelard ordered by Ful-
bert—is recorded by Peter in The Story of My Misfortunes.
This work with the Paraclete was, however, only one as-
After the tragedy and his loss of prestige as a teacher, Abelard
pect of Abelard’s achievement. From 1135 onward, he was
insisted that Héloïse enter religious life at the convent of Ar-
engaged in the composition of his Ethics, in expounding
genteuil (c. 1119) while he made profession at the royal
Paul’s Letter to the Romans, and in drafting a new study on
Abbey of Saint-Denis. Peter Abelard was officially affiliated
the Trinity (Theologia “Scholarium”). Several doctrinal letters
with Saint-Denis for almost four years. During this time he
and Dialogue of a Philosopher with a Jew and with a Christian
studied the sources of the Christian tradition. The brilliant
are also the work of these fruitful years. But the newness of
mind that had once captured the imagination of students of
Abelard’s ideas and the rigor with which he upheld the pri-
logic was now applied to sorting out a coherent presentation
macy of dialectics for a true theology threatened many. Wil-
of doctrine from a nearly unintelligible accretion of teach-
liam of Saint-Thierry and Bernard of Clairvaux were among
ings. The task was awesome. Abelard’s Sic et non (Yes and
Peter’s opponents, and through their efforts there was a sec-
No) faced the problem directly by arranging conflicting pa-
ond condemnation of Abelard by the Council of Sens
tristic opinions around key doctrinal issues. The work was
(1140). Peter insisted that his teaching was misunderstood
timely and challenging. Students, armed with the exegetical
and intended to appeal his case with the pope. Ill health
principles enunciated in the prologue, were eager to resolve
made a journey to Rome impossible, however, and Abelard
the 158 questions. Abelard’s second theological work from
retired to Cluny, where he was befriended by its abbot, Peter
this time was a discussion of the Trinity structured within
the Venerable. The final writings, Apology and Confession of
dialectical analysis (Theologia “Summi boni”) and was not fa-
Faith, reflect Abelard’s sincerity and doctrinal orthodoxy.
vorably received. The text was in fact condemned at a public
Abelard ultimately left Cluny for Saint-Marcel-sur-Saône, a
trial in Soissons (1121). His treatise was burned, and Peter
smaller priory, where he died, probably in 1142.
was temporarily confined to the nearby Abbey of Saint-
Medard. He returned to Saint-Denis but only briefly; in
Although Abelard’s initial fame rested on his success as
1122, Abelard was released from the obligation of residency
a teacher of logic, within a few decades his commentaries on
there.
logic (the Introductiones parvulum and the Logica ingredienti-
bus
), as well as his own treatise, the Dialectica, were replaced
Humiliated at the turn of events in his life, Peter sought
by the metaphysics of Aristotle. In the theological arena, Ab-
solitude. When he was given land along the banks of the Ar-
elard exercised unusual leadership as a teacher during the
dusson at Quincy (Troyes), he built an oratory and dedicated
formative years in the developing theology of the schools.
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

8
ABHINAVAGUPTA
His students were numerous, and a few school works, such
updated bibliography, a list of English translations of Abe-
as the Sentences of Hermann (Epitome theologiae Christianae)
lard’s works, a summary of the best scholarly articles, and a
or the considerable exposition of Pauline writings (Commen-
critique of the most significant studies on Abelard.
taria Cantabrigiensis), rely heavily on Abelard’s teaching.
Peppermüller, Rolf. Abaelards Auslegung des Römerbriefes. Beiträge
Several well-known masters also turned to Abelard as a sig-
zur Geschichte der Philosophie und der Theologie des Mitte-
nificant thinker. Perhaps the most important of these is Peter
lalters, n.s. no. 10. Münster, 1972.
Lombard, whose Book of Sentences, modeled on Abelard’s Sic
Weingart, Richard E. The Logic of Divine Love: A Critical Analysis
et non, contains many of Abelard’s opinions and became the
of the Soteriology of Peter Abailard. Oxford, 1970.
primary text for training theologians during the next four
Essay Collections
hundred years. However, the most lasting influence Peter
Peter Abelard. Edited by Eligius M. Buytaert. Proceedings of the
held was with the community of the Paraclete. Until its dis-
International Conference, Louvain, 10–12 May 1971.
solution during the French Revolution (1792), the monas-
Mediaevalia Lovanensia, series I, studia II. Louvain, 1974.
tery held its own as the special foundation of Héloïse and
Pierre Abélard, Pierre le Vénérable: Les courants philosophiques, lit-
Master Peter, preserving Abelardian manuscripts and con-
téraires et artistiques en occident au milieu du douzième siècle.
serving the finer points of his teachings.
Abbaye de Cluny, 2–9 July 1972. Colloques internationaux
The literary legacy of Abelard records the genius of a
du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, no. 546.
probing, mature, and experienced teacher. He expounded
Paris, 1975.
texts vigorously and forged seminal ideas for the develop-
Petrus Abaelardus (1079–1142): Person, Werk und Wirkung. Pro-
ment of Christian thought. He opposed Augustinian views
ceedings of the International Colloquium, Trier, 17–19
on several counts, denying for example that the guilt of
April 1979. Edited by Rudolph Thomas, David E. Luscom-
Adam was transmitted to humanity. Abelard created a more
be, et al. Trier theologische Studien, no. 18. Trier, Germany,
precise language to describe the interior character of sin and
1981.
moral culpability and considered consent as the single factor
EILEEN F. KEARNEY (1987)
that could render human behavior sinful. He also believed
that the redemption theories that expressed the notion of a
price or ransom imposed on God were unacceptable. Instead,
Abelard held that Christ’s redemptive work as the incarnate
ABHINAVAGUPTA (fl. c. 975–1025 CE), Kashmirian
Word, in life as in death, was the supreme expression and
S´aiva theologian. Descended from Atrigupta, a brahman
fulfillment of God’s creative love. Finally, Abelard’s ap-
scholar brought to Kashmir from the Doab by King
proach to theology was part of a new mode of thought that
Lalita¯ditya (c. 724–760 CE), Abhinavagupta was the son,
brought questions, debate, and systematization to the fore as
conceived in Kaula ritual, of Vimala¯ and Narasim:hagupta.
the science of sacred doctrine. Abelard did this with bravado,
He lost his mother in early childhood—a circumstance that
drawing upon the best in these procedures, creating a few
he saw as the start of his spiritual progress—and was trained
himself, and integrating both method and doctrine through
by his learned S´aiva father in grammar, logic and hermeneu-
the filter of his penetrating intelligence.
tics. Later, when immersed in the study of the poetic arts,
he became intoxicated with devotion to S´iva, and, giving up
BIBLIOGRAPHY
all thoughts of marriage and family, pursued the life of a stu-
In the nineteenth century, scholarly research on the twelfth centu-
dent in the homes of numerous exponents of the various
ry as a locus for monastic reform and the rise of the schools
S´aiva traditions and their opponents.
fostered a renaissance in Abelardian studies. The nineteenth-
century editions of Abelard’s theological writings remain in-
Abhinavagupta’s major works fall into four groups,
valuable: volume 178 of the Patrologia Latina, edited by J.-P.
treating the Trika, the Krama, the Pratyabhijña¯, and aesthet-
Migne (Paris, 1885), and Petri Abaelardi opera, 2 vols., ed-
ics. In the field of the Trika his main effort went into the
ited by Victor Cousin (Paris, 1849–1859). More recent criti-
exegesis of the Ma¯lin¯ıvijayottara Tantra, which he saw not
cal editions and major studies of Abelard’s works are listed
only as the fundamental scripture of the Trika but also as the
below, in chronological order.
essence of the entire S´aiva revelation in all its branches. In
Texts and Studies
the Ma¯lin¯ıvijayava¯rttika he elaborated this claim, arguing for
Buytaert, Eligius M., ed. Petri Abelardi opera theologica. 2 vols. In
a “supreme nondualism” (parama¯dvayava¯da) that attributed
Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis, vols. 11 and
to the Absolute as autonomous consciousness the power to
12. Turnhout, 1969. Includes a comprehensive bibliography
contain both plurality and unity as the modes of its self-
up to 1967.
representation, and thereby demonstrated that the Trika, as
Jolivet, Jean. Arts du langage et théologie chez Abélard. Études de
the embodiment in revelation of this Absolute, transcends
philosophie mediévale, no. 57. Paris, 1969.
and contains the dichotomy between the orthodox (dualist)
Luscombe, David E. The School of Peter Abelard. Cambridge
and heterodox (nondualist) directions in Saivism then con-
Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, n.s. no. 14. Cam-
fronting each other.
bridge, 1969.
Luscombe, David E. Peter Abelard. The Historical Association,
The monumental Tantra¯loka, composed later, ex-
General Series, no. 95. London, 1979. Includes an excellent
pounded all aspects of the Trika, theoretical, yogic, and ritu-
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ABLUTIONS
9
al, while seeking to integrate within the catholic authority of
anonymous ¯I´svarapratyabhijña¯vimar´sin¯ıvya¯khya¯, Mahe´s-
the Ma¯lin¯ıvijayottara Tantra later, more heterodox develop-
vara¯nanda’s Maha¯rthamañjar¯ıparimala, Teja¯nandana¯tha’s
ments, particularly the Krama-based cult of Ka¯l¯ı. Between
A¯nandakalpalatika¯, S´iva¯nanda’s
Nitya¯s:od:a´sika¯rn:avar:ju-
these two works he composed the Para¯trim:´sika¯vivaran:a, in
vimar´sini, Amr:ta¯nanda’s Yogin¯ıhr:-dayad¯ıpika¯, and S´r¯ıni-
which he focused on the elite Kaula practices of the Trika.
va¯sa’s Tripura¯rahasyajña¯nakhan:d:avya¯khya¯) maintained this
The Krama, strongly present in the Trika of Tantra¯loka, was
tradition from the eleventh to the nineteenth century. Out-
the object of independent study in his commentary on the
side the Tantric S´aiva milieu the works of Abhinavagupta
Kramastotra (Krama Hymn) of the lineage of
and Ks:emara¯ja provided the metaphysical infrastructure of
Jña¯nanetrana¯tha. This either has not survived or has not yet
the Ahirbudhnya Sam:hita¯ and Laks:m¯ı Tantra of the
come to light. Of Abhinavagupta’s work on the Krama we
Pañcara¯tra Vais:n:navas and inspired the S´aiva Veda¯nta of
have only his short Kramastotra and a quotation from an un-
S´r¯ıkan:t:ha, devotee of S´iva at Cidambaram.
named work in which he follows the Krama worship of the
Dev¯ıpañca´sataka.
SEE ALSO S´aivism, articles on Krama S´aivism, Pratyabhijña¯,
S´aivism in Kashmir, Trika S´aivism.
In the philosophical tradition of the Pratyabhijña¯ we
have two masterly commentaries, the ¯I´svarapratyab-
BIBLIOGRAPHY
hijña¯vimar´sini on the Pratyabhijña¯ka¯rika¯ of his teacher’s
Gnoli, Raniero, ed. The Aesthetic Experience according to Ab-
teacher Utpaladeva, and the ¯I´svarapratyabhijña¯vivr:ti-
hinavagupta. 2d rev. ed. Varanasi, 1968.
vimar´sin¯ı on that author’s lost auto-commentary on the
Pandey, Kanti Chandra. Abhinavagupta: An Historical and Philo-
same. Through the profound philosophical scholarship of
sophical Study. 2d ed., rev. & enl. Varanasi, 1963.
these works the nondualistic tradition was fully equipped to
New Sources
justify its rejection of the dualism of the S´aiva Siddha¯nta, the
Isaeva, N. V. From Early Vedanta to Kashmir Shaivism: Gaudapa-
illusionism of the Veda¯nta, and the lack of the concept of
da, Bhartrhari, and Abhinavagupta. Albany, 1995.
transcendental synthesis in the nondualistic idealism of the
Muller-Ortega, Paul Eduardo. The Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula
Yoga¯ca¯ra Buddhists, while seeing these positions as approxi-
Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-dual Shaivism of
mations to its own.
Kashmir. Albany, 1989.
In the field of aesthetics Abhinavagupta achieved pan-
ALEXIS SANDERSON (1987)
Indian recognition for his commentaries on the Dhvanya¯loka
Revised Bibliography
of A¯nandavardhana, fortifying the latter’s doctrine of the pri-
macy of suggestion (dhvani) in poetry, and on the
Bharatana¯t:ya´sa¯stra. This second commentary, the Abhina-
ABLUTIONS are ceremonial washings of the human
vabha¯rat¯ı, exhibits vast learning in the arts of drama, dance,
body or particular parts of it; of objects that come into close
and music, and is justly famous for its subtle theory on the
contact with the human body, such as cooking utensils or
nature of aesthetic experience as a distinct mode of cognition
food; and sometimes of such special religious items as statues
between worldly, appetitive awareness and the blissful interi-
of deities or saints. Ablutions can be performed through
ority of enlightened consciousness. The study of aesthetics
washing with water, through immersion, or through sprin-
was traditional among the S´aivas of Kashmir, reflecting the
kling. And, instead of pure water, water mixed with salt, cow
importance of dance and music in their liturgies and the aes-
dung, sand, or urine can be used. Ablutions are symbolic ac-
theticism of the Kaula mystical cults, which saw enlighten-
tions meant not to create physical cleanness but to remove
ment not in withdrawal from extroverted cognition but in
ritual uncleanness or pollution. Therefore, they should be in-
its contemplation as the spontaneous radiance of the self.
terpreted not as forms of magical belief, manifestations of
Abhinavagupta profoundly influenced the subsequent
primitive hygiene, or expressions of savage psychology but
history of S´aivism in Kashmir, both directly and indirectly,
above all as ritual acts performed to create order and abolish
through the simpler and more formulaic works of popular-
disorder in social reality.
ization produced by his pupil Ks:emara¯ja. The nondualistic
Ablutions and related symbolic behaviors are carried out
doctrine which they expounded permanently colonized the
in societies that are characterized by well-defined and clearly
cult of Svacchandabhairava, which was the basic S´aivism of
marked distinctions between the phases of human life, rang-
the valley of Kashmir, and later it formed the basis of the
ing from birth through puberty and marriage to death. Ablu-
Kashmirian cult of the goddess Tripurasundar¯ı. This influ-
tions are performed as well in relation to the different social
ence was not confined to Kashmir: Abhinavagupta’s lineage
roles of the sexes and to the various roles that a person can
established this tradition in Tamil Nadu, particularly at the
play in society. Carried out at transitional stages, ablutions
great S´aiva center of Cidambaram, propagating the belief
are ritual and symbolic actions designed to avert the dangers
that Abhinavagupta was no mortal but an incarnation of S´iva
inherent in those particular stages, where social forms are
himself. Many Sanskrit works by Tamils on the Trika,
fluid. Ablutions mark transitions from one phase to another
Krama, Pratyabhijña¯, and S´r¯ıvidya¯ (e.g. Kr:s:n:ada¯sa’s
or from one area of society to another. They therefore be-
S´ivasu¯trava¯rttika and Para¯trim:´sika¯laghuvr:ttivimar´sin¯ı, the
long, at least in part, to the category of rites of passage.
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10
ABLUTIONS
Ablutions that mark the transition from the profane sec-
with water before they are presented to the gods. In ancient
tor of society to the sacred one are well known. The Babylo-
Egypt this was accomplished by pouring libations over them.
nian high priest performed ablutions in water from the Tigris
The Records of the Ritual and Music of the Holy Temple of Chi-
or the Euphrates before he carried out his daily functions.
nese Confucianism, the latest edition of which was published
For ablutions and ritual sprinklings a special building, the
in 1887, gives exact rules for purificatory rites in the Confu-
bit rimki (“washing house”) was constructed next to the
cian ceremonial. Fifteen days before the sacrificial ceremony,
priest’s house or the temple. There, the life-giving water from
the custodian of the temple and his assistants go to a park
apsu (the primeval deep of sweet waters) was used for all
in which animals are kept and select unblemished ones.
kinds of ablutions. Water, the creative element par excellence,
These animals are ceremonially washed with warm water that
was used to create order wherever and whenever this order
day and every day thereafter until the time for the sacrifice
was threatened, intentionally or not. In traditional Chinese
arrives. In all of the instances mentioned, ablution is not a
religion, preparation for a sacrificial ceremony occupied
removal of uncleanness or dirt but a symbolic action per-
three days and involved bathing and wearing of clean rai-
formed by man in order to prepare himself for and adapt
ment. Before the pharaoh in ancient Egypt could participate
himself to the crossing of a sociocultural frontier. The transi-
in any religious ceremony his body had to be purified by a
tion between two social forms in an ambiguous event, there-
sprinkling with water and natron. The water, called “water
fore, unclean and in need of purification.
of life and good fortune,” was brought from the sacred pool
Where social forms have been attacked, pollution
that belonged to every Egyptian temple. The priests of Israel
looms, and purification, often in the form of ablution, is req-
were subjected to very strict rules of purity (Lv. 21:22) and
uisite. Ablution is consequently often a set element in puber-
were not permitted to eat of the holy offerings unless they
ty rites, in which the transition from childhood to full adult
had washed their whole body with water (Lv. 22:6). Before
life is symbolically performed and marked. On the Fiji Is-
entering the temple to perform their duties, priests in Israel
lands, at the close of the ceremonies for entering adulthood
had to wash their hands and feet in the “laver of brass . . .
all the initiates went to the river and washed off the black
that they die not” (Ex. 30:17 ff.). Similar rites are observed
paint (the color of death!) with which they had been
in other religions.
smeared. Ablution is here the mark of entering a new phase
Islam, a religion without a true priesthood, requires
of life, a kind of death-and-renewal ritual. The Bathonga nu-
every believer to wash before the act of prayer (s:ala¯t, per-
bility customs for girls required a period of seclusion at the
formed five times a day facing toward Mecca) according to
appearance of the menses. Girls undergoing this transition
the prescriptions of the QurDa¯n: “O believers, when ye come
were covered each morning with a cloth and led to a pool
to fulfill the prayer, wash your faces, and your hands as far
in which they were immersed to the neck. Afterward they
as the elbows; and rub your heads, and your feet unto the
were imprisoned in a hut, where they received instruction
ankles, and if ye be polluted then purify yourselves” (5:9).
about the behavior and duties of a grown woman. Bathonga
Su¯rah 4:46 allows the use of sand instead of water: “Wash
boys likewise experienced a period of seclusion during which
yourselves; but if you be sick, or upon a journey, or one of
they received instruction and were smeared with white paint
you come from the privy or have touched a woman, and ye
or white clay as a sign that they had abandoned the darkness
find no water, then take pure earth and rub your faces and
of childhood. At the end of their period of seclusion, all the
hands therewith.” This ritual ablution is performed at a tank
paraphernalia of the school were destroyed, and the boys
were led to a stream, where they washed off the white, cut
or a reservoir provided with spouts that is to be found in or
their hair, and put on new clothes.
near the courtyard of every mosque. The water must be pure;
therefore, rainwater is preferred, although water from other
The initiation rite is a symbolic death and revival often
sources may be used. The rite is elaborately described in the
expressed through immersion in water. Jewish proselytes, for
h:ad¯ıth. Muh:ammad derived this purificatory rite, like other
example, had to undergo immersion before entering their
elements of Islam, from Jewish and Christian sources. In the
new life as believing Jews. In the same way, Christian bap-
latter religion the use of water for purificatory purposes, in
tism is an initiation rite incorporating all the symbolism of
particular by a person entering a church or by a priest before
death and resurrection to mark the transition from the world
the beginning of mass, is another example of a partial ablu-
to the church, from sin to grace, from the polluted earth to
tion in the transition from profane to sacred territory.
the pure kingdom of God.
As human beings undergo ablution before contact with
Childbirth and death, entrance to and departure from
the sacred, so the gods sometimes wash before exposure to
the world of the living, are fundamental transitory phases,
ordinary people. In the highly elaborate daily ritual of an
and therefore dangerous. In many cultures, the period after
Egyptian temple, the cult statue was purified with water, na-
childbirth is one of uncleanness for women, in which they
tron, and incense every morning. In Indian Jainism the stat-
may pollute those, particularly men, who come into contact
ues representing the gods are bathed every morning, and a
with them. Therefore, they must be ritually purified (i.e.,
man can worship in a temple only after he has taken a bath
must perform ablutions) before they regain their normal
and doned clean clothes. Even offerings are ritually purified
state and can return to their normal tasks. Among the Inuit
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ABLUTIONS
11
(Eskimo) a pregnant woman is separated from her husband
included the prescript that “every soul that eateth that which
and must leave her usual dwelling place since she may other-
died of itself, or that which was torn with beasts, whether it
wise pollute the food. Immediately after the birth she must
be one of your own country, or a stranger, he shall both wash
wash from head to foot, and after the first night following
his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until
the birth she must make herself new clothes. Following this
the even” (Lv. 17:15).
she is readmitted into society. In ancient Egypt the same cus-
Among the Amba in East Africa the funeral almost al-
toms were followed. During and after childbirth, women
ways occurs on the same day a person dies and is usually not
usually remained secluded in a special house, called the
performed by close relatives of the dead. The first ceremony
“birthhouse” or “house of purification,” where for fourteen
after death is the most important mortuary rite. At dawn on
days they purified themselves through ablutions and fumiga-
the morning of the fourth day after the death all the men and
tion with incense. When this purification was complete, they
women of the residential group take a bath and, after bath-
could resume their household duties. Judaism still has very
ing, shave their heads. Following that, a long mortuary cere-
strict rules for the purification of women after childbirth, de-
mony starts. Ablution and shaving are necessary to undo the
tailed in Leviticus 12:1–8. The period of uncleanness varies
dangers and the pollution that are inherent in the sphere be-
according to whether a boy or a girl is born. After the birth
tween life and death.
of a boy the period of uncleanness is forty days; after that of
a girl this period is doubled. During these days “she [the
Marriage is another rite of passage and, therefore, ablu-
mother] shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the
tion rites often belong to its preliminaries. In Attica, in Clas-
sanctuary.” At the expiration of the period of uncleanness she
sical Greece, the bride was purified by ablution with water
has to offer a lamb and a young pigeon or turtledove.
from the sacred spring in preparation for the marriage cere-
mony. In the Southern Celebes the bridegroom bathes in
Contact with a corpse also requires purificatory ablu-
holy water, whereas the bride is fumigated. In all Muslim
tions, in particular for those persons who handle the body,
countries purifying the bride with water and painting her
prepare the grave, and take care of the burial. Their activities
with henna are the most important preliminaries to the wed-
are situated in the intermediary zone between death and life
ding rite. The bath usually takes place a day or two before
and are, therefore, especially dangerous and polluting.
the bride’s departure for the groom’s house.
Among Indian tribes of the Northwest Coast of North
Extensive ablutions remain an essential part of the high-
America, the duty of disposing of the body is performed by
ly ritualistic life of the Mandaeans, a Gnostic sect that dates
gravediggers (never members of the family) who thus become
back to antiquity and whose present adherents live in Bagh-
unclean and, in addition to following special restrictions re-
dad and in some regions in southern Iraq. Ablution undoes
garding food and sexual relations, must undergo ablutions.
the pollution that is considered to manifest itself in various
Among the Bathonga the men who dig the grave—again, a
marginal situations in Mandaean social life. As all powers
task not performed by relatives—must undergo a rite of ab-
that are part of a given social system express it, so powers of
lution after the burial and, with their wives, are subjected to
pollution are inherent in the structure of ideas. To under-
steam baths. These men and women use special spoons for
stand the function of ablutions in such societies a definition
five days and are not allowed to eat from the common plate.
of pollution is requisite. It is a punishment or “a symbolic
The purification is extended even to the hut in which a per-
breaking of that which should be joined or joining of that
son dies. Among the Thompson Indians the hut in which
which should be separate” (Douglas, 1966, p. 113). Con-
a death takes place is washed with water.
cepts of pollution and ablution rites occur, therefore, only
Often widows and widowers share in the pollution that
in cultures in which social and cosmic lines of structure are
death causes. Among the various tribes of the Dene and Sa-
clearly defined and strictly maintained.
lish, for example, widows are regarded as particularly un-
The Mandaeans are bearers of such a culture, which
clean. They must retire to the woods for a year, performing
they, as a minority group, try by all means to keep intact.
purificatory rites, bathing in streams, and taking sweat-baths.
Since the human body functions as a symbol of society, the
Participants in the worship of ancestors are often required
boundaries of the physical body symbolize those of the body
to undergo purification rites, since they can be regarded as
social. Especially among minorities, rituals give expression to
having had special contact with the dead. In China both hus-
a deep anxiety about the body’s refuse; this symbolizes a care
band and wife have to hold vigil, observe fasting regulations,
to protect the unity of the group and its well-defined con-
and wash their heads and bodies before bringing a sacrifice
fines. The same phenomenon can be detected in the many
to the ancestors. In ancient Egypt, frequent ablutions were
purificatory rules of the ancient Israelites, also a religious mi-
part of a ritual performed by the dead or by the gods to se-
nority. The Mandaeans follow an elaborate system of ablu-
cure entrance into a new life. In the “place of purification”
tions, in particular for birth, marriage, sexual contact, and
(i.e., the embalmer’s workshop), the dead body was washed
death, that is, aspects of human life in which the orifices of
with water and other liquids in order to preserve its integrity
the body are clearly important or bodily boundaries are
in the intermediary state between old and new life. The ex-
transgressed. Birth, death, marriage, and coition pollute
tensive and complicated purificatory rules of ancient Israel
those involved, who are then segregated from their fellows
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12
ABLUTIONS
until they have been purified through ablution, in this case,
in which Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, grew up. This
by immersion in living water. When the time of her giving
ablution was a main point of controversy between Mani and
birth approaches, a woman washes herself and prepares a
other members of the sect, however, since Mani wished to
place apart from the household. As soon as the child has
emphasize not ritual cleaning but purity through asceticism.
come into the world, the midwife washes it, and the mother
Food, in particular, enters the body by being eaten, and,
has to immerse herself three times in the river. The woman
therefore, ritual cleanness of food is especially important
remains segregated for a time, and even pots and plates used
among minority groups, for whom the external borders of
by her receive ritual ablution. Mother and child have to un-
the social system are under constant pressure. The Israelites,
dergo several ablutions and immersions before they can reen-
the Mandaeans, and the Hindus provide examples of such
ter normal life. If during these rites, which take place in the
purity and ablution systems. Hindu society consists of a
open air and in the often cold water of the river, the child
range of castes, or cultural subunits, between which strict
soils or wets the clothing of the serving priest, the priest con-
borderlines are maintained through purity rules, since each
tinues the ceremony as though nothing has happened. How-
caste is like a minority group in relation to the whole. The
ever, he must afterward go through a complete ablution at
higher the caste, the purer it must be. The body social is,
the hands of another priest. It often happens that during this
therefore, like a human body: the high castes do the mental
rigorous ordeal the newborn baby dies. The ceremony is then
work; the lowest castes cut hair, carry away waste matter, and
continued with a dummy of dough in the place of the child
bury corpses. But the object of these purity rules is not one
in order to ensure the safe journey of the dead baby’s soul
of hygiene but to keep the social system clean. Because be-
to the world of light. The officiating priest, however, be-
longing to a certain caste and, consequently, to a certain
comes defiled through contact with the dead and must un-
place in the hierarchy of purity is biologically determined,
dergo triple immersion and be provided with new clothes
sexual purity, in particular of women, is strictly guarded.
and new priestly paraphernalia before he is allowed to resume
After sexual contact a woman has to perform ablutions. The
his duties. This illustrates the polluting power of the dead.
most effective ritual purification is a bath in the Ganges
A dying man is not permitted to die in his lay clothes. As
(though the Ganges is one of the dirtiest rivers in the world!)
death approaches, water is brought from the river, the sick
or in another t¯ırtha (“ford”). In this context ablutions and
man’s clothes are removed, and he is doused three times from
immersions are clearly not hygienic activities, rather, they are
head to foot. Then he is lifted, placed on clean bedding fac-
ritual manipulations of the human body that symbolize so-
ing the North Star, and clothed in new ceremonial dress. In
cial cleanness, which maintains the various social boundary
this way the dying man is given his place in the cosmic order
lines.
and crosses the border between life and death. Needless to
SEE ALSO Baptism; Birth; Death; Purification; Rites of Pas-
say, the actual funeral is accompanied by the elaborate ablu-
sage; Water.
tion of attendants and cult objects.
At marriage, the bride and bridegroom must undergo
BIBLIOGRAPHY
two immersions in water in the ceremonial cult hut, or
For a basic understanding of ritual washings and their socioreli-
mandi; they are then given new ceremonial dresses. The wed-
gious meanings, see Mary Douglas’s Purity and Danger: An
Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo
(New York, 1966)
ding ceremony has a clear cosmic symbolism that relates the
and her Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology (New
social order to the cosmic one. Immersions and ablutions are
York, 1970). Much material can be found under the entry
an element of daily Mandaean practice that gives protection
“Purification” in the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, ed-
and the promise of everlasting life, since water is the life-fluid
ited by James Hastings, vol. 10 (Edinburgh, 1918), although
par excellence. Immersions and ablutions are also purificato-
interpretations offered there should be treated with caution.
ry, undoing the pollution in marginal situations. The Man-
For ancient Greece, see Louis Moulinier’s Le pur et l’impur
daeans perform three kinds of ceremonial ablutions. The first
dans la pensée des Grecs d’Homère à Aristote, a special issue of
is enacted by each Mandaean individually and daily just be-
Études et commentaires, no. 11 (Paris, 1952). The Mandaean
fore sunrise, in other words, at the border between dark and
rituals have been described by Ethel S. Drower in The Man-
light. The second ablution is a triple immersion in the river,
daeans of Iraq and Iran: Their Cults, Customs, Magic, Legends
and Folklore
(1937; reprint, Leiden, 1962). For Muslim prac-
done by a woman after menstruation and after childbirth,
tices, see A. J. Wensinck’s “Die Entstehung der muslimisc-
after touching a dead body, after coition, after nocturnal pol-
hen Reinheitsgesetzgebung,” Der Islam 5 (1914): 62–80, and
lution, or after contact with a defiled person, since impurity
the entry “Ablution” in the Dictionary of Islam, 2d ed. (Lon-
is contagious. The third ablution, called masbuta
don, 1896). For India, see M. N. Srinivas’s Religion and Soci-
(“baptism”), is performed by a priest and should take place
ety among the Coorgs of South India (Oxford, 1952) and Nur
every Sunday after major defilements. Not only the human
Yalman’s “On the Purity of Women in the Castes of Ceylon
body and its orifices but also vegetables and food need ablu-
and Malabar,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
tion and are, therefore, three times immersed in the river be-
93 (January–June 1963): 25–58.
fore being eaten. Pots and pans must at certain times be bap-
New Sources
tized, too. The ritual cleaning of food by immersion was also
For ablutions in general see Bernhard Maier, “Reinheit. I: Reli-
practiced in the Christian community of Elcasaite baptists
gionsgeschichtlich,” in Theologische Realenziklopädie, vol. 28
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ABRAHAM
13
(1997), pp. 473–477, with bibliography. See also, as far as
ABRAHAM IN THE WORLD OF THE NEAR EAST. The ances-
the Greco-Roman world is concerned: René Ginouvés, Ba-
tors of Israel are portrayed in the Bible as living a nomadic
laneutike. Recherches sur le bain dans l’antiquité grecque (Paris,
or pastoral life among the older population of Palestine be-
1962); Eva Keuls, The Water Carriers in Hades. A Study of
fore the time of the Israelite settlement (c. thirteenth century
Catharsis through Toil in Classical Antiquity (Amsterdam,
BCE). With the great increase in knowledge about the ancient
1974); Robert Parker, Miasma. Pollution and Purification in
Near East during the past century, scholars have attempted
Egypt, Greece and Rome (Oxford, 1983); R. A. Wild, Water
in the Cultic Worship of Isis and Sarapis
(Leiden, 1981);
to fit Abraham and his family into the background of Near
Georges Roux, “L’eau et la divination dans le sanctuaire de
Eastern culture in the second millennium BCE. Comparisons
Delphes,” in L’homme et l’eau en Méditerranée et au Proche
are made with the personal names of the ancestors; the names
Orient, I: Séminaire de recherche 1979–1980, pp. 155–159
of peoples and places; social customs having to do with mar-
(Lyon, 1981); Susan Cole-Guettel, “The Uses of Water in
riage, childbearing, and inheritance rights; and types of no-
Greek Sanctuaries,” in Early Greek Cult Practice. Proceedings
madism in the various stories in order to establish the back-
of the Fifth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute
ground and social milieu out of which the ancestors came.
at Athens, 26–29 June 1986, edited by Robin Hägg, Nanno
The effort to place the patriarchs in the second millennium
Marinatos, and Gullög C. Nordquist, pp. 161–165 (Stock-
holm, 1988); Alan Peatfield, “Water, Fertility, and Purifica-
BCE has been unsuccessful, however, because all of the fea-
tion in Minoan Religion,” in Klados: Essays in Honour of
tures in the stories can be attested to in sources of the first
J. N. Coldstream, edited by Christine E. Morris,
millennium BCE, and some of the items in the stories, such
pp. 217–227 (London, 1995).
as the domestication of the camel or reference to Philistines,
Ablutions in connection with baptismal ceremonies in Gnostic
Arameans, and Arabs, belong to a much later time. The spe-
communities are investigated by Eric Segelberg, Masbuta:
cial effort to fit the war between Abraham and the kings of
Studies in the Ritual of the Mandean Baptism (Uppsala, 1958),
the east (Gn. 14) into the history of the second millennium
and Jorunn Jacobsen Buckley, The Mandeans (Oxford,
by trying to identify the various kings and nations involved
2002), pp. 59–86.
has failed to yield plausible proposals. The four eastern king-
For the various purificatory rituals in Islamism, besides the general
doms, Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, and that of the Hittites, re-
introduction by Andrew Rippin, Muslims: Their Religious Be-
ferred to cryptically in this text, never formed an alliance, nor
liefs and Practices (London, 2001), see G. H. Bousquet,
did they ever control Palestine either collectively or individu-
“Ghusl” (general ablution of the whole body, prescribed after
ally during the second millennium BCE. The whole account
any sexual intercourse, before the daily prayers and for the
corpses) in Encyclopédie de l’Islam, vol. 2, coll. 1130–1131
is historically impossible, and the story is very likely a late
(Leiden, 1965); E. Chaumont, “Wudu¯,” (minor or “simple”
addition to Genesis.
ablution of face, feet, and hands, obligatory before a ritual
ABRAHAM AND TRADITION-HISTORY. Another method of
act, such as prayer or handling the QurDa¯n) in Encyclopédie
approaching the Abraham stories is through tradition-
de l’Islam, vol. 11, coll. 237–238 (Leiden, 2004); A. J. Wen-
sinck and A. K. Reinhart, “Tayammum” (ablution with
history, which attempts to identify the individual stories as
sand) in Encyclopédie de l’Islam, vol. 10, coll. 428–429 (Lei-
legends (“sagas”) and to regard them as separate units of tra-
den, 2002); G. H. Bousquet, “La purité rituelle en Islam,”
dition with their original setting in the nomadic life of the
Revue de l’Histoire des Religions 138 (1950): 53–71; A. K. Re-
tribes during their earliest contacts with the indigenous pop-
inhart “Impurity/ No Danger,” History of Religions 30
ulation. The common concern of a number of the stories is
(1990): 1–24. For the ablutions prescribed to the shaihd (Is-
the quest for land and progeny, which reflects the urge of the
lamic martyr) before the suicide attack see the document
land-hungry nomads to gain a foothold in the land where
published by David Cook, “Suicide Attacks or Martyrdom
they had temporary pasturage. The stories thus portray a pro-
Operations in Contemporary Jihad Literature,” Nova Religio.
cess of gradual peaceful settlement by separate groups, each
The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religion 6, no. 1
represented by a different patriarch. The combination of the
(2002): 7–44.
traditions reflects the subsequent amalgamation of the
Ablution practice in Hinduism is investigated by Diana Eck, Ba-
naras: City of Light (New York, 1982).
groups with their traditions, which led to the creation of
the genealogical chain of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. This
HAN J. W. DRIJVERS (1987)
whole process of tradition development is viewed as taking
Revised Bibliography
place at the oral tradition stage, before it reached the written
form.
ABORIGINAL RELIGIONS SEE AUSTRALIAN
This approach has not gone unchallenged (Van Seters,
INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS, ARTICLE ON
1975). The degree to which the stories of Abraham reflect
ABORIGINAL CHRISTIANITY
a long process of oral tradition is debatable. For instance, the
tradition of Beersheba as a cult place cannot belong to the
premonarchy period because the excavations carried out
ABRAHAM, or, in Hebrew, Avraham; the ancestor of the
under the direction of Yohanan Aharoni show that the city
Hebrews through the line of Isaac and Jacob and of the Arabs
was a new foundation of the Judean monarchy. While some
through Ishmael.
of the individual stories may reflect traditions of varying de-
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

14
ABRAHAM
grees of antiquity, the process of collecting and arranging the
sources. The doublets, however, are actually carefully com-
stories is still best explained as reflecting literary activity.
posed literary modifications of the earlier stories meant to
RELIGION OF ABRAHAM. The traditio-historical approach to
put forward the author’s own point of view and religious
the patriarchal stories has led to the view that the tradition
concerns.
reflects a nomadic form of personal religion in which the
The twice-told tales. There are two stories about how
“god of the fathers” is the patron god of the clan. He is asso-
the patriarch’s wife was passed off as his sister in order to pro-
ciated with a specific person, such as Abraham, who experi-
tect himself in a foreign land. The first one (Gn. 12:10–20)
ences a theophany and receives the divine promises of land
is simply an entertaining folktale whereby Abraham appears
and progeny. Also belonging to this “primitive” level of Isra-
to outsmart the Egyptians and come away with both wealth
elite religion are the references to sacred trees and stones and
and wife. The second version (chap. 20) seeks to exonerate
the setting up of numerous altars. The frequent references
the patriarch of any moral wrongdoing. Abraham did not lie,
to El in the patriarchal stories reflect either the encounter of
because Sarah actually was his half sister, and God was not
the nomadic religion with the Canaanite religion of the land,
unjust in his treatment of the king but actually recognized
with its high god El, or the original identity of the “god of
his innocence and provided him with a way out of his dilem-
the fathers.”
ma. The whole matter is resolved amicably. Yet a third ver-
The problem with these reconstructions of Israel’s early
sion of the story is found in the Isaac tradition (26:1–11),
religion is that the emphasis upon Yahveh as the God of
which makes use of elements from both of the earlier stories
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the identifying of Yahveh
but with the emphasis here on God’s guidance and provi-
with El are attested only in exilic sources. Furthermore, the
dence. The account of Hagar’s flight (chap. 16) and her later
themes of the divine promise of land and numerous progeny
expulsion with Ishmael (21:8–21) are also doublets. The first
cannot be shown in a single instance to belong to the oral
is an ethnographic etiology on the origin and nature of the
stage of the tradition’s development. One must conclude
Ishmaelites, while the second transforms this theme into an
therefore that the religion of Abraham is the religion of the
aspect of the divine promises to Abraham, since Ishmael is
authors of the present form of the tradition.
also his offspring.
ABRAHAM IN THE WRITTEN SOURCES. Scholars have long
In none of these cases does the later version constitute
recognized that the story of Abraham is not a unity but com-
an independent variant of the tradition. Instead, it is an at-
bines the works of more than one author. The literary analy-
tempt by a later author to modify the way one understands
sis of the Pentateuch, established by Julius Wellhausen and
the earlier story in terms of a later attitude on morals and
others in the nineteenth century, recognizes three indepen-
piety, as in the case of Genesis 20, or a later use of the Abra-
dent sources. The earliest of these, the Yahvist (J), is dated
ham tradition to emphasize ethnic identity and destiny.
to the united monarchy (c. 950 BCE) and is viewed as using
Abraham and Lot. The inclusion of Lot in the Abra-
the Abraham tradition to support the claims of the Davidic
ham tradition affords a contrast between the forefather of the
empire. The Elohist (E) in Genesis 20–22 is dated to the time
Ammonites and the Moabites and the forefather of the He-
of the prophets (c. eighth century BCE). The Priestly (P)
brews. When they go their separate ways (Gn. 13), Lot ap-
source is of postexilic date (c. 400 BCE) and is found only in
pears to gain the better territory by his choice of the fertile
the episodes of Genesis 17 and 23 and in a few chronological
valley in the region of Sodom, while Abraham is left with the
notices.
land of Canaan. But this merely anticipates the story of the
While this literary analysis has long held sway, some
destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (chaps. 18–19) and
scholars have begun to dispute the dates given to the sources
Lot’s ultimate location in the eastern highlands.
and to understand their relationship to each other in quite
The story of Sodom and Gomorrah follows a familiar
a different way. In this view some of the early J stories (Gn.
classical theme, as in the story of Baucis and Philemon
12:10–20, 16, 18:1, 18:10–14, 21:2, 21:6–7) and the so-
(Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.616ff.), in which the gods send em-
called E source were used by the J author along with his own
issaries in the guise of strangers to investigate violence and
material to shape the biblical story of Abraham as a major
corruption on earth. The strangers are ill treated by the pop-
national tradition in the exilic period. The P writer made a
ulation, except for an old couple who offer them hospitality
few additions to this tradition in the postexilic period, while
and are rewarded while the rest of the population is de-
the story about the kings of the east in Genesis 14 was the
stroyed. In the Bible, Abraham’s hospitality is rewarded by
latest addition in the Hellenistic period.
the promise of Isaac’s birth (18:1–15). Lot also entertains the
THE ABRAHAM TRADITION IN GENESIS. A distinctive feature
two angels and protects them from the cities’ inhabitants,
of the Abraham tradition is that it contains a number of short
who try to abuse them. This leads to the judgment on Sodom
stories that are not linked in a continuous narrative. This has
and Gomorrah, but Lot and his family are rescued, except
fostered the view that they reflect a stage of oral tradition be-
for Lot’s wife, who looks back and becomes a pillar of salt.
fore their collection into a literary work. Furthermore, the
The story also serves as the context for a discussion of the
fact that a number of stories appear as doublets has suggested
possible fate of the righteous along with sinners when God
that tradition variants found their way into separate literary
makes a judgment upon the wicked (18:16–33).
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ABRAHAM
15
Abraham and Isaac. The account of Isaac’s birth (Gn.
Burial of Sarah. In the account of Sarah’s burial in
18:1, 18:10–14, 21:2, 21:6–7) was originally told as a single
chapter 23 (P), Abraham is portrayed as striking a bargain
story quite separate from the story of Sodom and Gomorrah
with the inhabitants of Hebron to purchase a piece of land
with which it is now combined. It emphasized the wonder
and a cave in which to bury his wife. This becomes the spe-
of the birth of the child to the aged couple and played upon
cial burial site for Abraham himself and for most of the other
the meaning of Isaac’s name, “laughter.” The Eaqedah, or
patriarchs. What is remarkable about the account is its lack
“binding,” of Isaac (chap. 22) became very important in the
of any religious treatment of the burial or of any reference
later development of the tradition. The frequent suggestion
to the deity in the story. The author’s intention may have
that the story arose as a protest against child sacrifice is specu-
been to frustrate any ancestral veneration by such a “secular”
lative and has little support in the present text. The author
account, but if so, it was not successful since the supposed
makes clear at the outset that the command to sacrifice Isaac
location of the burial site in Hebron is regarded as a holy
is a divine testing. While the sacrifice is stayed by divine in-
place by Jews, Christians, and Muslims down to the present
tervention and a ram substituted in Isaac’s place, Abraham’s
day.
obedience is commended and the divine promises renewed.
ABRAHAM IN OTHER BOOKS OF THE BIBLE. In the Penta-
The matchmaking of chapter 24 recounts how Abraham sent
teuch and the historical books mention is made of the prom-
his servant to Harran, the land of his kinsmen, to find a wife
ises to the patriarchs as the basis for God’s mercy toward Isra-
for Isaac, and how through divine guidance the servant was
el in his rescue of the people from Egypt, in his forgiveness
led to the house of Rebecca. The story stresses the providence
of their disobedience in the wilderness, in his gift to them
of God in the destiny of Abraham’s descendants. It also raises
of the land of Canaan, and finally in his rescue of Israel from
the theme of ethnic purity—a matter of some concern in the
Aramean domination. Abraham is not mentioned in preexil-
exilic period.
ic prophecy. It is only with the crisis of the exile that the fig-
Covenant of Abraham. The Yahvist who brought to-
ure of Abraham becomes a paradigm of hope for the restora-
gether the diverse elements of the Abraham tradition created
tion of nationhood and Israel’s return to the land of its
a sense of unity in the collection by means of the themes of
forefathers. It is especially in “Second Isaiah” (Is. 41:8–10,
the divine promises of numerous progeny and the gift of the
51:1–2) that Abraham is the focus of Israelite identity and
land of Canaan. J begins with God’s call to Abraham to leave
destiny. So too in the exilic Psalm 105 Israel’s identity is
his homeland for a new land and his promise of nationhood
based upon the election and covenant of Abraham. The Sinai
and divine blessing (Gn. 12:1–3). As soon as Abraham reach-
covenant is passed over in silence.
es the land of Canaan, God gives it to him as an inheritance
ABRAHAM IN POSTBIBLICAL JUDAISM. One use of the Abra-
(12:7). The promises are again repeated after Abraham’s sep-
ham tradition in postbiblical times can be seen in the anti-
aration from Lot (13:14–17). The promise theme reaches its
Hellenistic work of the Maccabean period known as Jubilees,
climax in chapter 15, in which God assures Abraham again
or the Little Genesis (chaps. 12–23). There Abraham becomes
of numerous descendants and makes a covenant with him ac-
the model of appropriate Jewish piety. The book tells how
cording to which he gives him the region from the river of
Abraham, while still in Chaldea, came to a knowledge of the
Egypt to the Euphrates. Thereafter the promises are again
true God, learned the divine language of Hebrew, and repu-
mentioned in a number of other stories about Abraham
diated the idolatry of his native land. After receiving the di-
(16:10, 18:18, 21:13, 21:18, 22:15–18, 24:7) as well as in
vine call he went to the land of Canaan. One significant am-
those of Isaac and Jacob. Unlike the covenant of Sinai, the
plification of the biblical tradition of Abraham is the
Abrahamic covenant is not conditioned by law since the
emphasis on Abraham’s observance of many of the Mosaic
promises have already been guaranteed by Abraham’s obedi-
laws and of his giving instruction in these laws to Isaac his
ence (22:15–18, 26:3–5).
son and even to his grandson Jacob. Special emphasis is also
given to the covenant of Abraham as the covenant of circum-
The Priestly writer’s treatment of the covenant (chap.
cision and a warning to those Jews who neglect this practice
17) builds directly upon J’s version but introduces a number
(see 15:9–14, 15:25–34, 16:14). The theme of Abraham’s
of modifications. First, God appears to Abraham as El Shad-
testing by God is more nearly paralleled to that of Job by in-
dai (17:1) instead of as Yahveh (15:7). This change is ex-
cluding in the Abraham story the figure of Mastema (Satan),
plained by P in Exodus 6:2–3 in the suggestion that the patri-
who becomes responsible for instigating the trials. Abraham
archs knew God only by the name El Shaddai, whereas the
endures ten trials, the climax of which is the divine com-
name Yahveh was first revealed to Moses. Second, the writer
mand to sacrifice Isaac (17:15–18, 18:1–13; see also Avot
marks the covenant by a change of names from Abram and
5.3, Judith 8:25f.).
Sarai to Abraham and Sarah and modifies the tradition ac-
cordingly. Third, the covenant with its promises includes the
Josephus Flavius, the Jewish historian of Roman times
sign of circumcision. Only through this rite may Israelites of
who was writing for a Gentile audience, presents Abraham
a later day be participants in the destiny of the covenant
in a much more apologetic tone—as a pious philosopher of
community. This is an ecclesial conception of identity most
great learning (Jewish Antiquities 1.7–17). He states that
appropriate to those living in the Diaspora communities.
Abraham was the first to reason to a knowledge of God, cre-
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

16
ABRAHAM
ator of the universe, by his observations of the heavens. Abra-
special election of the Jews and so argues for their ultimate
ham was, however, forced to leave Babylonia because of reli-
salvation as well. In Galatians 3:6–9 and 3:15–18 Paul uses
gious persecution (see also Judith 5:8). He took with him the
a somewhat different argument by suggesting that salvation
Babylonian sciences of astronomy and mathematics, which
came to the Gentiles through Abraham’s blessing; this bless-
he taught to the Egyptians during his sojourn in their coun-
ing was transmitted through Abraham’s “seed,” which Paul
try, and in this way the knowledge of such sciences eventually
identifies with Jesus.
came to the Greeks. (See also the Hellenistic-Jewish frag-
The Letter to the Hebrews (11:8–12, 11:17–19) uses
ments in Eusebius’s Praeparatio evangelica, 9.17ff., where
Abraham as an example of faith, recounting his response to
Abraham teaches the Phoenicians as well.) Josephus places
God’s call to sojourn in the land of promise, his belief with
little emphasis upon the distinctively Jewish features of the
Sarah in the promise of offspring, and his testing through the
Abraham tradition. He even passes rather lightly over the ep-
sacrifice of Isaac. All of these are made to reflect faith in God
isode of his circumcision and defers to another place a discus-
beyond the limitations of this life, a heavenly abode, and the
sion of the law of circumcision.
belief in future resurrection of the dead. By contrast, James
Philo Judaeus of Alexandria devotes two treatises to
2:20–24 uses the sacrifice of Isaac as an example of Abra-
Abraham: On Abraham, part of his Exposition of the Law (di-
ham’s being justified by works and not just by faith alone.
rected to Gentiles), and On the Migration of Abraham, part
ABRAHAM IN ISLAM. Abraham is mentioned more frequently
of his Allegory of the Jewish Law (directed to Jewish readers).
in the QurDa¯n than is any other biblical figure. He is regarded
The first work is primarily a Hellenistic biography to demon-
as the first prophet because he was the first to convert to the
strate Abraham’s piety and wisdom and the Greek virtues of
true God and to preach against the idolatry of his people
justice, courage, and moderation, to which, in place of pru-
(su¯rahs 19:41ff., 21:51ff., 26:69ff., 37:83ff.). He was also the
dence, the author adds faith. Abraham also observes the law,
first Muslim because he practiced islam—submission to ab-
not, however, the Law of Moses (as in Jubilees) but the law
solute obedience to God—when he was tested by the com-
of nature. The life of Abraham is further interpreted allegori-
mand to sacrifice his son (2:124ff., 37:102ff.). Abraham,
cally, especially in the second work, as the mystical journey
with the aid of his son Ishmael, the father of the Arabs, was
of the sage who reaches perfection through education. From
responsible for the founding of the KaEbah in Mecca, the first
Chaldean idolatry, astrology, and sense perception the soul
sanctuary of God (2:125, 2:127). Muh:ammad viewed him-
progresses through reason and philosophy to a knowledge of
self as the reviver of this ancient faith, which he regarded as
God. The outlook here is a form of moral and mystical Greek
older than both Judaism and Christianity (3:65). Following
philosophy.
Jewish tradition, he also regarded Abraham as the first recipi-
ent of the divine revelation of the book (2:129).
The rabbinic aggadah on Abraham is well represented
by the midrash Genesis Rabbah, 39–62. For the rabbis, also,
Abraham was the first man to recognize the existence of God
BIBLIOGRAPHY
while in Chaldea amongst the idolatry there. Abraham’s call
It is difficult in a brief bibliography to do justice to the broad spec-
to go to an unknown land was the beginning of his trials of
trum of scholarly opinion about the Abraham tradition. On
faith, of which the binding of Isaac was the climax and by
matters of the history of the patriarchal age, John Bright’s A
History of Israel,
3d ed. (Philadelphia, 1981), may be said to
which his rewards, blessing, and merit on behalf of others
represent an American school of thought, while Siegfried
would be all the greater. The rabbinic tradition is very insis-
Herrmann’s Geschichte Israels in alttestamentlicher Zeit (Mu-
tent that Abraham kept all the Mosaic commandments, both
nich, 1973), translated by John Bowden as A History of Israel
the written and unwritten law (see also B.T., Yoma’ 28b;
in Old Testament Times, 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1981), pres-
B.T., Qiddushin 82a; Midrash Tehillim 112; Numbers Rab-
ents an approach favored by many German biblical scholars.
bah 12). Abraham is also viewed as a prophet, primarily in
A mediating position is that found in Roland de Vaux’s His-
the sense that he received revelations from God about the fu-
toire ancienne d’Israël: Des origines à l’installation en Canaan
ture and the unseen world. And Abraham is a priest whose
(Paris, 1971), translated by David Smith as The Early History
priesthood is somehow linked with that of Melchizedek and
of Israel (Philadelphia, 1978).
whose sacrifice on Mount Moriah was at the site of the future
On the religion of Abraham, see Albrecht Alt’s Der Gott der Väter:
Temple.
Ein Beitrag zur Vorgeschichte der Israelitischen Religion (Stutt-
gart, 1929), translated by R. A. Wilson as “The God of the
ABRAHAM IN CHRISTIANITY. The figure of Abraham plays a
Fathers,” in Essays on Old Testament History and Religion
special role in the New Testament, especially in the thought
(Oxford, 1966), pp. 1–77; and Frank Moore Cross’s Ca-
of the apostle Paul. In Romans 4 Paul argues that Abraham
naanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Re-
was justified by faith in God prior to his being circumcised
ligion of Israel (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), pp. 3–75.
and therefore prior to any works of the law, so the law is not
On the literary development of the tradition, see Hermann Gun-
necessary for justification—that is, for being considered righ-
kel’s Genesis (Göttingen, 1901). The introduction to this
teous before God. Abraham becomes the father of the faith-
work was translated and edited by William H. Carruth as
ful, and the election of Abraham is thus extended to all who
The Legends of Genesis (Chicago, 1901) and reissued with an
have faith. Nevertheless, Paul is not willing to give up God’s
introduction by William F. Albright (New York, 1964). See
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ABRAVANEL, ISAAC
17
also the commentary in Gerhard von Rad’s Das erste Buch
biblical commentator, theologian, and philosopher. Born in
Mose, Genesis, 3 vols. (Göttingen, 1949–1953), translated by
Lisbon into a wealthy Jewish family from Seville, Isaac ben
John H. Marks as Genesis: A Commentary, 3 vols. (Philadel-
Judah Abravanel succeeded his father as the treasurer to Al-
phia, 1961). A commentary that reflects the American school
fonso V, king of Aragon, but in 1483 for political reasons
is the one in Nahum M. Sarna’s Understanding Genesis (New
he had to flee to Castille, where he remained in the service
York, 1966).
of Ferdinand and Isabella until the expulsion of the Jews on
Critical reappraisals of the historicity of the Abraham tradition can
May 31, 1492. He then moved to Naples in the service of
be found in Thomas L. Thompson’s The Historicity of the Pa-
King Ferrante I until a French invasion forced him to flee
triarchal Narratives: The Quest for the Historical Abraham
with the king to Messina in 1494. Isaac resided in Corfu
(New York, 1974), and in my Abraham in History and Tradi-
tion
(New Haven, Conn., 1975). The latter work also con-
until 1496; then moved to Monopoli (Apulia), and in 1503
tains a critical discussion of the literary tradition of Abraham.
settled in Venice, where he spent the last years of his life.
Recent surveys of the present state of scholarship on Abraham are
Isaac’s earliest work, composed when he was in his
represented by William G. Denver and W. Malcolm Clark
teens, was Tsurot ha-yesodot (Forms of the elements). His
in “The Patriarchal Traditions,” chapter 2 of Israelite and Ju-
next, completed around 1465, was EAteret zeqenim (Crown
daean History, edited by John H. Hayes and J. Maxwell Mil-
of the ancients). The first deals with ontology; the second
ler (Philadelphia, 1977), pp. 70–148; and Claus Wester-
mann’s Genesis, pt. 2, “Biblischer Kommentar Altes
covers divine providence and the nature of prophecy. Be-
Testament,” vol. 1, no. 2 (Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1981). This
tween 1483 and 1505 Isaac wrote commentaries on the Pen-
latter work contains an extensive bibliography.
tateuch, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Eze-
For a treatment of Abraham in later Jewish sources, see Samuel
kiel, and the twelve minor prophets. In 1496 he completed
Sandmel’s Philo’s Place in Judaism: A Study of Conceptions of
a commentary on Deuteronomy titled Mirkevet ha-mishneh
Abraham in Jewish Literature (Cincinnati, 1955). See also the
(The second chariot); another on the Passover Haggadah,
article “Abraham” in Theologische Realenzyklopädie, vol. 1
Zevah pesah (The sacrifice of Passover); and a third on the
(New York, 1977).
tractate Avot in the Mishnah, Nahalot avot (Paternal inheri-
New Sources
tance).
Brodsky, Harold. “Did Abram Wage a Just War?” Jewish Bible
Between 1496 and 1498 Isaac composed a set of three
Quarterly 31 (2003): 167–173.
books known as “The Tower of Salvation.” The first,
Cohen, Jeffrey M. “Displacement in the Matriarchal Home: A
Ma Eyenei ha-yeshu Eah (The fountains of salvation), is a com-
Psychological Study of the Abraham-Sarah Marriage.” Jewish
mentary on the Book of Daniel. The second, Yeshu Eot meshiho
Bible Quarterly 30 (2002): 90–96.
(The salvation of his anointed), is a study of midrashim and
Fleishman, Joseph. “On the Significance of a Name Change and
passages from the Talmud that deal with the Messiah and
Circumcision in Genesis 17.” Journal of the Ancient Near
Eastern Society
28 (2002): 19–32.
the messianic age. The third, Mashmi Ea yeshu Eah (Announc-
ing salvation), is a commentary on the messianic prophecies
Kahn, Pinchas. “The Mission of Abraham: Genesis 18:17–22:19.”
found in all of the books of the prophets.
Jewish Bible Quarterly 30 (2002): 155–163.
Kaltner, John. “Abraham’s Sons: How the Bible and QurDan See
Isaac wrote three books that deal specifically with the
the Same Story Differently.” Bible Review 18 (2002): 16–23,
philosophy of Maimonides (Mosheh ben Maimon, 1135/8–
45–46.
1204): Ro Dsh amanah (The principles of faith; 1494), a de-
Lee, Jung H. “Abraham in a Different Voice: Rereading ‘Fear and
tailed commentary (1505) on Maimonides’ Guide of the Per-
Trembling’ with Care.” Religious Studies 36 (2000):
plexed, and the Ma Damar qatser (Short treaties; 1505), which
377–400.
discusses at length what Isaac considered to be the most diffi-
Levenson, Jon Douglas. “The Conversion of Abraham to Judaism,
cult problems in the Guide. In 1505 Isaac also completed two
Christianity, and Islam.” In The Idea of Biblical Interpreta-
works on creation, Shamayim hadashim (The new heavens)
tion, edited by Hindy Najman and Judith H. Newman,
and Mif Ealot Elohim (The works of God).
pp. 3–40. Leiden and Boston, 2004.
Noegel, Scott B. “Abraham’s Ten Trials and a Biblical Numerical
Isaac’s last written works were answers to questions
Convention.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 31 (2003): 73–83.
raised by ShaDul ha-Kohen of Candia. These responsa refer to
J
two lost books: The Inheritance of the Prophets, an essay
OHN VAN SETERS (1987)
Revised Bibliography
against Maimonides’ theory of prophecy, and The Justice of
the Universe,
which deals with divine providence.
The dominant theme of Isaac’s writings is his opposi-
ABRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIÈRES
tion to what he considered to be the excessive rationalism of
SEE AVRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIÈRES
the Jewish Aristotelians who followed Maimonides, particu-
larly Gersonides (Levi ben Gershom). Isaac was motivated
by the fear that this kind of sophisticated Jewish thought,
ABRAVANEL, ISAAC (1437–1508), known as
given the threats to Jewish survival present in the exile, would
Abravanel, Abrabanel, and Abarbanel; Spanish-Portuguese
undermine the faith of the simple Jew. Isaac rejected the
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

18
ABSTINENCE
claims of both Hasdai Crescas and Yosef Albo that it is possi-
Netanyahu, Benzion. Don Isaac Abravanel. Philadelphia, 1953.
ble to single out fundamental principles of Judaism. Isaac ar-
Sarachek, Joseph. Don Isaac Abravanel. New York, 1938.
gued that Judaism has no conceptual axioms; every law and
Schmueli, Ephraim. Don Yitshaq Abarbanel ve-geirush Sefarad
every belief in the Torah is equally fundamental.
(Don Isaac Abravanel and the expulsion of the Jews from
Isaac opposed naturalistic interpretations of prophecy.
Spain). Jerusalem, 1963.
He argued that all prophecy is produced directly by God and
Trend, J. B., and Herbert Loewe. Isaac Abravanel: Six Lectures.
that the events reported in prophetic visions actually oc-
Cambridge, U.K., 1937.
curred in the physical world. Furthermore, prophetic knowl-
New Sources
edge differs qualitatively from natural knowledge. Natural
Attias, Jean-Christophe. “Isaac Abravanel: Between Ethnic Mem-
knowledge at best yields claims that are merely probable,
ory and National Memory.” Jewish Social Studies 2 (1996):
whereas revealed knowledge is necessarily true.
137–156.
Isaac drew his political theory from the political struc-
Feldman, Seymour. Philosophy in a Time of Crisis: Don Isaac
tures of ancient Rome, the Venice of his day, and the Torah.
Abravanel, Defender of the Faith. London and New York,
He claimed that a political state is required only because of
2003.
the human imperfection that resulted from the sin of Adam.
Gaon, Solomon. The Influence of the Catholic Theologian Alfonso
Consequently, no political state is perfect. The best political
Tostado on the Pentateuch Commentary of Isaac Abravanel. Li-
order is that of theocracy; the next best is a monarchy, limit-
brary of Sephardic History and Thought, vol. 2. New York,
ed by the national laws of a superior court or Sanhedrin and
1993.
the local laws of elected municipal lower courts.
NORBERT M. SAMUELSON (1987)
Two cosmological judgments underlie Isaac’s view of
Revised Bibliography
history. One is his rejection of the Aristotelian conception
of the spheres as living entities. The other is his affirmation
of a literal understanding of the doctrine of creation out of
nothing. What philosophers mistakenly believe to be natural
ABSTINENCE SEE ASCETICISM; CELIBACY;
law is God’s will made manifest through the actions of angels
FASTING; SPIRITUAL DISCIPLINE
(God’s agents for rewarding human beings) and demons
(God’s agents for punishing human beings), and/or the
willed choices of human beings. Nothing occurs through im-
ABU
¯ AL-HUDHAYL AL-EALLA¯F (d. between AH
personal, natural forces.
227 and 235, 842 and 850 CE), more fully Abu¯ al-Hudhayl
Isaac pictured the course of human history as a circle
Muh:ammad ibn al-Hudhayl al-EAlla¯f al-EAbd¯ı; Muslim
that began when humanity separated from God and that will
theologian of the MuEtazil¯ı school. Little is known of the life
end when humanity returns to God. However, after Adam’s
of Abu¯ al-Hudhayl. He was a client (mawla¯) of the tribe EAbd
initial fall that began history, there was, is, and will be con-
al-Qays and is said to have studied with a certain Uthma¯n
tinuous disintegration until the messianic age. The penulti-
al-Taw¯ıl, an agent for the MuEtazil¯ı propaganda of Wa¯s:il ibn
mate state of history will begin when a revived Muslim em-
EAtaD (d. 748/9). About 819 he entered the court of the ca-
pire in alliance with the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel will
liph al-MaDmu¯n, where he was renowned for his skill in dis-
conquer the Christians and retake possession of Jerusalem.
putation and for his ability to quote poetry. Of his numerous
Next, the Messiah, who is not Jesus of Nazareth, will appear,
theological, philosophical, apologetic, and polemic writings,
and the Muslims will turn over Jerusalem to him. At that
none has survived. He is reported to have been more than
time all of the Jewish people will return to the Land of Israel,
a hundred years old at the time of his death.
and the Messiah will rule the world. Then a reign will follow
during which humanity will progressively improve until, in
The fragmentary and somewhat gnomic reports of Abu¯
the end, the physical, human world will give way to a spiritu-
al-Hudhayl’s doctrine supplied by later writers allow only a
al world of pure souls who eternally will contemplate God’s
superficial view of his teaching, nor is it possible to determine
essence. The two dates that Isaac cited for the coming of the
the significance of several apparent parallels to earlier Chris-
Messiah are 1503 and 1531.
tian writers. His teaching is based on a systematic analysis
of the predicates attached to things, where the primary asser-
SEE ALSO Messianism, article on Jewish Messianism.
tion is indicated by the noun subject used in the analytic
paraphrase. For example, “x moves” is analyzed as “a motion
BIBLIOGRAPHY
belongs to x,” and “y knows,” as “a cognition belongs to y.”
Guttmann, Jacob. Die religionsphilosophischen Lehren des Isaak
Since the subject term of the analysis is taken to designate
Abravanel. Breslau, 1916.
an entity, the method tended to posit many reified proper-
Heschel, Abraham Joshua. Don Jizchak Abravanel. Berlin, 1937.
ties, such as “location” (kawn), “conjunction,” or “lifeless-
Levy, Solomon. Isaac Abravanel as a Theologian. London, 1939.
ness.” Abu¯ al-Hudhayl’s conception of material beings was
Minkin, Jacob S. Abarbanel and the Expulsion of the Jews from
atomistic: bodies are composites of discrete atoms (sg., ja-
Spain. New York, 1938.
whar) in each of which subsists a set of various entitative
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ABU
¯ BAKR
19
properties (sg., ma Ena¯), categorically referred to as “acci-
His father was EUtha¯m of the clan of Taym of the tribe of
dents.” The atoms and some kinds of accidents perdure over
Quraysh. His mother was Salma bint Sakhr of the same clan.
many moments of time while other accidents exist only for
He was born around 572 CE. He married four times and had
a single instant. Because speech consists of accidents in a ma-
six children, including EA¯Dishah, who married the Prophet
terial substrate, the QurDa¯n as God’s speech is also created;
and played a significant role in some of the early events in
it exists originally in a celestial archetype, “The Cherished
Muslim history, and who also served as a transmitter of
Tablet,” of which there are quotations.
h:ad¯ıth.
Analyzing the descriptions of God given in the QurDa¯n,
Ibn Ish:a¯q, the author of an early biography of the
Abu¯ al-Hudhayl taught that God has cognition, power, life,
Prophet, describes Abu¯ Bakr as a kindly man popular among
eternity, grandeur, and so forth, but each of these attributes
his contemporaries and most knowledgeable about the gene-
is God himself, even though they are distinguishable as such
alogy of the Quraysh and the values and traditions of their
from each other. His volitions, however, come to exist tem-
ancestors. The people used to call upon him for his knowl-
porally “in no substrate,” simultaneously with his creation
edge, his experience as a merchant, and his good companion-
of their objects, as does his creative command, “Be,” the real-
ship. He lived in the same area of Mecca as Khad¯ıjah, the
ity of which is asserted by “creates.” He held also that the
wife of the Prophet, which may have brought about their
potential objects of God’s power are finite in number and
friendship and may have been the reason that Abu¯ Bakr was
that consequently there must come a time when even the ac-
among the first adult male Muslims. We know very little
tivity of the blessed in Paradise will terminate in an unalter-
about his life before the advent of Islam; the reports concern-
able state of bliss. This thesis he is said to have renounced
ing the details of his life are sometimes contradictory and
late in his life.
confusing. Nevertheless a reasonable picture of his life may
Whether or not Abu¯ al-Hudhayl first introduced atom-
be glimpsed through the different traditions and reports. As
ism and the analytic method into the MuEtazil¯ı kala¯m is un-
a relatively wealthy merchant, Abu¯ Bakr used his wealth and
certain; in any event, Abu¯ EAl¯ı al-Jubba¯D¯ı (d. 913) considers
resources to support the poor among the nascent Muslim
that it is Abu¯ al-Hudhayl “who initiated kala¯m.” His most
community. In particular he bought and freed Muslim
important direct disciple was Abu¯ YaEqu¯b al-Shah:h:a¯m, who
slaves, among whom was Bila¯l the Abyssinian, who later be-
was in turn the master of al-Jubba¯D¯ı. The latter basically re-
came well-known as a devout Muslim and as a muezzin (the
fined the system of Abu¯ al-Hudhayl so as to lay the immedi-
one who gives the call to prayer).
ate foundation of what later became the predominant tradi-
Abu¯ Bakr’s personal influence helped bring to Islam
tion of MuEtazil¯ı theology. Also through al-JubbaD¯ı, who was
some of the leading members of Meccan society. As a result
the teacher of al-AshEar¯ı (d. 935), the teaching of Abu¯ al-
he faced the hostility of other Meccans, but remained one
Hudhayl came to play a significant role in the formation of
of the Prophet’s closest companions. When the pressure on
classical AshEar¯ı doctrine.
the early Muslim community became intolerable, some of
them took refuge in Abyssinia, but Abu¯ Bakr remained with
SEE ALSO MuEtazilah.
the Prophet in Mecca. It is unlikely that his comparatively
minor clan was able to offer Abu¯ Bakr protection, even
BIBLIOGRAPHY
though he was its chief, but it might have been that his ex-
Frank, R. M. The Metaphysics of Created Being According to Abu¯
tended friendships and acknowledged gentle demeanor de-
al-Hudhayl al- EAlla¯f. Istanbul, 1966. Although dated, re-
terred the Meccans from being too harsh on him.
mains a useful summary.
After the Prophet had built connections among the peo-
Frank, R. M. “The Divine Attributes according to the Teaching
of Abu¯ l-Hudhayl al-EAlla¯f.” Le muséon 82 (1969): 451–506.
ple of Yathrib he advised those who feared Meccan hostility
Contains a general outline of his theology with attention to
to emigrate there. Abu¯ Bakr stayed behind because the
several patristic parallels.
Prophet wanted him as his companion on the journey to
Yathrib. Abu¯ Bakr’s family supplied the food and camels and
R. M. FRANK (1987)
helped to thwart the efforts of the Quraysh to capture the
Prophet. Later his family, except his father Abu¯ Kuhafa and
his son Abd al-Rah:ma¯n, followed him to Yathrib. Abd
ABU
¯ BAKR
al-Rah:ma¯n eventually converted to Islam, but earlier he had
(c. 572–634) was the first Caliph and close
engaged in fighting against Muslims in the major battles of
companion of the Prophet and founder of the Islamic Em-
Badr and Uh:ud.
pire. In the classical Arab tradition a person is given an ism
(name), kunyah (an agnomen consisting of Abu¯ [father] fol-
In Yathrib, which the Prophet renamed al-Mad¯ınah
lowed by the name of a son), and laqab (nickname or title
(Medina), Abu¯ Bakr had a special place within the commu-
usually of a favorable nature). Hence Abu¯ Bakr was so called,
nity. He was always at the side of the Prophet and took part
although his name was Abd Allah, and his laqab, Ati Atik
in all the campaigns led by the Prophet. Abu¯ Bakr’s counsel
(freed slave), was given to him by his mother because he was
was always sought and his closeness to the Prophet made him
spared from the death in infancy that befell all her other sons.
familiar with his ideas and intentions. It is said that among
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20
ABU
¯ BAKR
the senior companions he never questioned the judgments
ing Medina exposed to attack by hostile tribes. This daring
of the Prophet. When at H:udaybiyah the Prophet decided
move must have impressed his enemies as a sign of self-
to make peace with the Meccans on conditions that were
confidence. During the absence of the army Abu¯ Bakr was
seen as humiliating by many other followers, Abu¯ Bakr stood
able to defeat the tribe who attacked Medina. Abu¯ Bakr came
by his leader, who was facing a serious rebellion. This agree-
to be known as Khalifat Rasu¯l Alla¯h, that is, the deputy or
ment was a prelude to the bloodless conquest of Mecca itself.
successor to the messenger of God (the Prophet).
Earlier in Mecca, when the Prophet proclaimed the ac-
Once the Muslim army returned after putting down an
count known in Muslim traditions as the “night journey”
early rebellion, Abu¯ Bakr appointed Kha¯lid ibn al-Walid
(isra¯ D) from Mecca to Jerusalem and back, some Meccans
commander of the main army to put down the other major
thought that such a claim would shake Abu¯ Bakr’s faith in
insurgencies. After subduing one of the rebels, Kha¯lid
the Prophet’s veracity; but he affirmed his faith in the Proph-
marched towards Yamana, where Musaylamah had gathered
et and was given the title of al-Siddiq (the firm and trustwor-
a large army that had resisted earlier attempts to subdue him.
thy believer). In Muslim literature he therefore is often re-
Kha¯lid defeated and killed Musaylamah at the Battle of
ferred to as al-Siddiq.
al-EAkrabaD. This was the bloodiest battle of the Riddah wars;
The death of the Prophet in 632 threatened the order
thousands lost their lives, and the place came to be called the
that he had established, and created a crisis regarding succes-
Garden of Death. This victory was crucial in restoring con-
sion. At the time of his death almost all of the Arabian Penin-
trol of the center of Arabia to Muslim rule. The Muslims lost
sula was under his control. Nevertheless there was a possible
a good number of reciters of the QurDa¯n in this battle. This
threat from the north by Byzantium, which encouraged the
prompted Abu¯ Bakr, according to Muslim sources, to ap-
northern tribes to defect. To ward off this threat the Prophet
point secretaries to collect the QurDa¯n, relying on the already
organized an army under the leadership of young Usa¯mah
recorded material and the memories of the surviving reciters.
ibn Zaid with orders to march to the borders of Syria, deter
He also sent other commanders to subdue the remaining
Byzantium, and subdue the northern tribes. As the army
rebel tribes and to secure other regions of the peninsula.
camped outside Medina awaiting the Prophet’s orders the
news of his death arrived.
While the Riddah campaigns were still raging, one of
the Muslim commanders had already taken control of Per-
There were rebellions among various tribes led by
sian-held centers and advanced to the Euphrates, opening up
“prophets” who modeled themselves on the Prophet, each
claiming to have received their own “QurDa¯n” through an
the possibility of conquering Iraq. On being advised that a
angel of revelation. They claimed equal status to his, and one
victory against the Persians was likely, Abu¯ Bakr recalled
of them, Musaylamah, referred to in history as the “Liar,”
Kha¯lid from Yamama and ordered him to march towards
demanded that Arabia should be divided between himself
Iraq. This marked the beginning of the conquest of Palestine
and the Prophet. In Yemen, a local leader took over from the
and Syria. Abu¯ Bakr sent three columns towards Palestine
Prophet’s appointed representative of Medina. Individuals
and Syria under Muslim commanders. After some initial suc-
claiming to be prophets and prophetesses cropped up among
cess, they were driven back by the superior forces of the By-
several tribes. Some groups who had given allegiance to Islam
zantine army. Abu¯ Bakr ordered Kha¯lid to leave Iraq and re-
reverted to their pre-Islamic religion, while others remained
inforce the army in Palestine. Their combined forces
faithful to Islam but refused to pay zaka¯t, which the QurDa¯n
defeated the Byzantines at the famous Battle of Ajnadayn in
had promulgated, to Medina on the grounds that the duty
July 634. Abu¯ Bakr died soon after on August 23.
to remit it ended with the death of the Prophet. Muslim his-
The caliphate of Abu¯ Bakr was characterized by the
torians have named this particular rebellion Riddah (aposta-
constant struggle to restore the authority of Medina and by
sy) and the struggle to subdue them as the wars of Riddah.
direct military action against rebellions in the Arabian Penin-
These were uncoordinated groups, and mostly local, without
sula and eventually against the Persian and Byzantine em-
any common leader; they were all eventually subdued under
pires. His rule marks the first major advances in Muslim rule
Abu¯ Bakr’s leadership.
over Byzantine and Sassanian controlled territories.
When the death of the Prophet was announced the
Ans:a¯r (the Muslim inhabitants of Medina) gathered in the
Abu¯ Bakr was noted for his simple and austere life. It
saqifa of Banu SaDidah to elect one of their own as successor
is said that on his deathbed, he gave back all that he had re-
to the Prophet. The ancient tribal rivalry between the Aws
ceived as salary to the Muslim treasury. During his short ten-
and Khazradj, the two tribes of Medina, delayed their deci-
ure as caliph, he sought to bring order at a turbulent time
sion to allow the Muha¯jiru¯n (the Muslim immigrants to Me-
in Muslim history after the death of the Prophet. He did not
dina) to join the meeting. According to historical accounts
attempt to alter dramatically the administrative organization
EUmar ibn al-Khat:t:a¯b and Abu¯ Akbr succeeded in persuad-
and arrangements in Medina or in the newly conquered ter-
ing the gathering to choose Abu¯ Bakr as the new leader. Abu¯
ritories. Before his death, he appointed EUmar bin al-Khat:t:a¯b
Bakr gathered his advisors to plan his first move. Against
to be his successor, believing that this choice would prevent
their advice he ordered the army to march to the north, leav-
possible strife.
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ABU
¯ H:AN¯IFAH
21
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Because of his independent income, Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah nei-
al-Bala¯dhur¯ı. The Origins of the Islamic State. Translated by Phillip
ther needed nor cared for governmental patronage and was
Hitti. New York, 1968.
thus immune from governmental pressure, a situation that
Donner, Fred. The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton, N.J., 1981.
helped Islamic law develop independently of political au-
Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: Islamic
thority. Likewise, owing to his disposition and academic pre-
Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century. London,
occupation, Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah did not involve himself in active
1986; 2d ed., Harlow, U.K., and New York, 2004.
power politics. At the same time, he was not entirely happy
Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muh:ammad: A Study of the
with the dynasties under which he lived—the Umayyads and
Early Caliphate. Cambridge, U.K., 1997.
the Abbasids—and his sympathies lay, if at all, with the op-
position. It is probably for this reason, coupled with pietistic
al-T:abar¯ı, Abu Jahar Muh:ammad. Biographies of the Prophets,
Companions, and their Successors. Translated and annotated
precaution, that Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah was unwilling to be identified
by Ella Landau-Tasseron. Albany, N.Y., 1998.
with either of the two regimes; he repeatedly declined to ac-
cept governmental positions, especially judgeships, and pre-
M. A. ZAKI BADAWI (2005)
sumably even lent moral support to the EAlid revolt of
Muh:ammad, who was popularly known as al-Nafs
al-Zak¯ıyah (d. 762). These facts explain the harsh treatment
ABU
¯ H:AN¯IFAH (AH 80?–150/699?–767 CE), more
meted out to Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah under both dynasties, culminat-
fully Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah al-NuEma¯n ibn Tha¯bit ibn Zu¯t:a¯; theolo-
ing in imprisonment from the time of the revolt to his death
gian, jurist, and founder of the first of the four orthodox
five years later.
schools of law in Sunn¯ı Islam. As a theologian, he persuasive-
CONTRIBUTION TO THEOLOGY. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s main theo-
ly argued against Kha¯rij¯ı extremism and espoused several po-
logical doctrines may be determined primarily from a small
sitions that became an integral part of the orthodox doctrine,
treatise, the Epistle to EUthma¯n al-Batt¯ı, which was doubt-
especially the idea that sin did not render one an unbeliever.
lessly written by the not-so-prolific Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah himself. A
As a jurist, he reviewed the then-existing body of legal doc-
few other brief treatises, especially those called Fiqh Akbar
trines, elaborated the law by formulating views on new ques-
I and Fiqh absat:, also represent his theological views, though
tions, and integrated these into a coherent system by anchor-
they may have been written by others.
ing them to an elaborate and basically consistent legal theory.
LIFE. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah was born in Kufa, then the capital of Iraq
His foremost concern, as reflected in these documents,
and a major intellectual center of the Islamic world. He was
was to refute the extremist theological positions of the time,
of non-Arab origin: his grandfather was a freed slave from
especially those of the Kha¯rij¯ıs. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah vigorously re-
Kabul who became a client (mawla¯) of an Arabian tribe,
futed the Kha¯rij¯ı doctrine that faith and good works were
Taym Alla¯h. His father, Tha¯bit, was certainly a Muslim, and
inalienable and that sins cast believers out of the fold of
presumably even his grandfather had converted to Islam.
Islam, dooming them to suffer eternally in hell. He empha-
The family was prosperous, and Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah himself be-
sized that faith, consisting essentially of verbal confession
came a successful manufacturer and merchant of silk. Re-
coupled with inner conviction, did not increase or decrease.
nowned for his honest dealings, he devoted a good part of
Thus by mere sinning one did not lose faith. By taking this
his income to charitable purposes, especially to helping
position Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah did not wish to demean moral up-
scholars in need.
rightness or to lower the quality of religious life. Rather, in
the context of the Kha¯rij¯ı denial to believing sinners the
Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah had a well-rounded education under a
rights of Muslims, including their lives and property, a doc-
number of able scholars. Drawn to theology in his youth, he
trine that had caused much bloodshed and seemed to threat-
soon made his mark as a theologian through participation in
en the orderly existence of the Muslim community, Abu¯
theological debates. For some reason his infatuation with
H:an¯ıfah’s main concern was the juridical and communal as-
theology did not last long, and he turned instead to law,
pect, of faith as the determinant of a person’s membership
which occupied him for the better part of his life. His princi-
in the Muslim ummah and the resulting entitlement to cer-
pal teacher in this realm was Hamma¯d ibn Ab¯ı Sulayma¯n
tain juridical rights and privileges.
(d. 737), then the foremost representative of the Iraqi school
of law. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah remained his disciple for eighteen years
The main opponents of the Kha¯rij¯ıs at the time were
and after his mentor’s death was acknowledged as the head
the MurjiDah. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s opposition to Kha¯rij¯ı doctrines
of the Iraqi school. He also learned from, and exchanged
understandably earned him the reputation of being a
views with, a host of other scholars, notably Abu¯ EAmr
MurjiD¯ı, a reputation that has been accepted rather uncriti-
al-ShaEb¯ı (d. 722), EAt:a¯D ibn Ab¯ı Raba¯h: (d. 732), and JaEfar
cally by most Western scholars. The MurjiDah, and especially
al-S:a¯diq (d. 765). Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah also benefited from constant
their extreme wing, held the view that if one had faith, sin
traveling, contacts with a wide variety of people, direct in-
would cause that person no harm. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s position
volvement in business life, and exposure to the heteroge-
was significantly different. In the Epistle to EUthma¯n al-Batt¯ı
neous and dynamic society of Iraq and the materially ad-
he writes: “He who obeys God in all the laws, according to
vanced conditions there.
us, is of the people of paradise. He who leaves both faith and
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22
ABU
¯ H:AN¯IFAH
works is an infidel, of the people of the [hell] fire. But one
1, p. 82). Whether Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah actually made those state-
who believes but is guilty of some breach of the laws is a be-
ments or not, they do seem to express broadly certain essen-
lieving sinner, and God will do as He wishes about him: pun-
tials of his legal theory. Likewise, later works also indicate
ish him if he wills, and forgive him if he wills.”
that Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah had a set of fairly subtle and elaborate
rules for interpretation of the authoritative texts, designating
On the whole, Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s approach to theological
their relative authority and working out their legal signifi-
questions is characterized by the tendency to avoid extremes
cance.
and to adopt middle-of-the road positions, and by his con-
cern for the unity and solidarity of Muslims. His catholicity
On the whole, Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s legal doctrines evidence
is reflected in many of his doctrines, as in his rejection of the
a high degree of systematic consistency and seem to be the
schismatic positions of both the Sh¯ıEah (who opposed
work of a brilliant albeit speculative juristic mind. Again and
EUthman) and the Kharjis (who opposed both EUthma¯n and
again, he disregards established practice and considerations
EAl¯ı): “We disavow none of the companions of the apostle
of judicial and administrative convenience in favor of sys-
of God; nor do we adhere to any of them exclusively. We
tematic and technical legal issues. His legal acumen and juris-
leave the question of EUthma¯n and EAl¯ı to God, who knows
tic strictness were such that Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah reached the highest
the secret and hidden things.”
level of legal thought for his time. Compared with the work
of his contemporaries, such as the Kufan judge-jurist Ibn Ab¯ı
The kernel of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s position on sin became the
Layla¯ (d. 756), the Syrian al-Awza¯E¯ı (d. 774), and the Me-
standard orthodox doctrine. Moreover, his approach initiat-
dinese Ma¯lik (d. 795), his doctrines are more carefully for-
ed a powerful theological movement that contributed to the
mulated and systematically consistent and his technical legal
final formulations of Sunn¯ı theological doctrines on impor-
thought more highly developed and refined.
tant questions relating to free will and predestination and the
attributes of God. The impact of his ideas is reflected in the
Legal doctrines before Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah had been formulat-
works of many major theologians, including al-T:ah:aw¯ı
ed mainly in response to actual problems; he attempted in-
(d. 933), al-Ma¯turid¯ı (d. 944), and al-Samarqand¯ı (d. 993).
stead to formulate doctrines relating to questions that might
arise sometime in the future. This method, which considera-
CONTRIBUTION TO LAW. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s overriding interest
bly enlarged the scope of Islamic law, further refined the al-
for the greater part of his life, however, was law, and it is
ready advanced legal thinking which was required for its ap-
upon his contribution in this field that his fame mainly rests.
plication. It was also to lead, however, to extravagant use of
By Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s time interaction among the different
imagination, and much energy was devoted to solving ques-
centers of Islamic jurisprudence, notably Medina, Kufa, and
tions that would virtually never arise in actual life.
Syria, had led to a growing awareness of disagreements on
Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s excessive use of analogical reasoning
legal questions. As a result, there was a perceived need for
(qiya¯s), his wont to formulate doctrines in response to hypo-
an integrated code of legal doctrines that could be justified
thetical legal questions, and above all his tendency to set
by reference to a set of generally recognized principles and
aside isolated traditions (a¯h:a¯d) if they tended to impose a re-
thus be universally accepted by Muslims. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah ad-
strictive interpretation on the legal import of QurDanic
dressed himself almost single-mindedly to this task. In col-
verses, earned him the reputation belonging to a group pejo-
laboration with a sizable number of his students, who were
ratively called ahl al-ra Dy (“people of independent opinion”),
specialists in Islamic law and its related fields, he thoroughly
as opposed to ahl al-h:ad¯ıth (“people of authoritative tradi-
surveyed the entire field of Islamic law, reviewed the existing
tion”). This, however, was a polemical allegation rather than
doctrines, and formulated new doctrines with a view to cover
an objective statement of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s own standpoint or
all possible contingencies.
that of his school. More recent research has shown that there
Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah did not actually compose his legal corpus;
was scarcely any essential difference, in theory or practice, be-
instead, he dictated his doctrines to his students. The most
tween the attitude of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah and that of other legal
reliable sources for these doctrines, therefore, are the works
schools regarding the use of a ra Dy (independent opinion) on
of his students, especially Abu¯ Yu¯suf (d. 799) and
questions of religious law. As for traditions, there is ample
al-Shayba¯n¯ı (d. 804). While their works abound with Abu¯
evidence to show that Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah accepted traditions from
H:an¯ıfah’s legal doctrines, statements about his legal theory
the Prophet as well as from companions, and that he even
are few and far between, and are of a fragmentary nature.
accepted isolated traditions. He tended to disregard isolated
Nonetheless, the assumption that he did not have a clear
traditions in cases involving a contradiction between those
legal theory is contradicted by the high degree of systematic
traditions and what he considered to be more authentic
consistency found in his doctrines. Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s legal theo-
sources, and he did so not arbitrarily but in the light of an
ry can be, and has been, deduced by a careful study of his
elaborate set of rules that he and his school had developed.
legal doctrines. In addition, works of a later period contain
INFLUENCE. The legal doctrines of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah were fur-
a few statements ascribed to Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah regarding his legal
ther developed by his disciples, especially Abu¯ Yu¯suf and
theory (see, e.g., al-Khat:¯ıb al-Baghda¯d¯ı, TaDr¯ıkh Baghda¯d,
al-Sha¯yban¯ı. The resulting H:anaf¯ı school of law found favor
vol. 13, p. 368, and al-Makk¯ı and al-Kardar¯ı, Mana¯qib, vol.
with the Abbasid caliphs and a number of Muslim dynasties,
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ABULAFIA, MEDIR
23
especially the Ottomans, who accorded it exclusive official
mentioned above, see A. J. Wensinck’s The Muslim Creed:
recognition. Today it enjoys more or less official status in
Its Genesis and Historical Development (1932; reprint, New
most of the Arab countries that were formerly under Otto-
York, 1965) and W. Montgomery Watt’s The Formative Pe-
man rule (e.g., Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Syria). Since large
riod of Islamic Thought (Edinburgh, 1973). See also Joseph
numbers of Muslims voluntarily accepted the H:anaf¯ı school,
Schacht’s “An Early MurciDite Treatise: The Kita¯b al-EA¯lim
its adherents have become more numerous than those of any
wal MutaEallim,” Oriens 17 (1974): 96–117. For an impor-
tant and authentic writing of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah on theology, see
other school. They constitute a vast majority of the Muslim
“The Epistle of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah to EUthma¯n al-Batt¯ı,” in Islam,
population of South Asia, Turkey, the Balkans, Cyprus,
edited by John Alden Williams (New York, 1962),
West and Central Asia, China, and Afghanistan and are well
pp. 176–179. For English translations of some writings of
represented in the Arab countries, especially Syria and Iraq.
Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, including both authentic and questionable
writings, see Wensinck’s The Muslim Creed.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
For the original sources of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s doctrines, see mainly
The best bibliographical source for Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, which far super-
the works of his two disciples, Abu¯ Yu¯suf and al-Shayba¯n¯ı.
sedes earlier works of this genre, is Fuat Sezgin’s Geschichte
Only the works dealing with financial affairs, public law, and
des arabischen Schrifttums, vol. 1 (Leiden, 1967),
the law of nations are available in English translation. These
pp. 409–433. The only full-scale work on Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah
are Abu¯ Yu¯suf’s Kitab al-khara¯j, translated by A. Ben
available in any Western language is Muh:ammad Shibl¯ı
Shemesh, “Taxation in Islam,” vol. 3 (Leiden and London,
NuEmani’s Ima¯m Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah: Life and Work (1889–1890),
1969), and Muh:ammad ibn al-H:asan al-Shayba¯n¯ı’s The Is-
translated by M. Hadi Hussain (Lahore, 1972).
lamic Law of Nations, translated by Majid Khadduri (Balti-
For biographical information about Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, see the stan-
more, 1966).
dard Muslim biographical dictionaries and also hagiographi-
cal and polemical writings relating to him. These, however,
For the process of codification of law by Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, see
should be used critically. In the latter category, see particular-
Muh:ammad Hamidullah’s “Codification of Muslim Law by
ly Abu¯ al-MuDayyad al-Makk¯ı and Muh:ammad ibn
Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah,” in Zeki Velidi Togan Da armag˘an: Symbolae in
Muh:ammad al-Kardar¯ı’s Mana¯qib al-ima¯m al-a Ez:am (Hy-
honorem Z. V. Togan by Herbert Jansky and others (Istanbul,
derabad,
1950–1955).
AH 1321); Abu
¯ EAbd Alla¯h H:usayn al-S:aymar¯ı’s
Akhba¯r Ab¯ı H:an¯ıfah wa-as:ha¯b¯ıh (Hyderabad, 1974); and
ZAFAR ISHAQ ANSARI (1987)
Shams al-D¯ın Muh:ammad ibn Yu¯suf al-S:a¯lih:¯ı al-Dimashq¯ı
al-Sha¯fiE¯ı’s EUqu¯d al-juma¯n f¯ımana¯qib al-ima¯m al-a Ez:am Ab
¯ı H
:an¯ıfah al-Nu¯ Ema¯n (Hyderabad, 1974). For a work that
has brought together much information, and especially a vast
ABULAFIA, MEDIR (c. 1165–1244), known by the ac-
body of negative hearsay opinion about Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, see
al-Khat:¯ıb al-Baghda¯di’s Ta Dr¯ıkh Baghda¯d, vol. 13 (Cairo,
ronym RaMaH (Rabbi MeDir ha-Levi). Abulafia was the first
1931), pp. 323–454. Among later works, the most useful
major Talmudist to appear in Spain in the period following
study of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s life and thought is Muh:ammad Abu¯
Spanish Jewry’s decisive transfer from Muslim to Christian
Zahrah’s Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, 2d ed. (Cairo, 1960). See also Wahb¯ı
rule in the mid-twelfth century. He was born in Burgos but
Sulayma¯n al-Alba¯n¯ı’s Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah al-Nu Ema¯n, 2d ed. (Da-
moved early in his career to Toledo. His family included
mascus, 1973). For Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s political ideas and in-
prominent communal leaders, some of whom served the
volvement in politics, see Mana¯z:ir Ah:san G¯ıla¯n¯ı’s Ima¯m Abu¯
Castilian monarchy as diplomats and administrators. Abula-
H:an¯ıfah k¯ı siya¯s¯ı zindag¯ı, 2d ed. (Karachi, 1957).
fia was fluent in Arabic and steeped in the culture of Spanish
For the legal doctrines of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah and his contribution to
Jewry’s “golden age”—its Hebrew linguistics and poetry,
Islamic law, especially its legal theory, in addition to the
biblical exegesis, and philosophy. He was among the leading
works of NuEma¯n¯ı and Abu¯ Zahrah, see Muh:ammad Yu¯suf
Hebrew poets of his generation, composing both secular and
Mu¯sa¯’s Ta Dr¯ıkh al-fiqh al-isla¯m¯ı, vol. 3 (Cairo, 1956);
sacred poetry. Despite his versatility and breadth, Abulafia’s
Muh:ammad ibn al-H:asan al-Fa¯s¯ı’s Al-fikr al-sa¯m¯ı f¯ı Ta Dr¯ıkh
religious sensibility was fundamentally conservative: his edu-
al-fiqh al-isla¯m¯ı, 2 vols. (Cairo, 1976–1977); and
cational ideal was anchored in classical texts and his theologi-
Muh:ammad Mukhta¯r al-Qa¯d:¯ı’s Al-ra¯ Dy f¯ı al-fiqh al-isla¯m¯ı
(Cairo, 1949). For writings in Western languages touching
cal stance in tradition.
on Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s contribution to Islamic law, see Ignácz
Abulafia’s primary vocation was Talmudic studies. His
Goldziher’s The Za¯h¯ıris: Their Doctrine and Their History,
detailed and highly original commentaries combine legal
translated and edited by Wolfgang Behn (Leiden, 1971); Jo-
conceptualization with pragmatism. They also reveal the ear-
seph Schacht’s The Origins of Muh:ammadan Jurisprudence
(Oxford, 1959) and An Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford,
liest traces of the northern European influence that was to
1964); and Ahmad Hasan’s The Early Development of Islamic
transform Spanish halakhah. Only two of these commen-
Jurisprudence (Islamabad, 1970). See also my “The Early De-
taries (to the Babylonian Talmud tractates Bava D BatraD and
velopment of Fiqh in Ku¯fah: A Study of the Works of Abu¯
Sanhedrin) have survived intact, but quotations from others
Yu¯suf and Al-Shayba¯n¯ı” (Ph. D. diss., McGill University,
were preserved by later authors and influenced the subse-
1967).
quent development of Jewish law. Abulafia was widely con-
For Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah’s theological views and contribution to theolo-
sulted on halakhic questions, although only a fraction of his
gy, in addition to the works of Abu¯ Zahrah and NuEma¯n¯ı
responsa survive.
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

24
ABU
¯ YU¯SUF
Abulafia also composed an important work of biblical
Septimus, Bernard. “Kings, Angels or Beggars: Tax Law and Spiri-
“text criticism,” Masoret seyag la-Torah. This study of defec-
tuality in a Hispano-Jewish Responsum.” In Studies in Medi-
tive and plene spellings in the Pentateuch has been credited
eval Jewish History and Literature, edited by Isadore Twersky,
with the establishment of a virtually definitive consonantal
vol.2, pp. 309–336. Cambridge, Mass., 1984. Studies Abula-
text for Torah scrolls throughout the world.
fia’s opposition to professionalized scholarship.
New Sources
Abulafia is remembered by modern historians mostly as
Abulafia, Meir.Yad Ramah ve-shitot kadmonim Eal Masekhet Git-
a critic of Maimonides (Mosheh ben Maimon, 1135/8–
tin. Edited by Avraham Zevulun Shoshanah. Jerusalem,
1204). In the first years of the thirteenth century, he attacked
1989.
Maimonides’ interpretation of Eolam ha-baD, “the world to
Forcano, Manuel. “Rabí Xeixet Benveniste versus Rabí Meir
come.” Maimonides interpreted Eolam ha-baD along the lines
Abulàfia (un episodi de la controvèrsia maimonidiana a Ca-
of the philosophical notion of immortality. Abulafia thought
talunya).” In Mossé ben Nahman i el seu temps: simposi com-
this reinterpretation tantamount to a denial of the rabbinic
memoratiu del vuitè centenari del seu naixement 1194–1994,
idea of bodily resurrection and protested loudly. The ensuing
edited by Joan Boadas i Raset and Sílvia Planas i Marcé,
controversy, which involved scholars in Catalonia, Provence,
pp. 257–266. Girona, Spain, 1994.
and northern France, was apparently brought to a close by
Novak, David. “Both Selective and Electic: [On] Bernard Septi-
the European publication of Maimonides’ Epistle on Resur-
mus, ‘Hispano-Jewish Culture in Tradition; the Career and
Controversies of Ramah,’ 1982.” Judaism 33 (1984):
rection.
364–365.
More wide-ranging and intense was the controversy that
BERNARD SEPTIMUS (1987)
engulfed Jewish communities throughout Europe during the
Revised Bibliography
1230s. Abulafia, along with Spanish colleagues like Yehudah
ibn Alfakhar and Moses Nahmanides, was aligned with
French traditionalists critical of Maimonidean rationalism.
ABU
¯ YU¯SUF (AH 113–182/731–798 CE), more fully
But unlike his French allies, Abulafia often interpreted agga-
YaEqu¯b ibn Ibra¯h¯ım al-Ans:a¯r¯ı al-Ku¯f¯ı; Islamic jurisconsult
dah (the nonlegal component of Talmudic literature) non-
and, with Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Sha¯yban¯ı (d. AH 189/
literally and engaged in extra-Talmudic scientific and philo-
805 CE), one of the founders of the H:anaf¯ı school of law.
sophical studies. Moreover, he admired much of
Abu¯ Yu¯suf flourished at a time of transition, when legal doc-
Maimonides’ intellectual achievement. His antirationalism
trine was still being formulated independently of the practice
focused, rather, on radical tendencies present in Spain: a
of the courts by groups of idealistic religious scholars in geo-
stringent and all-encompassing naturalism, as well as the
graphically determined schools. At the same time, individual
doctrine of salvation by philosophy and the attendant threat
scholars were appointed qa¯d:¯ıs, or judges, by the government,
of antinomianism. Against philosophical naturalism, Abula-
especially under the Abbasids, who fostered a policy of offi-
fia defended the primacy of God’s free will, and against a
cial support for the religious law. The period also coincided
philosophical soteriology, he defended the primacy of
with the beginning of the literary expression of technical
“Torah and good deeds.”
legal thought. Abu¯ Yu¯suf’s life and doctrines may be seen in
Abulafia’s mature years saw the emergence of Qabbalah
the context of all these developments.
as a vigorous competitor of Maimonidean rationalism for the
As a student and disciple of Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, Abu¯ Yu¯suf
loyalty of Hispano-Jewish intellectuals. Some traditions
is identified primarily with the tradition of Kufa in religious
claim that Abulafia himself was a qabbalist. His writings do
law and traditions. Born in Kufa, he was of Medinese ances-
not, however, support this contention. They rather reflect a
try. He is known to have studied with Ma¯lik ibn Anas in Me-
militantly antimythic sensibility and a conscious renuncia-
dina and others, but tradition states that Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah recog-
tion of the grand quest for cosmic “secrets”—philosophical
nized the moral and intellectual excellence of the penniless
or mystical—which Abulafia considered beyond humanity’s
young man and took him under his wing. Abu¯ Yu¯suf lived
ken.
in Kufa as a practicing judge until he was appointed qa¯d:¯ı of
the capital (Baghdad), or chief judge, as his honorific (qa¯d:¯ı
B
al-qud:a¯t) indicates, by the Abbasid caliph, Ha¯ru¯n al-Rash¯ıd.
IBLIOGRAPHY
Albeck, Shalom. “The Principles of Government in the Jewish
The first to receive this title, Abu¯ Yu¯suf was not only consult-
Communities of Spain until the Thirteenth Century” (in
ed on the appointment and dismissal of the judiciary
Hebrew). Zion 25 (1960): 85–121.
throughout the empire but acted as counselor to the caliph
Carmi, T., ed. and trans. The Penguin Book of Hebrew Verse. New
on legal and administrative matters and on financial policy.
York, 1981. A brief sample of Abulafia’s poetry is on pages
His chief extant work, the Kita¯b al-khara¯j, a treatise on tax-
392–394.
ation, public finance, and penal law, was written at the
caliph’s request and contains a long introduction addressed
Septimus, Bernard. Hispano-Jewish Culture in Transition: The Ca-
to him.
reer and Controversies of Ramah. Cambridge, Mass., 1982.
Biographical information and an intellectual profile, with ex-
A number of works on religious law, most of which are
tensive references.
either reasoned polemics or comparative studies of the doc-
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ACEHNESE RELIGION
25
trines of his contemporaries, are attributed to Abu¯ Yu¯suf, but
Aceh’s early history shows marked influences from the
few of these have survived. Abu¯ Yu¯suf’s own doctrine can be
Indian subcontinent. This, perhaps, is the source of the het-
seen within the framework of the developing technical legal
erodox mysticism expounded by H:amzah Fans:u¯r¯ı and his
thought of the Iraqi scholars, who lived in a more heteroge-
successor Shams al-D¯ın al-Samatra¯D (d. 1630). Shams al-D¯ın
neous milieu and were inspired by a freer method of inquiry
won the favor of Aceh’s greatest ruler, Iskandar Muda, whose
than that followed by the more tradition-bound Medinese.
posthumous name was Makota EA¯lam (r. 1607–1636). It has
However, Abu¯ Yu¯suf tended to rely more on h:ad¯ıth as the
been suggested that Shams al-D¯ın’s teachings may not have
basis for legal rulings than had Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah, probably be-
been as heterodox as they were made out to be by succeeding
cause a larger number of authoritative traditions from the
Islamic teachers. Whatever the case, under the next king, Is-
Prophet had come into existence by Abu¯ Yu¯suf’s time. Fur-
kandar Tha¯n¯ı (r. 1636–1641), the followers of these mystics
ther, where Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah could proceed along lines of theo-
were banished from the court and their books burned. This
retical speculation and systematic consistency, Abu¯ Yu¯suf’s
was done after the arrival at court of the Gujarati Islamic
experience as a practicing qa¯d:¯ı caused him to mitigate his
scholar Nu¯r al-D¯ın al-Ra¯n¯ır¯ı in 1637, presumably with the
master’s formalism, if often at the expense of his master’s su-
aid of another scholar, EAbd al-RaDu¯f al-Sinkil¯ı.
perior reasoning. In contrast to al-Shayba¯n¯ı, an academic
Since that time Acehnese Islam has remained in the or-
lawyer, prolific writer, and the systematizer of the school of
thodox tradition. Mystical movements have not been as
Kufa, Abu¯ Yu¯suf was a man of affairs who made his influence
strong there as in other parts of the Indonesian archipelago.
felt in court circles. Since Abu¯ H:an¯ıfah himself left no writ-
When they did arise, however, they frequently took unique
ings on law, it was through the activity of these two men that
forms rather than becoming part of the standard tarekat
the ancient school of Kufa was to become the H:anaf¯ı school
(Arab., t:a¯riqah) orders, despite the fact that, particularly in
of law.
the nineteenth century, many Acehnese in Mecca joined
such orders, most commonly the Qa¯dir¯ıyah or
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Naqshband¯ıyah.
Abu¯ Yu¯suf’s Kita¯b al-khara¯j has been translated into French by
Edmond Fagnan as Le livre de l’impôt foncier (Paris, 1927),
The Acehnese countryside was only nominally ruled by
and partially into English by Aharon Ben Shemesh as Abu¯
the court. Local nobility (uleebelangs) administered law with
Yu¯suf’s Kita¯b al-khara¯j (Leiden, 1969). Ben Shemesh’s trans-
and often without the help of kali (judges). Their adminis-
lation omits the sections dealing with history, criminal jus-
tration was frequently vigorously opposed by the Eulama¯D
tice, and administration and rearranges the order of the sec-
(religious scholars) who ran religious boarding schools
tions of the text on taxation; on the whole it is not so lucid
known as rangkangs.
a translation as Fagnan’s. A systematic study of Abu¯ Yu¯suf’s
thought and his role in the creation of Islamic law is given
In the villages there are two locations of religious prac-
by Joseph Schacht in his pathbreaking Origins of Muham-
tices. The first is the meunasah. Today, as in the nineteenth
madan Jurisprudence (Oxford, 1950). For the historical con-
century, the meunasah is a dormitory for adolescent boys and
text, see Schacht’s An Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford,
often for some adult men as well. During the fasting month
1964).
it is the site of the recitation of the voluntary prayers known
JEANETTE A. WAKIN (1987)
as traweh and of the men’s recitation of the QurDa¯n. In the
nineteenth century the official in charge of the meunasah, the
teungku meunasah, collected the religious taxes (zaka¯t and
ACEHNESE RELIGION. Aceh, a province of Indo-
fitrah); currently a committee of village members does this.
nesia on the northern tip of Sumatra, is a predominantly
In 1906 Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje reported that the
Muslim region. More than 90 percent of the people are
tenungku meunasah lived off the zaka¯t and fitrah he collected
Acehnese speaking; other languages include Gayo, the lan-
as well as from the proceeds from arrangements of marriages
guage of people living in the central mountains, and Alas,
and burial fees. Today, the zaka¯t and fitrah are distributed
a Batak dialect spoken by a people living south of the Gayo.
to the village poor while the local branch of the National Of-
Most Acehnese are currently bilingual, also speaking Indone-
fice of Religious Affairs is in charge of the registration of mar-
sian, the national language. Malay was spoken by some in
riages. The meunasah is often the site of elementary instruc-
the coastal areas in the nineteenth century and was also the
tion in QurDanic recitation, though this also takes place in
language of the Acehnese court and of the literature pro-
the homes of teachers.
duced there. Acehnese, however, was both the everyday and
Curing rituals and rites of passage take place at the other
the literary language of the countryside; religious texts are
site of religious practice, the house. A series of rituals governs
found in both Acehnese and Malay.
the stages of life beginning with pregnancy. Snouck Hur-
Aceh was once an Islamic kingdom. When Ibn Bat:t:u¯t:ah
gronje described these as practiced in the late nineteenth cen-
visited Pasè, on the east coast, in 1345
tury; they persist today, but now as then the formalities of
CE he found Islam
well established. Aceh served as a source of Islamic conver-
the rituals are unexplicated.
sion for other parts of the Indonesian archipelago. It was also
Such rituals nonetheless serve important functions that
host to visiting Islamic scholars from India, Syria, and Egypt.
can best be seen by tracing the life patterns of men and
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

26
ACEHNESE RELIGION
women. Born into the house owned by his mother, at adoles-
leadership of the Acehnese religious scholar Daud BeureuDeh,
cence a boy moves into the meunasah to sleep. In later adoles-
religious schools based on European models were estab-
cence he is likely to leave the village altogether, moving to
lished. These schools taught both religious and secular sub-
distant parts suitable for the growing of cash crops or offering
jects and produced the leaders of Aceh during the Japanese
opportunities for trade. Even after marriage he is unlikely to
and revolutionary periods. The other success of this reform
return home for any length of time. The house his family
movement was the institutionalization of Eibadah (religious
lives in is owned by his in-laws and later given to his wife,
ritual), particularly the daily prayers.
who is also likely to receive rice land for her maintenance.
As a result of the world economic depression during the
He is expected to provide money earned away from home
1930s, Acehnese men became unable to provide cash for
for the care of his children. This pattern is most rigorously
their households as was incumbent upon them to do. It was
followed in the region of Pidie on the east coast and perhaps
in that context that the reform movement took permanent
least prevalent on the west coast where cash crops are grown
hold. The movement promised the construction of a new so-
in the villages.
ciety if only men followed religious ritual. Prayer in particu-
For the male, rites of passage mark many transition
lar was thought to put men into a state of rationality (akal)
points of his movement out of his mother’s house and his
in which their passionate nature (hawa¯ nafsu) would be con-
uneasy return to his wife’s house. The negative quality of
tained and channeled into religiously sanctioned ends.
these rituals, by which is meant that they move men out of
Reform brought with it a new interpretation of the male
the households they are born into but never fully reestablish
life pattern, according to which movement out of the house-
them in new ones, is partly responsible for the lack of Aceh-
hold was associated with the proper channeling of hawa¯
nese exegesis of the rituals. The male self is defined through
nafsu. With that came an institutionalization of Islamic belief
them by movement away from women. The rituals sever
and practice that colored the everyday relationships of men
connections that are to be reestablished not through ritual
both with other men in the market and domestically with
but through economic means. A man becomes fully a hus-
their wives and mothers.
band and father only when he provides money for his family.
Even the wedding ceremony itself centers not on his relation
In the lives of women also, ritual served not to integrate
to his wife but on his parents’ relation to the parents of the
individuals into their roles so much as it did to separate them
bride. These ceremonies involve the negation of the signs
from influences that would prevent them from fulfilling their
that signify the boy’s past rather than being the opportunity
expected functions. In the nineteenth century, beliefs about
for their explication.
spirits similar to those found in Java were common in Aceh.
Spirits, particularly those called burong, which seemed to
The Islamization of Aceh can best be placed within this
represent unfulfilled desires, were thought to disrupt life.
context. Snouck Hurgronje described the religious schools
Like curing rites, women’s rites of passage prevented or ame-
ordinarily found away from the villages. The Eulama¯D, or
liorated the actions of these spirits.
teachers, who ran these schools were sometimes the leaders
of reform movements that stressed the need for observance
With the success of reformist Islam, belief in these spir-
of the daily prayers and the fasting month, and for the com-
its has become unimportant for men. Even for women belief
bating of immoral practices. Popular response to such move-
in spirits has been muted by the criticism of the reformers.
ments was enthusiastic but reform was never lasting. Para-
However, these beliefs still play an important role for women
doxically, the Acehnese adhered to Islam to the point, even,
in a somewhat disguised form. Spirits are believed to bring
of willingness to die for it, as was proven by the long-lasting
dreams. Women, remembering their dreams, remember too
Acehnese War (1873–1914?), but only sporadically observed
that they have been visited by spirits who have, however, left
its major tenets. However the avidity for dying in a war
them. Being free of spirits, they feel a certain competence
against unbelievers, so often attested to by the Dutch who
and authority in their domestic roles.
attempted to “pacify” the Acehnese, takes on a certain sense
in the context of their rites of passage. The constitution of
The Acehnese War gave the Eulama¯D an importance that
the self through the negation of its own history culminated
they had not previously attained. With the end of the war,
in death in the holy war.
their influence was confined to what the Dutch defined as
religious matters and they were presumably depoliticized.
Even after the end of organized hostilities against the
The greatest success of the Eulama¯D, however, came with the
Dutch, what might be called an individual form of the holy
popular acceptance of religious reform, which laid the basis
war continued. The Dutch named the sudden and often sui-
for further political activity. Youth groups composed of for-
cidal attack on Europeans that Acehnese believed would re-
mer students of the modernist schools were the leaders of the
sult in their immediate entry into paradise “Acehnese mur-
1945–1946 revolution, which resulted in the elimination of
der.” Such attacks occurred from the end of the Acehnese
the Acehnese nobility. Daud BeureuDeh himself became mili-
War through the 1930s. During the 1930s, however, they
tary governor of the province during the revolution and
became considerably less frequent, probably as a result of the
spent his time further consolidating modernist religious
popular success of the Islamic reform movement. Under the
achievements. From 1953 till 1961, however, he led a rebel-
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ADAD
27
lion against the central government; one demand of that re-
ACHUAR RELIGION SEE AMAZONIAN
bellion was the acceptance of Islamic law as the law of the
QUECHUA RELIGIONS
province. That demand was not met, and attempts to institu-
tionalize Islamic law in the province continue as it seeks po-
litical independence from the Republic of Indonesia in a
conflict that has brought great suffering and hardship to the
ADAD is the Old Akkadian and Assyro-Babylonian name
region.
of the ancient Middle Eastern storm god, called Adda
(Addu) or Hadda (Haddu) in northwest Semitic areas and
Today Aceh is the site of an Islamic university, but the
known later as Hadad, especially among the Arameans. A
form that Islam should take continues to be a major concern.
shortened form, Dad, occurs in personal names. Since the
The success of the reformist movement itself has aroused op-
cuneiform sign for the “wind” (IM) was used regularly and
position. Mystical movements have sprung up in areas where
as early as the third millennium BCE to write the divine name
the tendency of men to leave their villages in pursuit of a liv-
Adad in Mesopotamia, this is likely to have been its original
ing was not so pronounced because of the possibility of rais-
meaning, just as ad:u, with a pharyngealized dental, means
ing market crops locally. The Naqshband¯ı tarekat, members
“wind” in Libyco-Berber, which is the Afro-Asiatic language
of which were mainly older villagers, had great popular suc-
closest to Semitic. The name is also related to Arabic hadda,
cess in the 1950s and 1960s on the west coast of Aceh and
“to tear down” or “to raze,” a verb originally referring to a
has spread to other areas. During the 1970s, numerous het-
violent storm.
erodox mystical sects arose that have been met with vigorous
opposition by the Eulama¯D.
EXTENSION OF ADAD’S CULT. As a personification of a
power of nature, Adad can bring havoc and destruction; on
S
the other hand, he brings the rain in due season, and he
EE ALSO Islam, article on Islam in Southeast Asia.
causes the land to become fertile. This is why his cult plays
an important role among sedentary populations in areas of
BIBLIOGRAPHY
rain-fed agriculture, such as northern Syria and Mesopota-
The best account of nineteenth-century Acehnese life remains
mia. He was not prominent in southern Babylonia, where
Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje’s The Achehnese, 2 vols., trans-
farming was based on irrigation, and no similar Egyptian
lated by A. W. S. O’Sullivan (Leiden, 1906). My own The
Rope of God
(Berkeley, Calif., 1969) and Shadow and Sound:
deity was worshiped in the valley and delta of the Nile, where
The Historical Thought of a Sumatran People (Chicago, 1979)
agriculture depended on the flooding of the river. The cult
further trace the evolution of Acehnese religious life. M. Nur
of the Syrian storm god was nevertheless introduced in Egypt
El Ibrahimy’s Teungku Muhammad Daud Beureueh (Jakarta,
in the mid-second millennium BCE, and he was assimi-
1982) is the most important source for the reform move-
lated there with the Egyptian god Seth. The introduction of
ment. An account of Acehnese textual studies can be found
his worship in this region is probably related to the reign
in Petrus J. Voorhoeve’s Critical Survey of Studies on the Lan-
of the Hyksos dynasties, which were native to Canaan or
guages of Sumatra (The Hague, 1955).
Phoenicia.
New Sources
CHARACTERISTICS AND RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER DEITIES.
Andaya, Leonard. “The Seventeenth-Century Acehnese Model of
Adad is pictured on monuments and seal cylinders with
Malay Society.” In Reading Asia: New Research in Asian
lightning and the thunderbolt. In Assyro-Babylonian hymns,
Studies, edited by Frans Husken and Dick van der Meij,
literary texts such as the flood story, and magic and curse for-
pp. 83–109. Richmond, 2001.
mulas, the somber aspects of the god tend to predominate.
Kraus, Werner. “Transformations of a Religious Community:
For instance, the epilogue of the Laws of Hammurabi in-
The Shattariyya Sufi Brotherhood in Aceh.” In Nationalism
vokes Adad to bring want and hunger to the malefactor’s
and Cultural Revival in Southeast Asia: Perspectives from the
land by depriving it of rain, and to cast thunder over his city,
Centre and Region, edited by Sri Kuhnt-Saptodewo, Volker
causing flooding. Adad is also known as Ramman, “the
Grabowsky, and Martin Groheim, pp. 169–189. Wiesba-
Thunderer,” and his manifestations on mountain peaks and
den, 1997.
in the skies brought about his qualification as Baal of Heav-
Robinson, Kathryn. “Gender, Islam and Culture in Indonesia.”
ens (i.e., Lord of Heavens, or Baal Saphon, Lord of Djebel
In Love, Sex and Power: Women in Southeast Asia, edited by
el-Aqra) in northern Syria, thus blurring the distinction be-
Susan Blackburn, pp. 17–30. Clayton, Australia, 2001.
tween the storm god and the mountain god. Due to the im-
Smith, Holly. Aceh: Art and Culture. Kuala Lumpur and New
portance of his cult, he simply became Baal, “the Lord,” and
York, 1997.
this antonomasia often replaced his proper name in north-
Wieringa, Edwin. “The Drama of the King and the Holy War
west Semitic areas, at Ugarit and Emar, in Phoenicia, and in
against the Dutch: The Koteuah of the Acehnese Epic
Canaan. The biblical condemnation of the cult of Baal refers
Hikayat Prang Gompeuni.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental
likewise to the storm god.
& African Studies 61, no. 2 (1998): 298–308.
Adad/Hadad also plays a role in entrusting royal power
JAMES T. SIEGEL (1987)
to kings. Hadad’s prophets at Aleppo helped Zimri-Lim to
Revised Bibliography
regain the throne of Mari circa 1700 BCE. According to an
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

28
ADAD
inscription from Tel Dan from the mid-ninth century BCE,
northern border of the Holy Land according to Numbers
Hadad “made king” the ruler of Damascus, and in the eighth
34:7–8. Ras ash-Shaqqah is one of the northern summits of
century BCE he gave “the scepter of succession” to Panamuwa
the Lebanese range in the vicinity of the coast, between By-
II in the Aramean kingdom of Sam’al. Adad/Hadad appears
blos and Tripolis, and it was known to Greek writers as the
sometimes as a war god, especially in Assyria and in Damas-
hallowed Theouprosopon, “God’s face.” In the fourth centu-
cus, the Aramean capital city of which he was the chief deity.
ry BCE, Hadad of Mabbuk was worshiped in northern Syria,
in the town known later as Hierapolis, “holy city.” On the
Among his main cult centers were Aleppo and Sikkan/
obverse of a local coin, the god, horned and bearded, is repre-
Guzana, biblical Gozan, in northern Syria, where he has been
sented in a long Persian-style robe. His symbols, the sche-
identified with the Hurrian storm god Teshub, and the Hit-
matic head of a bull and a double-axe, accompany the figure.
tite and Luwian god Tarhunza or Tarhunt. In Anatolia, the
In Rome, at the time of the Empire, there was a Syrian sanc-
storm god usually stood at the head of the local pantheon.
tuary on Janiculum Hill, dedicated to, among others, Adad
His name is often concealed under the IM logogram, as it is
of the Lebanon.
in northern Mesopotamia and Syria. He was a heavenly god,
a personification of the storm and its accompanying phe-
ADAD AS VEGETATION GOD. A misinterpretation of the
nomena, such as thunder, lightning, and rain. His sacred ani-
“beating” of the breasts as a sign of mourning, compared in
mal was the bull.
Zechariah 12:11 with the loud rumbling of Hadad the Thun-
derer, led to the opinion that Adad was a dying god. The
In Syria, during the Old Babylonian period, Hadad’s
mourning alluded to by the prophet was not occasioned by
main sanctuary of Aleppo housed “the weapon with which
Hadad’s death, but by the fate of Jerusalem. As for Hadad’s
he smote the Sea,” regarded as a precious relic. This was a
thundering, it was not resounding “in the valley of Megid-
souvenir of Hadad’s fight against the Sea, called Yam in Uga-
do,” as commonly proposed in commentaries and transla-
ritic mythological texts, which deal at length with this cosmic
tions of the Bible, but “in the valley of splendor.” This appel-
battle. Later Hadad became the chief god of Damascus; his
lation is likely to refer to the fertile BeqaE Valley between the
temple stood at the site of the present-day Umayyad
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges, where the thunder of the
Mosque. Assyrian lexical texts identify him with Iluwer, a di-
storm god, probably Hadad of Lebanon, resounded loudly
vine name appearing on the Aramaic stele of Zakkur, king
in the mountains. The word mgdwn of the Hebrew text is
of Hamat and LuEash. This equation may reflect a particular
an Aramaic loanword (migda¯n), meaning “splendor,” and
syncretistic tendency of the late period and does not appear
its plural is used in Targum Onqelos to designate “splen-
again in northwest Semitic sources. As in Anatolia, Adad’s
did gifts,” for instance in Genesis 24:53 and Deuteronomy
sacred animal was the bull, which symbolized might and vi-
33:13–14.
tality. On North Syrian stelae he is represented standing on
the back of a bull, while a first-century CE stele from Dura-
Nonetheless, according to a mythological poem from
Europos on the Euphrates depicts him seated on a throne,
Ugarit, when the land suffers from lack of rain, Baal/Haddu
with bulls on both sides.
is supposed to be dead for seven years, and the prosperous
state is restored only after he returns to life. The mythical
Adad was usually accompanied by a consort, called
scheme of seven years of famine and of seven years of great
Shala in Mesopotamia, Anat at Ugarit, and Atargatis in later
plenty is echoed not only in the story of Joseph in Egypt in
periods. His father was Dagan, “the cloudy sky,” and a “son
Genesis 41 and 45:6, but also in the inscription of Idrimi,
of Adad,” Apladda, was worshiped on the Middle Euphrates.
king of Alalakh in the fifteenth century BCE. This inscription
In Greco-Roman times, Adad/Hadad was identified with
refers to the seven years that Idrimi spent in exile, comparing
Zeus, in particular at Damascus, and with Jupiter Heliopoli-
this period with the “seven years of the storm god.” This sep-
tanus. He seems to have been identified with Jupiter Doli-
tennial motive is interwoven at Ugarit with themes reflecting
chenus as well, since priests attached to the latter’s cult bore
a seasonal pattern. At any rate, the myth reflects a develop-
names such as “Son of (H)adad.” Macrobius could still write
ment that brought about the identification of the storm god
circa 400 CE that “the Syrians give the name Adad to the god,
with a vegetation god. A stele from Ugarit expresses this syn-
which they revere as first and greatest of all.” Of course, it
cretism in a plastic way, showing the storm god who pro-
should be made clear that we are dealing here not with a sin-
ceeds to the right above the mountains, brandishing a mace
gular god, but with a name used to designate either the chief
in his right hand, and holding in his left a lance with the
storm god of a country or a local corresponding deity, which
point resting on the ground and the upper part flourishing
generally had an additional qualification. The qualification
upward in the form of a plant.
usually indicated the mountain that was believed to be the
abode of the deity, or a city with an important shrine. For
The connection between rain and the storm god was so
instance, the neo-Assyrian inscription of Sargon II (r. 721–
deeply rooted that the poet could say in a mythological com-
705 BCE) engraved on a stele erected in 717 BCE at Citium
position from Ugarit that “Baal rains,” while Mishnaic and
on Cyprus mentions “the Baal of the Mount Hurri.” This
Talmudic texts could later call “field of Baal” or “property
is apparently the storm god of Mount Hor, present-day Ras
of Baal” a piece of ground sufficiently watered by rain and
ash-Shaqqah, which faces Cyprus and was situated on the
requiring no artificial irrigation. In addition, in Arabic baEl
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

ADAM
29
is the name given to land or plants thriving on a natural
ADAM is the designation and name of the first human
water supply. The Aramaic inscription from Tell Fekherye,
creature in the creation narratives found in the Hebrew scrip-
dedicated in the mid-ninth century BCE to Hadad of Sikkan
tures (Old Testament). The word adam may refer to the fact
calls him “water controller of heaven and earth, who brings
that this being was an “earthling” formed from the red-hued
down prosperity, and provides pasture and watering place for
clay of the earth (in Hebrew, adom means “red,” adamah
all the lands, and provides water supply and jugs to all the
means “earth”). Significantly, this latter report is found only
gods, his brothers, water controller of all the rivers, who
in Genesis 2:7, where the creator god enlivens him by blow-
makes all the lands luxuriant, the merciful god to whom
ing into his nostrils the breath of life. Here the first being
praying is sweet.”
is clearly a lone male, since the female was not yet formed
from one of his ribs to be his helpmate ( Eezer ke-negdo; Gn.
SEE ALSO Aramean Religion; Baal; Teshub.
2:21–23). In the earlier textual account of Genesis 1:1–24a,
which is generally considered to be a later version than that
BIBLIOGRAPHY
found in Genesis 2:4b–25, God first consults with his divine
retinue and then makes an adam in his own “form and
Comprehensive studies of the Mesopotamian and North Syrian
storm god are provided by Daniel Schwemer, Die Wettergott-
image”: “in the form of God he created him; male and female
gestalten Mesopotamiens und Nordsyriens im Zeitalter der Keil-
he created them” (Gn. 1:27). If the second clause is not sim-
schriftkulturen (Berlin, 2001), and Alberto R. W. Green, The
ply a later qualification of a simultaneous creation of a male
Storm-God in the Ancient Near East (Winona Lake, Ind.,
and a female both known as adam (see also Gn. 5:1), then
2003). An excellent concise presentation of the god in West
we may have a trace of the creation of a primordial an-
Semitic areas is given by Jonas C. Greenfield, “Hadad” in
drogyne.
Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, edited by Karel
van der Toorn, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst,
Later ancient traditions responded to this version by
2d ed. (Leiden and Grand Rapids, Mich., 1999),
speculating that the original unity was subsequently separat-
pp. 377–382, with a bibliography. The Aramaic god Hadad
ed and that marriage is a social restitution of this polarity.
is presented by Edward Lipin´ski, The Aramaeans: Their An-
Medieval Jewish Qabbalah, which took the expression “in
cient History, Culture, Religion (Louvain, Belgium, 2000),
the image of God” with the utmost seriousness, projected a
pp. 626–636.
vision of an adam qadmon, or “primordial Adam,” as one of
The problem of Baal/Haddu as “dying and rising god” at Ugarit
the configurations by which the emanation of divine poten-
was reexamined in a convincing way by Tryggve N. D. Met-
cies that constituted the simultaneous self-revelation of God
tinger, The Riddle of Resurrection:Dying and Rising Gods
and his creation could be imagined. And because Adam is
in the Ancient Near East (Stockholm, 2001), pp. 55–81.
both male and female according to scriptural authority, the
Adad’s somber aspects in Mesopotamian curses are presented
qabbalists variously refer to a feminine aspect of the godhead
by Sebastian Grätz, Der strafende Wettergott: Erwägungen zur
that, like the feminine of the human world, must be reinte-
Traditionsgeschichte des Adad-Fluchs im Alten Orient und im
grated with its masculine counterpart through religious ac-
Alten Testament (Bodenheim, Germany, 1998). The iconog-
tion and contemplation. Such a straight anthropomorphic
raphy is reviewed and analyzed by A. Vanel, L’iconographie
reading of Genesis 1:27 was often rejected by religious philos-
du dieu de l’orage dans le Proche-Orient ancien jusqu’au VIIe
ophers especially (both Jewish and Christian), and the lan-
siècle avant J. C. (Paris, 1965), and A. Abou-Assaf, “Die
guage of scripture was interpreted to indicate that the quality
Ikonographie des altbabylonischen Wettergottes,” Baghdader
which makes the human similar to the divine is the intellect
Mitteilungen 14 (1983): 43–66. For later periods, see Michał
Gawlikowski, “Hadad” in Lexicon Iconographicum
or will. Various intermediate positions have been held, and
Mythologiae Classicae, vol. 4/1, pp. 365–367, and vol. 4/2,
even some modern Semiticists have preferred to understand
pp. 209–210 (Zurich and Munich, 1981–1997). The North
the phrase “image of God” metaphorically; that is, as refer-
Syrian god was studied by Horst Klengel, “Der Wettergott
ring to man as a divine “viceroy” (in the light of an Akkadian
von Halab,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 19 (1965): 87–95,
expression), and this in disregard of clearly opposing testimo-
as well as Horst and Evelyn Klengel, “The Syrian Weather-
ny in both Mesopotamian creation texts (like Enuma elish)
God and Trade Relations,” Annales Archéologiques Arabes Sy-
and biblical language itself (cf. Gn. 5:1–3).
riennes 43 (1999): 169–177. For Anatolia, consult also Philo
H. J. Houwink ten Cate, “The Hittite Storm God: His Role
According to the first scriptural narrative, this adam was
and His Rule according to Hittite Cuneiform Sources” in
the crown of creation. Of his creation alone was the phrase
Natural Phenomena: Their Meaning, Depiction, and Descrip-
“very good” used by God (Gn. 1:30f.). Moreover, this being
tion in the Ancient Near East, edited by D. J. W. Meijer (Am-
was commissioned to rule over the nonhuman creations of
sterdam, 1992), pp. 83–148. For the iconography of Baal-
the earth as a faithful steward (Gn. 1:29–2:9). Out of regard
Seth in Egypt, see Izak Cornelius, The Iconography of the Ca-
for the life under his domain, this being was to be a vegetari-
naanite Gods Reshef and Ba’al: Late Bronze and Iron Age I
an. In the second version (where the specifying designation
Periods (c. 1500–1000 BCE) (Fribourg, Switzerland, and Göt-
tingen, Germany, 1994).
ha-adam, “the Adam,” predominates; cf. Gn. 2:7–4:1), the
creature is put into a divine garden as its caretaker and told
EDWARD LIPIN´SKI (2005)
not to eat of two trees—the tree of the knowledge of good
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

30
ADAMS, HANNAH
and evil and the tree of life, that is, the two sources of knowl-
BIBLIOGRAPHY
edge and being—under pain of death (Gn. 2:15–17). This
Fishbane, Michael. Text and Texture. New York, 1979. See pages
interdict is subsequently broken, with the result that death,
17–23.
pain of childbirth, and a blemished natural world were de-
Ginzberg, Louis. The Legends of the Jews (1909–1938). 7 vols.
creed for humankind (Gn. 3:14–19).
Translated by Henrietta Szold et al. Reprint, Philadelphia,
1937–1966. See volume 1, pages 49–102; volume 5, pages
This primordial fault, which furthermore resulted in the
63–131; and the index.
banishment of Adam and his companion from the garden
Le Bachelet, Xavier. “Adam.” In Dictionnaire de théologie
(Gn. 3:22–24), and the subsequent propagation of the
catholique, vol. 1, cols. 368–386. Paris, 1903.
human species as such (Gn. 4:1ff.), has been variously treat-
Sarna, Nahum M. Understanding Genesis. New York, 1972. See
ed. The dominant rabbinic tradition is that the sin of Adam
pages 12–18.
resulted in mortality for humankind and did not constitute
Speiser, E. A. Genesis. Anchor Bible, vol. 1. Garden City, N.Y.,
a qualitative change in the nature of the species—it was not
1964. See pages 3–28.
now set under the sign of sin as it was in the main Christian
tradition, beginning with Paul and exemplified in the theolo-
MICHAEL FISHBANE (1987)
gies of Augustine and John Calvin. For Christian theology,
the innate corruption of human nature that resulted from
Adam’s fall was restored by the atoning death of a new
ADAMS, HANNAH. Well known in New England
Adam, Jesus (cf. 1 Cor. 15:22). In one Christian tradition,
during her lifetime, Hannah Adams (1755–1831) has been
the redemptive blood of Christ flowed onto the grave of
remembered, if at all, as the first American-born woman to
Adam, who was buried under Calvary in the Holy Sepulcher.
earn her living by writing. However, she also has a preemi-
The typologizing of Adam in Jewish tradition often focused
nent place in the history of the study of religion. Adams
on him as the prototype of humankind, and so the episode
wrote three theological and didactic books: The Truth and
in Eden was read as exemplary or allegorical of the human
Excellence of the Christian Religion Exhibited (1804), which
condition and the propensity to sin. In this light, various
offered biographical sketches of “eminent” lay Christians;
spiritual, moral, or even legal consequences were also drawn,
Concise Account of the London Society for Promoting Christian-
particularly with respect to the unity of the human race de-
ity amongst the Jews (1816), which exhorted Americans to
riving from this “one father”—a race formed, according to
evangelize the “lost sheep of the house of Israel”; and Letters
one legend, from different colored clays found throughout
on the Gospels (1824), which aimed to help young people
the earth. In addition, mystics, philosophical contemplatives,
“read the New Testament with more pleasure and advan-
and Gnostics of all times saw in the life of Adam a pattern
tage.” As these texts indicate, Adams shared a great deal with
for their own religious quest of life—as, for example, the idea
other theological liberals during the Early National period.
that the world of the first Adam was one of heavenly lumi-
A Congregationalist who sided with the Unitarians, Adams
nosity, subsequently diminished; the idea that Adam was
favored a supernatural rationalism that endorsed both reason
originally a spiritual being, subsequently transformed into a
and revelation as sources of religious authority. She bubbled
being of flesh—his body became his “garments of shame”;
with a millennialist optimism that supported missionary out-
or even the idea that Adam in Eden was originally sunk in
reach, but also championed “religious liberty,” bemoaned
deep contemplation of the divine essence but that he subse-
sectarianism, and condemned intolerance.
quently became distracted, with the result that he became the
prisoner of the phenomenal world. For many of these tradi-
Impatience with intolerance—as well as poverty and cu-
tions, the spiritual ideal was to retrieve the lost spiritual or
riosity—prompted her first and most important contribu-
mystical harmony Adam originally had with God and all
tion to the study of religion. She started it after becoming
being.
“disgusted by the want of candor” in Thomas Broughton’s
Historical Dictionary of All Religions (1742). In 1778, Adams
Apocryphal books about Adam and his life were pro-
began researching and writing her Dictionary of All Religions
duced in late antiquity and in the Middle Ages, and the
and Religious Denominations, a survey of religions that first
theme was also quite popular in Jewish and Christian iconog-
appeared in 1784 (as Alphabetical Compendium of the Various
raphy, in medieval morality plays, and in Renaissance art and
Sects) and went through four American editions and several
literature. Well known among the latter is John Milton’s
British editions. Scholars of U.S. Judaism have taken note
Paradise Lost, illustrated by John Dryden. Michelangelo’s
of her two-volume History of the Jews (1812) because it drew
great Creation of Adam in the Sistine Chapel, the Edenic
on correspondence with Jewish leaders to offer an important
world in the imagination of the modern painter Marc Cha-
account of Judaism in the United States (Adams, 1812, vol.
gall, and the agonies of loss, guilt, and punishment seen in
2, pp. 204–220). However, it was Adams’s Dictionary, espe-
the works of Franz Kafka demonstrate the continuing power
cially the fourth edition of 1817, that secured her a preemi-
of the theme of Adam’s expulsion from Eden.
nent place in the history of the study of religion. Trying to
avoid Broughton’s pejorative accounts and dismissive labels,
SEE ALSO Eve; Fall, The; Paradise.
Adams not only offered a glimpse of the increasing religious
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ADAMS, HANNAH
31
diversity of Early National America, but she also provided
which obscured every part of the globe” (Adams, 1992,
an angle of vision on the wider religious world.
p. 11). In this passage from the introduction, and in some
entries, Adams revealed her theological commitments. She
The resourceful Adams used varied sources of informa-
sometimes recorded, almost word for word, misleading or
tion. She wrote to religious leaders, including the Catholic
negative descriptions. She sometimes seemed blind to the
bishop John Carroll, and visited some groups, including the
ways a borrowed phrase violated her commitment to fair rep-
Swedenborgians. She also mined depositories of official doc-
resentation. Yet, to her credit, Adams never treated a religion
uments, as she did when researching New England history.
or sect more negatively than her sources, and when a British
Adams had studied Latin and Greek, but she primarily relied
edition added denigrating labels and phrases she deleted
on secondary sources in English that she found in bookshops
them in the subsequent American edition. Most important,
and libraries, including the personal library of former presi-
she anticipated later developments by prescribing a critical
dent John Adams, a distant relative, and the collection at the
and judicious approach to the comparative study of religion.
Boston Athenaeum, where Chester Harding’s oil painting of
Louis Henry Jordan, who wrote an early history of the field,
her still hangs.
listed Adams as the only American included among the
Using the classification scheme that predominated at
“prophets and pioneers” (Jordan, 1986, pp. 146–150). Even
the time, Adams considered four broad categories of reli-
if most subsequent histories have overlooked Adams or mini-
gions: Jews, Muslims, heathens, and Christians. The latter
mized her contributions—and those of other women—
received disproportionate attention: 85 percent of the more
Jordan’s assessment still seems appropriate. If we consider
than seven hundred entries covered Christian ideas and
the historical context—not to mention the obstacles she
groups. However, she considered other religions more fully
faced as the first American woman to earn her living by writ-
and less dismissively than Broughton. The dictionary format
ing—Adams’s Dictionary seems to be “a really notable under-
itself—unlike Broughton’s thematic organization—
taking” (Jordan, 1986, p. 149).
conveyed to readers that all religions were on the same foot-
ing, and Adams included a number of entries on non-
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Christian traditions, including eleven on Judaism, six on
Adams, Hannah. Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects
Islam, five on indigenous religions, and four on Zoroastrian-
Which Have Appeared from the Beginning of the Christian Era
ism. She also penned eleven entries on religions in East and
to the Present Day. Boston, 1784.
South Asia, including Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Con-
Adams, Hannah. The Truth and Excellence of the Christian Religion
fucianism, Daoism, and Shinto¯.
Exhibited. Boston, 1804.
However, it is Adams’s approach that seems most note-
Adams, Hannah. The History of the Jews from the Destruction of the
worthy. She set out four methodological “rules,” guidelines
Temple to the Nineteenth Century. 2 vols. Boston, 1812.
that anticipated those advocated by some later interpreters
Adams, Hannah. A Concise Account of the London Society for Pro-
of religion. First, she aimed “to avoid giving the least prefer-
moting Christianity amongst the Jews. Boston, 1816.
ence of one denomination above another.” That meant, for
Adams, Hannah. Letters on the Gospels. Cambridge, U.K., 1824.
Adams, omitting passages where authors “pass judgment”
Adams, Hannah. A Memoir of Miss Hannah Adams, Written by
and rejecting denigrating labels such as “Heretics, Schismat-
Herself with Additional Notices by a Friend. Boston, 1832.
ics, Enthusiasts, Fanatics,” and so on. Second, she resolved
Adams, Hannah. A Dictionary of All Religions and Religious De-
to let adherents speak for themselves, taking accounts of reli-
nominations, Jewish, Heathen, Mahometan, and Christian,
gions and sects “from their own authors.” Third, she aimed
Ancient and Modern (4th ed., 1817). Introduction by Thom-
to identify the “general collective sense” of each tradition,
as A. Tweed. Atlanta, 1992.
thereby avoiding descriptions that take a marginal group to
Broughton, Thomas. An Historical Dictionary of All Religions from
represent the larger tradition. Fourth, Adams announced
the Creation of the World to This Perfect Time. London, 1742.
that she would “take the utmost care not to misrepresent the
Jackson, Carl. Oriental Religions and American Thought: Nine-
ideas” of authors.
teenth Century Explorations. Westport, Conn., 1981. Jack-
son’s history of the American encounter with Asian thought
Adams was not able to “avoid giving the least prefer-
from the late eighteenth century to the Parliament of Reli-
ence.” As with all scholars of religion, her social location and
gions in 1893 includes a three-page account of Hannah
personal convictions shaped her interpretations. In the vol-
Adams’s work (pp. 16–19).
ume’s introduction, which described the religious world at
Jordan, Louis Henry. Comparative Religion: Its Genesis and
the time of Jesus, she noted that the “heathens” venerated
Growth. Reprint, Atlanta, 1986. Originally published in
many gods. To explain that diversity, Adams recounted nat-
Edinburgh in 1905, this was an early attempt to recount the
uralist and euhemerist theories of the origin of religion: the
“origin, progress, and aim of the science of Comparative Re-
gods originated in encounters with nature or in the propensi-
ligion.” The section on the field’s “prophets and pioneers”
ty to deify heroes. Yet none of the non-Christian faiths, in-
offers a brief account of the significance of Hannah Adams
cluding Judaism, were as lofty as the tradition initiated by
and her work (pp. 146–150).
Jesus. “Christianity broke forth from the east like a rising
King, Ursula. “A Question of Identity: Women Scholars and the
sun,” Adams suggested, “and dispelled the universal darkness
Study of Religion.” In Religion and Gender, edited by Ursula
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32
A¯DI GRANTH
King, pp. 219–244. Oxford, 1995. An analysis of the place
poems with special subheadings, then the chhants and va¯rs
of women scholars in the history of the study of religion,
of the Sikh guru¯s in serial order. At the end of each ra¯ga or
King’s chapter also notes Adams’s significance for the field
ra¯gin¯ı appear the hymns of the various saints in turn, begin-
(pp. 222, 224).
ning with Kab¯ır and followed by Na¯mdev, Ravida¯s, and oth-
Tweed, Thomas A. “An American Pioneer in the Study of Reli-
ers. Various forms of versification, including folk song forms,
gion: Hannah Adams (1755–1831) and her Dictionary of All
are used.
Religions.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 40
(1992): 437–464. This article offers an overview of the life
Because the saints and guru¯s represented in the A¯di
and work of Hannah Adams as a scholar of religion.
Granth belong to different regions and social strata, the scrip-
Vella, Michael W. “Theology, Genre, and Gender: The Precari-
ture is a treasury of medieval Indian languages and dialects.
ous Place of Hannah Adams in American Literary History.”
Besides writings in the common language, called sant bha¯s:
Early American Literature 28 (1993): 21–41. Vella’s article
(“saint language”), containing affixes and case terminations
assesses Adams’s place in American literary history.
of the language of the area of the saint concerned, the A¯di
T
Granth also contains poems composed in Braj Bha¯s:a¯, West-
HOMAS A. TWEED (2005)
ern Hindi, Eastern Punjabi, Lahndi, and Sindhi. The influ-
ence of Eastern, Western, and Southern Apabhramsas, San-
skrit, Persian, Arabic, and Marathi are discernible in various
A¯DI GRANTH (“first book”) is the earliest scripture of
poems and hymns. The saint-poets have clothed their spiri-
the Sikhs; the second scripture is the Dasam Granth (“tenth
tual experiences in the imagery derived from both the world
book”). The A¯di Granth is an anthology of medieval religious
of nature and the world of man. Because of the similarity of
poetry, relating to the radical school of the Bhaki Movement.
spiritual experience, there is undoubtedly a good deal of rep-
Those whose verses are included in it lived between the
etition in the content of these verses, but the diverse imagery
twelfth and the seventeenth century CE. The Granth was
used in the hymns makes the poetry appealing and always
compiled by Guru¯ Arjan Dev in 1604 at Amritsar, utilizing
fresh.
the material already collected by Guru¯ Na¯nak, the founder
of Sikhism, and Guru¯ Amar Da¯s, third guru¯ of the Sikhs,
The saint-poets and guru¯s represented in the A¯di Granth
who also made several of his own additions. Bha¯¯ı Gurda¯s was
speak of the prevailing degeneration of religious life. They
the scribe. The scripture was installed as the Guru¯ Granth
denounce formalism, ritualism, and symbolism. They con-
Sa¯heb in the Har¯ı Mandir (Golden Temple) by the guru¯
sider ethical greatness the basis for spiritual greatness. The
himself; the first high priest (granth¯ı) was Ba¯ba¯ Budha¯.
seekers must imbibe godly attributes and other qualities in
their lives and avoid sinful acts. Prominence is given to truth,
The original Granth Sa¯heb is known as Karta¯rpur d¯ı b¯ır:
but still greater prominence to the practice of truth. The ac-
(“the recension of Kartarpur”) because it came into the pos-
tive life of a householder is considered the best life, and the
session of Dh¯ır Mal, a grandson of Guru¯ Hargobind, the
division of humankind into castes and various stages is reject-
sixth guru¯, who lived at Kartarpur in Jullundur district.
While this recension was being taken for binding to Lahore,
ed. The hand and the mind both must act together to attain
the second recension was prepared by Banno and is hence
loftier ideals. There is a close connection in the A¯di Granth
known as Bha¯¯ı Banno d¯ı b¯ır:. His additions to the end of
between the doctrine of karman and that of grace. Although
Granth Sa¯heb were not approved by Guru¯ Arjan Dev. The
it holds that hukm (the will of God) reigns supreme, the A¯di
third and final recension was prepared in 1704 by Guru¯ Go-
Granth does not deny the freedom of the individual. The re-
bind Singh, the tenth guru¯, at Damdama¯, where he resided
ality of the world forms the basis of Sikh ethics. Though the
for some time after leaving Anandpur. The scribe was Bha¯¯ı
world is transient, its existence is real.
Man¯ı Singh. This recension is known as Damdame Wa¯l¯ı b¯ır:.
The A¯di Granth opposes all distinctions of caste and
The hymns of Guru¯ Tegh Bahadur, the ninth guru¯, were
color. It espouses universal brotherhood. Religious practices
added to it. The guruship was bestowed on this final recen-
and outward symbols create ego, which can be overcome by
sion by the tenth guru¯, thereby ending the line of personal
remembrance of the name of the Lord, in the company of
guruship.
the saints (sa¯dh sangat) and the grace of the true guru¯ and
Besides the hymns of the first five and the ninth Sikh
the Lord. We meet the true guru¯ by the grace of God and
guru¯s, the hymns of the pre-Na¯nak saints, including
realize God by the grace of the true guru¯. The ideal is the
Na¯mdev, Kab¯ır, and Ravida¯s, and the verses of some con-
realization of God, and for the attainment of this ideal the
temporary poets, mostly bards, are included in the A¯di
disciple must seek the guidance of the true guru¯, who has full
Granth. The poetry of the scripture is musical and metrical.
knowledge of brahman. With the tenth guru¯’s surrender of
Except for the japu of Guru¯ Na¯nak in the beginning and the
personal guruship to the Granth itself, the Word (Skt.,
sloks and swayya¯s at the end, all the other compositions are
´
sabda) henceforth is the guru¯. The lotus-feet of the Lord are
set in various ra¯gas and ra¯gin¯ıs. These compositions include
the only heaven for the true disciple. The state of realization
hymns of the guru¯s in serial order, in set patterns of stanza
is called sahj (“equipoise”). In this state the mind and intel-
forms and musical notations. These are followed by longer
lect become absolutely pure.
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ADLER, FELIX
33
According to the A¯di Granth, God (brahman) is one
tual uniqueness of Judaism was undermined. Kant’s analysis
without a second. His name is Truth. He is the creator, de-
of ethical imperatives lent authority to Adler’s new faith in
void of fear and enmity. He is immortal, unborn, and self-
a moral law independent of a personal deity, and the German
existent. He is truth, consciousness, and bliss. He is omni-
industrial order, with its attendant socioeconomic problems
present, omnipotent, and omniscient. He is changeless and
for labor and society, along with Friedrich Lange’s proposed
flawless. When he wills to become many, he begins his sport
solutions, brought into focus the major ills of industrial soci-
like a juggler. Before the creation he is in abstract meditation
ety that Adler came to address in America throughout his
and without attributes, but after the creation, he, as ¯I´svara,
life.
manifests himself as the treasure house of all qualities. The
Upon his return home, it was expected that he would
soul (j¯ıva) is part and parcel of brahman. It has its own indi-
eventually succeed his father at Emanu-El, but his one ser-
viduality, but since it comes out of brahman it is also immor-
mon on October 11, 1873, alienated some of the established
tal. The physical body decays, but the j¯ıva continues forever.
members. Adler’s admirers, however, sponsored him as non-
Prakr:ti, or ma¯ya¯, is not a separate ultimate reality. It has been
resident professor of Hebrew and Oriental literature at Cor-
created by God. It leads the j¯ıva away from God and thus
nell between 1873 and 1876, and they then served as the nu-
toward transmigration. When the influence of ma¯ya¯ vanish-
cleus of a Sunday lecture movement that he inaugurated on
es, the j¯ıva realizes brahman. It is wrong to delimit the cre-
May 15, 1876. The following February this movement was
ation of the infinite Lord. The Truth is immanent in the uni-
incorporated as the New York Society for Ethical Culture.
verse. The human body is its repository and an epitome of
To Adler, this society represented a religious organiza-
the universe. It is a microcosm.
tion that transcended creeds and united people in ethical
SEE ALSO Guru Granth Sahib; Kab¯ır; Na¯nak; Singh, Go-
deeds; it was dedicated to the inherent worth of each individ-
bind.
ual, to personal and communal ethical growth, and to the
application of an ethical perspective to every social context.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Over the years, the society served as Adler’s platform not
Kohli, Surindar Singh. Sikh Ethics. New Delhi, 1975.
only for philosophical conceptualizations but also for con-
Kohli, Surindar Singh. A Critical Study of Adi Granth. 2d ed.
crete social reforms. In the late 1870s he established the first
Delhi, 1976.
free kindergarten in New York, the first district nursing pro-
gram, and a workingman’s lyceum; in 1880 he organized a
Kohli, Surindar Singh. Outlines of Sikh Thought. 2d ed. New
Delhi, 1978.
workingman’s school (later the Ethical Culture School), and
in 1891 he founded the Summer School of Applied Ethics.
Singh, Pandit Tara. Gurmat Nirn:ay Sa¯gar. Lahore, 1904.
Adler was also intimately involved in tenement housing re-
Singh, Sher Gyani. Philosophy of Sikhism. 2d ed. Delhi, 1966.
form and good-government clubs and served as chairman of
Singh, Taran. Sr¯ıi Guru¯ Grantha Sa¯hiba da¯ Sa¯hitika Itiha¯sa. Am-
the National Child Labor Committee from 1904 to 1921.
ritsar, 1963.
He launched the Fieldston School in 1928.
SURINDAR SINGH KOHLI (1987)
As an intellectual, Adler enjoyed the esteem of his peers
and accumulated impressive scholarly credentials: He
founded the International Journal of Ethics (1890), was ap-
pointed professor of political and social ethics at Columbia
ADLER, FELIX (1851–1933), social, educational, and
(1902), and delivered Oxford’s Hibbert Lectures (1923),
religious reformer; founder of the New York Society for Eth-
published as The Reconstruction of the Spiritual Ideal (1924).
ical Culture. Born in Alzey, Germany, Adler came to the
Nevertheless, the fundamental intellectual effort of his last
United States at the age of six when his father, Rabbi Samuel
years—the philosophical justification of his ethical ideal of
Adler, accepted the country’s most prestigious Reform pul-
a spiritual universe—had negligible impact. Where this was
pit, at Temple Emanu-El in New York. By example and in-
attempted, as in An Ethical Philosophy of Life (1918), it was
struction his parents fostered his passion for social justice, re-
dismissed as an example of Neo-Kantian religious idealism.
ligious sensibilities, and Jewish education. After graduation
Indeed, his earlier, less abstruse works—Creed and Deed
from Columbia College in 1870, he returned to Germany
(1877), Life and Destiny (1903), The Religion of Duty (1905),
to study at the Berlin Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des
The World Crisis and Its Meaning (1915)—were far better re-
Judentums with Abraham Geiger in order to prepare for a
ceived.
career in the Reform rabbinate. When the school’s opening
In his day, Adler was publicly lauded as prophet, social
was delayed for almost two years, Adler immersed himself in
visionary, and apostle of moral justice even by the Jewish
university studies, first at Berlin and then at Heidelberg,
community he had left. Yet toward the end of his life he was
where he received his doctorate in Semitics summa cum laude
intellectually alienated from his own organization, and in the
in 1873. His formative German experiences precipitated an
early twenty-first century most Ethical Culture members
intellectual break with Judaism: After his exposure to histori-
know him only as their movement’s founder.
cism, evolution, critical studies of the Bible, anthropology,
and Neo-Kantianism, Adler’s belief in theism and the spiri-
SEE ALSO Ethical Culture.
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

34
ADONIS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
him as a deity of the netherworld, except his secondary as-
The fullest biography is Horace L. Friess’s Felix Adler and Ethical
similation to Osiris, the king of the dead, in the Alexandrian
Culture (New York, 1981). Friess (Adler’s son-in-law) pres-
ritual.
ents the full scope of Adler’s activities combined with person-
al memories of the man and an insightful analysis of Adler’s
MYTHS. Several mythical stories are related to Adonis. Ac-
intellectual evolution and his final ethical position. My own
cording to the myth that Apollodorus cites from Panyassis
study From Reform Judaism to Ethical Culture: The Religious
of Halicarnassus, active in the early fifth century BCE, Adonis
Evolution of Felix Adler (Cincinnati, 1979) analyzes Adler’s
was the son of the Assyrian/Syrian king Theias by his daugh-
religious departure from Judaism, its causes, and its repercus-
ter Smyrna, who by deceiving him as to her identity, con-
sions for both Adler and the American Jewish community.
ceived Adonis by him. When Theias discovered the truth he
It treats the Jewish reaction to Adler and to the Ethical Cul-
would have slain his daughter, but the gods in pity changed
ture Society and uses Adler as a model by which to under-
her into a myrrh tree. As the myrrh tree grows only in south-
stand new models of Jewish apostasy in modern Jewish histo-
ern Arabia and in Somaliland, it is unlikely that it belongs
ry. Robert S. Guttchen’s Felix Adler (New York, 1974)
to the original story. Smyrna must be a Graecized form of
presents a very useful analysis of Adler’s concept of human
worth and his educational philosophy. The book is prefaced
ˇsarm¯ına, the evergreen cypress, which perfectly fits the Ado-
with a perceptive biographical sketch of Adler by Howard B.
nis myth. After ten months, according to Apollodorus, the
Radest. The latter’s own book, Toward Common Ground:
tree burst, letting Adonis come forth. This epiphany charac-
The Story of the Ethical Societies in the United States (New
terizes him as a vegetation god. It is similar to the birth of
York, 1969), furnishes further information on Adler.
Malakbe¯l as represented on an altar from Rome, one side of
which shows the young god emerging from a cypress. This
BENNY KRAUT (1987)
kind of epiphany is well known in the Middle East and it
also occurs in Assyria. The Adonis myth uses the same theme
as the story of Judah and Tamar, “the Date Palm,” in Genesis
ADONIS
38. By deceiving her father-in-law as to her identity, Tamar
is a divine name coined in Greek from the
conceived two sons by him. When Judah discovered the
northwest Semitic exclamation Dado¯n¯ı, “my lord,” probably
truth he would have slain his daughter-in-law, but Tamar
shortened from the dirge ho¯y Dado¯n¯ı, “Woe, my lord,” which
made her justification by applying to the custom and duty
is echoed in Greek by aiai, Adonin.
of levirate marriage. Panyassis’s fable may reflect another in-
ORIGINS. The Greek tradition connects Adonis with Byblos.
stitution—the sacred marriage celebrated by the king with
Hence his worship must be of Byblian origin. It is unknown
a priestess, possibly a king’s daughter. Since Theias is appar-
whether the male deity thus invoked or mourned in the first
ently the same legendary character as Toi or Tai (TEy), king
millennium BCE was initially a city god or heroic eponym,
of Hamat (Syria), who entered the Bible in 2 Samuel 8:9–10,
a Baal of Byblos, or a god of the countryside, as suggested
the myth could be as old as the ninth century BCE, when the
by his assimilation with Tammuz and Dionysos in the Mid-
worship of Pahalatis, possibly the Mistress (BElt) of Byblos,
dle East, and by his characterization as a vegetation deity in
is attested at Hamat.
later Greco-Roman tradition. The latter view is supported
by Lucian’s notice that Byblian women performed their
Adonis’s agrarian nature of dying and rising god, like
mourning ritual for Adonis “through the whole country-
the Sumerian god Dumuzi and the Assyrian Tammuz, is im-
side,” and by a similar detail in the description of the Adonis
plied also by Panyassis’s complementary account of the sea-
festival at Seville circa 287 CE, as reported in the Martyrology
sonal split in Adonis’s life between Aphrodite and Persepho-
of Saints Justa and Rufina. The center of Adonis’s worship
ne, the queen of the netherworld. When Adonis was born,
was at Aphaca in Mount Lebanon, a single day’s journey
Aphrodite put the infant in a chest. This feature of the ac-
from Byblos. At the site of the famous spring, the main
count parallels the case of Dionysos venerated at Delphi in
source of the Adonis River or Nahr Ibrahim, stood a temple,
a fan, but also recalls the stories of Sargon of Akkad and of
where the cult of Adonis was maintained until the time of
Moses in Exodus 2:1–10. However, Aphrodite handed the
Emperor Constantine the Great, who ordered the destruc-
child in the chest to the care of Persephone, who afterward
tion of the shrine. Although it was partially rebuilt by Julian
refused to give him up. Zeus, an appeal being made to him,
the Apostate, little survives of the ancient buildings, except
decided that Adonis should spend a third of the year with
some Roman ruins.
Persephone and a third with Aphrodite, and the remaining
third at his own disposal.
Adonis’s Semitic name or epithet na Ema¯n, “the beauti-
ful” or “the lovely one,” was preserved by Isaiah 17:10 and
Aphrodite is obviously Astarte, the mythic queen of By-
by Greek authors, especially when comparing the anemone
blos according to Plutarch, but she is also Balthi, the great
to Adonis. NaEma¯n or Naaman is a West Semitic proper
goddess or Mistress of Byblos, according to the Syriac homily
name, attested from the second millennium BCE onward, and
of Pseudo-Meliton. As for Persephone, she probably corre-
the epithet occurs frequently in literary texts from Ugarit. It
sponds to SheDol, a chthonic goddess whose name in Hebrew
implies that Adonis was conceived as a youth of remarkable
designates the netherworld. Zeus’s verdict is a variant of a
beauty. Instead, he lacks any feature that would characterize
folktale, upon which Solomon’s arbitration in 1 Kings 3:16–
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ADONIS
35
28 is also based. The antiquity of this particular myth of
grow artificially, which rapidly faded. Egyptian origin is pos-
Adonis is confirmed by scenes engraved on Etruscan bronze
sible. They were similar, in fact, to the so-called beds of Osi-
mirrors from the fifth to third centuries BCE, showing Zeus’s
ris showing Osiris’s shape; these were planted with corn
arbitration, the sadness of Turan (the Etruscan Venus), and
seeds, the sprouting of which signified the god’s resurrection.
her happiness when her lover Atunis rejoins her. Love scenes
There was perhaps considerable variation in the content
of Venus and Adonis also appear on mosaics, in particular
of the Adonis festival and much of the original intent of the
at Lixus, the ancient Phoenician settlement on the Atlantic
rites appears to have been forgotten. Originally, rites and
coast of Morocco. An interesting variant of these myths is
mystery-plays reenacted dying and revival, disappearance
represented on a Roman cameo: Adonis sleeps naked at the
and return. The mourning of Adonis is well documented in
foot of a tree, guarded by his dog; two cupids try to wake
written sources, but his revival, return, or rebirth is not at-
him up, while Aphrodite waits amorously for his “awaking.”
tested directly before Lucianus’s De dea Syria, Origen, and
An important element in appreciating Adonis’s agrarian
Jerome. However, the “recovering of Adonis” by Venus,
connection is the story of the killing of Adonis by a “boar
often depicted in Rome according to Plautus’s comedy Men-
out of the wood,” an animal known for ravaging the vines,
aechmi 143–145 (dated tentatively from 194 BCE), Adonis’s
as Psalms 80:9–14 complains. The story related to Adonis
marvelous birth from the evergreen cypress, and the division
seems to be of Semitic origin as well, since Jerome’s allusion
of his life between Aphrodite and Persephone all have the
to the killing of Adonis “in the month of June” must be
idea of revival, rebirth, or awakening in common and are
based on Aramaic ha˘z¯ır, which in Syriac means both “boar”
concerned with vegetation. According to De dea Syria, sacred
and “June.” But its original protagonist may have been Attis,
prostitution was included in the ritual at Byblos, a sacred
slain by a boar according to Pausanias. Adonis fighting the
marriage with Aphrodite took place in the Alexandrian ritu-
boar is represented as a hunter on a mosaic from Carranque
al, and the cells of the temple of Adonis at Dura-Europos
near Toledo, dated to the fourth century CE.
may have served the same purpose. Its mythical aim was
probably the “rebirth” of Adonis.
Another version of the slaying of Adonis is preserved by
Pseudo-Meliton, who calls him Tammuz. Since Balthi was
According to De dea Syria, Adonis’s revival was celebrat-
in love with him, Hephaestus, her jealous husband, “slew
ed on the third day of the festival. The “third day” seems to
Tammuz in Mount Lebanon, while he was clearing the land”
have been a predestined moment for the revival, since the
(ˇsn¯ıra burza). Adonis was then buried at Aphaca, where
“finding of Osiris” by Isis took place on the third day accord-
Balthi also died.
ing to Plutarch, the revival of the nation takes place on the
third day according to Hosea 6:2, and Jesus’ resurrection
CULT. The cult of Adonis was especially popular with
is dated to “the third day” in 1 Corinthians 15:4. At any
women. Annual festivals, called Adonia, were held at Byblos
rate, the triduum has a larger application in cult and histori-
and also, at least from the seventh century BCE onward, in
ography.
Cyprus and at different places in Greece. Its earliest record
is a fragment of a poem by Sappho, who was native to Lesbos
It is difficult to answer the question whether Adonis was
in the Aegean. Her poem was apparently written in the form
initially a god of vegetation in general, a vine god, a tree spir-
of a dialogue between a woman, possibly representing Aph-
it, as is suggested by his birth from a tree, or a grain spirit.
rodite, and a chorus of young female attendants. It refers to
According to Ammianus Marcellinus, writing in the second
“the lovely Adonis,” using a Greek translation of Adonis’s Se-
half of the fourth century CE, the Adonis festival was “sym-
mitic name or epithet na Ema¯n, and invites the young maid-
bolic of the reaping of ripe fruits of the field.” Origen stated
ens to mourn for him by beating their breasts and rending
one century earlier that Adonis is “the symbol of the fruits
their tunics. The Semitic features of the ritual are confirmed
of the earth, mourned when they are sown, but causing joy
by Aristophanes’ references to the Adonia being celebrated
when they rise.” According to Jerome, the “slaying of Adonis
in Athens on the roof of a building by women shrieking
is shown by seeds dying in the earth, and his resurrection by
“Woe, woe, Adonis!” and beating their breasts.
the crops in which dead seeds are reborn.” These explana-
tions favor the conception of Adonis as a grain spirit, the
A very elaborate Alexandrian festival is described by
more so because a sentence from Pseudo-Meliton, usually
Theocritus in the third century BCE. The rites consisted of
emended and mistranslated, shows him laboring in the field.
a magnificent wedding pageant for Adonis and Aphrodite.
In this context Adonis’s appearance as a hunter in one of the
The next day women carried Adonis’s image to the seashore
myths might signify that he was protecting the fields against
amid lamentations and expressed the hope of witnessing his
wild boars.
return the following year. The Egyptian cult of Osiris most
likely had a bearing on the Ptolemaic ritual and its influence
SEE ALSO Dumuzi; Dying and Rising Gods; Eshmun.
could have reached Byblos, since the well-known legend of
Isis finding the body of Osiris murdered by Seth localizes the
BIBLIOGRAPHY
mythical event at Byblos. A special feature of the festival was
A comprehensive study of Adonis is provided by Tryggve N. D.
the “Adonis gardens,” first recorded by Plato and alluded to
Mettinger, The Riddle of Resurrection: “Dying and Rising
in Isaiah 17:10–11. These were small pots of seeds forced to
Gods” in the Ancient Near East (Stockholm, 2001), in partic-
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

36
ADRET, SHELOMOH BEN AVRAHAM
ular pp. 113–154, 175–179, and 209–212, with former liter-
His most controversial foray into public affairs was in-
ature. See also G. Piccaluga, “Adonis, i cacciatori falliti e
stigated by complaints from southern France about the de-
l’avvento dell’agricoltura,” in Il mito greco: Atti del convegno
structive impact of philosophical learning upon young Jews.
internazionale, edited by Bruno Gentili and Giuseppe Paioni
In 1305, after a three-year correspondence, Adret promulgat-
(Rome, 1977), pp. 33–48; Sergio Ribichini, Adonis: Aspetti
ed a formal ban in his Barcelona synagogue, prohibiting
“Orientali” di un mito greco (Rome, 1981); and Edward
those less than twenty-five years old from studying books of
Lipin´ski, Dieux et déesses de l’univers phénicien et punique
(Louvain, Belgium, 1995), pp. 90–108. For Adonis in Greek
Greek natural science or metaphysics. The writings of Mai-
literature and arts, see Wahib Atallah, Adonis dans la littéra-
monides were not proscribed, and the study of medicine was
ture et l’art grecs (Paris, 1966). For the “Adonis gardens,” see
explicitly excluded from the prohibition.
the monograph by Gerhard J. Baudy, Adonisgärten: Studien
zur antiken Samensymbolik
(Frankfurt am Main, 1986), and,
Because of his role in this conflict, Adret was frequently
with prudence, Marcel Detienne, The Gardens of Adonis:
depicted by nineteenth-century Jewish historians as part of
Spices in Greek Mythology, translated by Janet Lloyd (Atlanic
a group of narrow-minded, obstinate zealots. His own work,
Highlands, N.J., 1977). The iconography is presented by B.
however, especially his novellae on selected Talmudic agga-
Servais-Soyez, “Adonis,” in Lexicon Iconographicum
dot, reveals an openness to the use of philosophical literature
Mythologiae Classicae (Zurich and Munich, 1981–1997), vol.
for exegetical purposes, although he clearly repudiated the
1/1, pp. 222–229, and vol. 1/2, pp. 160–170.
extreme philosophical positions denying creation and indi-
EDWARD LIPIN´SKI (2005)
vidual providence. He also suggested qabbalistic interpreta-
tions of rabbinic statements. The fact that several of his disci-
ples wrote commentaries on the Torah or explications of
ADRET, SHELOMOH BEN AVRAHAM (c.
Nahmanides’ commentary in which the mystical element
1235–1310), known by the acronym RaSHBaD (Rabbi
was pronounced led Gershom Scholem to speak of the qab-
Shelomoh ben Avraham); Spanish rabbi and legal authority.
balistic “school” of Adret.
Born into a leading family of Aragon, Adret studied with
Yonah Gerondi and with the great Talmudist, biblical com-
Adret’s writings include answers to Christians who used
mentator, and qabbalist Moses Nahmanides (Mosheh ben
the aggadah to undermine the authority of the sages or to
Nah:man). During his four decades as rabbi of Barcelona,
support Christian theological positions; one source describes
Adret was considered by the Aragonese kings to be the domi-
an actual debate with a Christian thinker. Adret is also pre-
nant Jewish figure in the realm.
sumed to have written a Ma Damar Eal Yishma EeDl, published
by Perles, responding to the anti-Jewish tracts of the elev-
Adret’s scholarly reputation was established by his novel-
enth-century Spanish Muslim intellectual Ahmad ibn Hazm.
lae (Heb., h:iddushim) on many Talmudic tractates, and con-
This apologetical work defends the Torah against charges of
temporaries recognized him as an outstanding authority on
containing inconsistencies and describing repugnant behav-
Jewish law. Rabbis of Aragon and of many distant countries
ior; it answers the claim that the original Torah had been lost
submitted their formal legal inquiries to him, and his collect-
and that Judaism contained perversions and distortions of
ed responsa, numbering in the thousands, made him one of
God’s authentic teaching.
the most prolific and influential of all Jewish legal respon-
dents. An important source for the history of Jewish commu-
nal life, these responsa treat problems relating to communal
BIBLIOGRAPHY
self-government, fiscal administration, and institutions such
The biography by Joseph Perles, R. Salomo ben Abraham ben Ad-
as the synagogue, court, house of study, and voluntary
ereth: Sein Leben und seine Schriften (Breslau, 1963), remains
societies.
the only full-length treatment of this important figure. The
best discussion of his role as communal leader in historical
Occasionally Adret was confronted with formal ques-
context is in Yitzhak F. Baer’s History of the Jews in Christian
tions of a theological nature, usually flowing from problem-
Spain, vol. 1 (Philadelphia, 1961), pp. 278–305. Isidore Ep-
atic biblical passages or rabbinic pronouncements. Scattered
stein’s The Responsa of Rabbi Solomon Ben Adreth of Barcelona
through his responsa are significant statements on the proper
(1235–1310) as a Source of the History of Spain (London,
role of philosophical speculation in interpreting traditional
1925) is still a useful collection of passages dealing with com-
texts, the possibility of contemporary prophecy, astrology,
munal organization and administration, although it over-
dreams, magic and divine providence, the search for rational
looks some of the most important historical material. Louis
explanations of the commandments, the immutability of the
Jacobs summarizes the responsa pertaining to problems of
Torah, and eschatological doctrine.
Jewish religious thought in Theology in the Responsa (London,
1975), pp. 57–79. The most extensive account of Adret’s
Adret strongly denounced the messianic pretensions of
role in the conflict over the study of philosophy, in Joseph
the eccentric mystic Abraham Abulafia and later claimed that
Sarachek’s Faith and Reason (Williamsport, Pa., 1935), re-
without his firm opposition many Jews would have been de-
quires modification based on more recent studies in periodi-
ceived. He also warned Jewish communities against a Jew
cals, such as Joseph Shatzmiller’s “Bein AbbaD Mari le-
called the “prophet of Ávila,” who maintained that a mystical
RashbaD,” in Meh:qarim be-toledot Eam YisraDel ve-Erets
work had been revealed to him by an angel.
Yisra Del 3 (1974–1975): 121–137.
E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F R E L I G I O N , S E C O N D E D I T I O N

AEGEAN RELIGIONS
37
New Sources
Adang, Camilla. “A Jewish Reply to Ibn Hazm: Solomon b.
Adret’s Polemic against Islam.” In Judíos y musulmanes en al-
Andalus y el Magreb: contactos intelectuales. Actas reunidas y
presentadas por Maribel Fierro
, pp. 179–209. Madrid, 2002.
Cohen, Jonathan. “Charitable Contributions, Communal Wel-
fare Organizations, and Allegiance to the Community ac-
cording to Rashba.” HUCA 72 (2001): 85–100.
Horwitz, David. “Rashba’s Attitude towards Science and Its Lim-
its” (in Hebrew). Torah U-Madda Journal 3 (1991–1992):
52–81.
MARC SAPERSTEIN (1987)
Revised Bibliography
AEGEAN RELIGIONS. The Aegean world is com-
posed of three distinctive regions, all located at the Eastern
edge of the Mediterranean: the island of Crete, the mainland
of Greece, and the islands between the mainland and the
coast of Anatolia. The people of the mainland, the Mycenae-
ans, were Greek-speaking. The inhabitants of the island of
F
Crete were the Minoans, who spoke an as yet undeciphered
I G U R E 1 . Snake goddess of Knossos (after Evans, 1921–1936,
v. 1, fig. 362a).
language. The islanders were apparently non-Greek, and fell
Illustration courtesy of Nanno Marinatos.
into the political and cultural orbit of the Minoans and later
the Mycenaeans in the second millennium BCE. The Aegeans
ries of matriarchy that were fashionable at the turn of the
shared many cultural traits with the Near East, but retained
century. His theories found fertile ground: one of the reasons
a distinctive regional character. The Minoans and My-
that the concept of the mother goddess is alive today is that
ceneans had palace cultures shortly after 2000 BCE, but for
it appeals to contemporary feminist movements. Yet there
the people of the islands, no such claim can be made.
are reasons to question the definition of matriarchy; all pal-
Little is known about the religion of the islands north
ace cultures of the Near East in the second millennium BCE
of Crete that are collectively called the Cyclades. Numerous
had potent female goddesses and mothers of gods, and none
marble figures and figurines have been found but most of
was a matriarchy. Evans’s matriarchal society is perhaps best
them are without context. It is uncertain whether or not they
viewed as a modern myth.
were used for worship. Dearth of data makes a reconstruc-
It is thus perhaps wiser to view Minoan religion in the
tion of Cycladic religion next to impossible.
context of other kingdoms of the Near Eastern Mediterra-
MINOAN RELIGION. The religious beliefs of the Minoans are
nean in the second millennium BCE, all of which were theoc-
more accessible despite the absence of decipherable texts.
racies with male kings and armies. All of them had young
The myth of the great goddess and matriarchy. If Mi-
male warrior gods: Reshep, Baal, El, Adad, Sin, Ningirsu,
noan religion is popular today, this is partly due to the great
and so on in the Mesopotamian and Levantine kingdoms.
mother goddess (see figure 1). This is the legacy of the exca-
Egypt had its own warrior gods: Amon, Seth, Horus. All of
vator of Knossos, Sir Arthur Evans (1851–1941), who may
these cultures also had powerful female deities. Some of these
be said to have invented Minoan culture at the beginning of
goddesses were even warrior-like and destructive: Anat, Ish-
the twentieth century. For his interpretations he relied on
tar, Sekhmet. Female deities could also have mother-goddess
images represented on wall paintings, rings, and seal stones.
qualities: Asherah (Atrt) in Ugarit is called mother of gods;
Most of all he was impressed by several faience statuettes of
Hathor and Isis in Egypt were also mother goddesses. Most
bare-breasted females handling snakes that he excavated in
goddesses had in addition a strong sexual appeal that could
the palace of Knossos.
be dangerous to males. The bare-breasted snake goddess of
Minoan Crete (figure 1) would have been regarded as sexual-
In his view, the snake goddess represented one aspect
ly alluring, but this dos not mean that she was the goddess.
of a “Great Mother Nature Goddess.” She was a patroness
The Near Eastern frame makes it likely that Minoan Crete
of kings and sailors alike; she embodied fertility and mother-
may have had a complex constellation of male and female de-
hood; and she ruled over sky, earth, and the underworld.
ities, although the distinctive regional identity of Crete
There was one male divinity, but he was a subordinate boy
should not be lost sight of.
god: the son or consort of the great mother goddess. Evans
underplayed the fact that the so-called boy god was an armed
Yet it is difficult to go beyond theories when discussing
mature young man. He was undoubtedly influenced by theo-
Minoan religious mythology. This is because we lack narra-
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38
AEGEAN RELIGIONS
tive texts from the Minoan culture (Linear A is yet to be fully
deciphered). On the other hand, many images exist, and they
give information that is highly valuable, although it differs
from the information we get from texts. An attempt to sort
out the iconography and archaeological evidence was made
by Martin P. Nilsson (1874–1967) in the 1920s. Although
systematic, Nilsson fell into a methodological pitfall: he was
more interested in Minoan religion as a precursor of Greek
mythology than as a system in its own right. The striking
parallels to the Near East were ignored. Thus, he was more
eager to find the early forms of Athena, Rhea, and Artemis
than to penetrate the nature of the deities themselves. His
bias towards ancient Greek religion is evident in the title of
his book: The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival
in Greek Religion
(2d ed., 1950). It is worth noting, however,
that he was unconvinced of Evans’s view of the great mother
goddess.
Theocracy, polytheism, and the character of Minoan
gods. Nilsson argued that the Minoans had polytheism
(1950, pp. 389–425), and he was proven right. Recent evi-
dence throws new light on the issue. A golden ring, excavated
in a grave at Poros near modern Herakleion on Crete shows
three gods together (Dimopoulou and Rethemiotakis,
F IGURE 2 . Ring impression from Chania showing a male god
2000). The center is taken up by an impressive male god
over a town (after Hallager, 1985, p. 50, fig. 11). Illustration
holding a scepter. He faces an equally impressive seated god-
courtesy of Nanno Marintos.
dess who is flanked by large birds. A third goddess is ren-
dered as a minute figure descending from the air. There is
only one mortal worshiper in the scene at the left edge of the
The three rings discussed above show that there existed
ring’s field. He is shaking a tree invoking the gods. The ring
a multiplicity of divinities and that power was not centered
supplies firm evidence of polytheism: a divine gathering tak-
only around one dominant goddess; there was also a male
ing place in the vicinity of a tree. Such a congregation is ech-
god whose bodily vigor was evident in his standing posture.
oed in the Hittite text about the god Telepinu: “The gods
The Minoan pantheon was probably complex and must have
[were gathered] in assembly under the hatalkesnas tree. For
included one or several divine couples. Moreover, gods and
the hatalkesnas tree I have fixed long years” (Pritchard, 1969,
goddesses were associated with a multistory building that can
pp. 126–128).
be best defined as a divine palace. This association of god and
palace supports the view of Evans that Minoan Crete was a
The characterization of the gods is important. The fe-
theocracy.
male goddess is seated on an invisible throne in midair; her
power is expressed through enthronement. The male god, on
Patronage of Minoan gods and gender roles. The Mi-
the other hand, exudes bodily rigor by extending his arm in
noan gods probably had different spheres of power, such as
a gesture of command. A similar male god occurs on a ring
hunting, war, and fertility. Most likely they also had different
impression found at Chania (figure 2). He looms large over
domains: the sea, the underworld, or the sky (in which case
a cluster of buildings, which may be conceived as a palace
they would appear as stellar bodies). They also had social
or town, establishing himself as the patron of this town.
spheres: one of their functions must have been supervision
of the raising of young people. This gender-oriented patron-
Further information is supplied by another ring, the im-
age is illustrated in a scene from a stone chalice found at
pression of which has survived in several examples found by
Hagia Triada, Crete (figure 4).
Evans at Knossos (figure 3). Here the central figure is a god-
dess who stands on the top of a mountain.
A young male with a commanding gesture receives a
procession of young hunters (Evans, 1921–1936, vol. 2,
She is saluted by a male figure, who is usually interpret-
pp. 790–792). Although he is generally known as the “Chief-
ed as a human worshiper but who may well be a king because
tain” (thus named by Evans), his commanding gesture and
the vision of ordinary humans would not be recorded visually
posture rather suggest that he may be a god. Alternatively he
on a ring in a theocratic society. Behind the goddess is a
is a king having assumed the identical appearance of the god.
building, which can be identified as a palace because it has
The ambiguity is revealing: gods and rulers were shown in
many stories. Here we have a sacred landscape, which in-
a similar manner in Minoan art. At any rate, the god or his
cludes a palace and a mountain.
earthly representative acts as patron of the hunt.
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AEGEAN RELIGIONS
39
F IGURE 3 . Goddess on mountain and male visionary (king?)
(after Evans, 1921–1936, vol. 3, fig. 323). Illustration courtesy of
F IGURE 4 . A god or king receiving a procession of hunters on a
Nanno Marinatos.
stone chalice from Hagia Triada (after Evans, 1921–1936, vol.
2, combination of figs. 476 and 517). Illustration courtesy of
Nanno Marinatos.

In the female sphere we find the same relationship: the
young female goddess supervises her protégées. On a paint-
ing from Thera (Santorini), a goddess is seated on a platform
The throne room in the palace of Knossos may have
and receives offerings from young women (Doumas, 1992,
been used in a similar way. The throne, flanked by griffins
fig. 122). The dress and hairstyles of the worshipers reflect
and palm trees, has been viewed by some scholars as the seat
the divine prototype. There are many other instances as well
of a female, a queen or a priestess, because only goddesses
where a goddess receives a female procession (Marinatos,
are flanked by griffins in Minoan art (Reusch, 1958; Hägg,
1993, pp. 147–165). This evidence suggests that there were
1986; Niemeier, 1986). It is less frequently noticed that
gender specific roles for the Minoan deities. It also implies
there was a kitchen in the adjacent complex; this kitchen
that the deities provided role models for the young. There
shows that ceremonial banqueting may be associated with
is therefore an educational aspect to Minoan religion.
the throne room.
Although Minoan goddesses and gods are never depict-
Animal sacrifice is a prerequisite for banqueting, but it
ed in the nude, the exposed breasts of the females (figure 1)
is also a rite of invocation: the gods are invited to participate
and the pronounced phallus sheaths of the males (figures 2
in the feast. This aspect of sacrificial ritual is depicted on a
and 4) suggest that sexuality was emphasized. The bare
terra-cotta coffin, known as the sarcophagus from Hagia
breasts of goddesses have a meaning equivalent to the com-
Triada. One of the long sides of this sarcophagus shows a sac-
plete nudity of Near Eastern goddesses. Female power is ap-
rificed bull tied on a table. A long-robed woman, who may
parently expressed as sexuality in both cultural regions
be the queen, presides over the ritual, while a male plays the
(Marinatos, 1993).
flute. To the right is a second separate scene involving a
Rituals of Minoan religion: Ceremonial banqueting,
priestess dressed in a hide skirt. She stands before an altar,
sacrifice, and invocation. There can be no religion without
over which are a pitcher and a basket of fruit, which are
rituals of offerings to the gods. As has been stressed by sociol-
bloodless offerings. The two panels show that the Minoans
ogists and historians of religion, the social dimension of of-
made a clear distinction between the two types of altars and
fering is feasting. Food is a way of exchange and redistribu-
the two types of offerings (compare with Exod. 25:2 and
tion of wealth, especially in highly stratified societies. There
27:1). This distinction between bloody and bloodless offer-
is plenty of evidence for Minoan feasting in extra-urban sanc-
ings is also made in Greek religion.
tuaries and cemeteries. But the open courts in front of the
palaces could also have accommodated a large number of
To whom are the offerings made on the Hagia Triada
banqueters. Most interesting evidence has been unearthed in
sarcophagus? The shrine in front of which the offerings are
the newly excavated palace of Galatas on Crete, which in-
made stands to the right of the priestess in the hide skirt. It
cluded a hearth and baking dishes (Rethemiotakis, 1999).
is a building with a gate surmounted by the so-called horns.
Hittite texts from the second millennium offer us detailed
Above the gate a sacred tree is protruding; it evidently was
descriptions of the role of the king and the queen during of-
the focus of the cult, taking the function of a cult statue. If
fering ceremonies. The royalty entered the temple and per-
the viewer walks around the sarcophagus and looks at the
formed elaborate rituals of offering. An interesting inscrip-
short side, the gods will be found as well: there are two fe-
tion mentions that the king and queen drank from the cup
male deities arriving in a griffin-drawn chariot. Noteworthy
of the storm god (Alp, 1983, p. 221). In this way the king
are two facts: (1) The tree shrine has a function equivalent
and queen shared a meal with the god.
to a temple; namely, it is the house of god and it is the locus
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40
AEGEAN RELIGIONS
F IGURE 5 A. Horns of consecration or mountain peaks.
Illustration courtesy of Nanno Marinatos.
F IGURE 5 B. Egyptian mountain sign with solar disk. Illustration
courtesy of Nanno Marinatos.

of the epiphany; (2) The goddesses are arriving at their tree
shrine to partake in the sacrifice.
The sacred tree of the god or goddess was evidently also
The double axe (figure 6) is more elusive, and there is
used as a medium of invocation. On certain gold rings found
no equivalent sign in the Near East or Egypt. Evans thought
on both Crete and the Mycenaean mainland, we see male or
that it symbolized the great goddess (Evans, 1901, p. 106;
female worshipers shaking or bending a tree. It was perhaps
see also Pötscher, 1990, pp. 143–160).
thought that frenzied movement on the part of the worshiper
Nilsson, who was more practically minded, considered
mobilized the gods to come. Alternatively, the tree was imag-
it a simple sacrificial instrument (Nilsson, 1950, p. 226).
ined as the abode of the deity. The invocation of the gods
Evans was probably more correct however: the double axe
is depicted only on gold rings. It seems that this ritual was
appears in contexts that suggest that it played a role in the
associated with the monopolization of religion by the upper
cosmology of Minoan mythology. Noteworthy is its frequent
classes.
occurrence on coffins. It seems unlikely in view of this that
The symbols of Minoan religion: “horns” and dou-
it was a mere tool of cult, especially since it never occurs as
ble axes. The Minoans surely had aniconic cults, as Evans
a sacrificial instrument in imagery. A clue may be that the
had already surmised in a fundamental article written in
axe can be conceived as a tree with sprouting leaves or even
1901. Aniconic symbols, such as the double axe, loom large
flowers. Was it a regenerative symbol as has sometimes been
in Minoan imagery, but it is uncertain what they mean. At
argued (Dietrich, 1974)? A second clue is that it occurs be-
any rate, it is worth noting that cult standards with the sym-
tween the two tips of the mountain sign above (figure 5a,
bols of the gods they represent are common in religions of
the so-called horns). This suggests that the double axe was
the Near East, especially animal cult standards and standards
perceived as an object that belonged between the edges of the
with astral symbols.
two mountains of the horizon: is it a symbol of the sun or
moon? This possibility is speculative but may explain the
Also common is the sign of the “horns of consecration,”
ubiquity of the sign and its centrality in Minoan religion bet-
which occurs both as a graphic design and as a cult object
ter than the alternative theory that it is a sacrificial axe.
(figure 5a).
The designation “horns” is due to Evans, who saw a su-
The palaces as cult centers. Whatever interpretation
perficial resemblance to bull’s horns. But many scholars
we give to the Minoan deities and their symbols the archaeo-
observed that there is a striking resemblance between the Mi-
logical evidence is clear as to how society was organized. The
noan sign and the Egyptian symbol of the “two mountains
cult centers were undoubtedly the palaces. They contained
of the horizon,” the sun disk rising between twin peaks (fig-
central courts with a multiplicity of modest shrine rooms ar-
ure 5b).
ranged around them. Most palaces also had large west plazas
where the public could gather. The walls were decorated with
The similarity between the two symbols is too striking
paintings that depicted (among other subjects) processional
to be ignored. In addition, the Minoan sign is similar to its
and ritual scenes. There is thus little doubt that they were
Egyptian equivalent in its framing of an object: a tree or a
the major cult centers of the community. To date no separate
double axe, or sometimes other implements of cult, such as
temples have been found (Rutkowski, 1986). The complete
libation vessels. In view of this, it is likely that the so-called
fusion of secular and religious authority points to a theocratic
horns represent a stylized landscape of two mountains that
system.
define the east and west axis of the universe. If the horns are
mountains, this would explain why in real and represented
Outside the town there were nature sanctuaries in caves
architecture, the object is always placed on top of a building
or mountain peaks. These were the extra-urban sanctuaries
(figure 3). Its function in such a case would be to allude to
of which Mount Juktas and Kato Syme have yielded the
mountain ranges in an abstract manner.
most impressive finds (Peatfield 1990; overview in Jones,
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AEGEAN RELIGIONS
41
vated on Mount Kinortion near classical Epidaurus, but
mountain sanctuaries are not as common as on Crete. There
were Minoan-type offerings there, including double axes and
figurines (Lambrinoudakis, 1981).
On the whole, the similarities between Minoan and
Mycenaean religion are striking. Both cultures had theocra-
cies with palaces as centers. The Mycenaean palace seems to
have played a major ceremonial role. Instead of an open cen-
tral court, however, we find a roofed hall or megaron with
a hearth. At Pylos, the wall paintings from the throne room
are similar to those of Knossos (Lang, 1966, pl. 124, no.
44aH6) depicting griffins and lions flanking the throne. In
addition, some of the Pylos throne room paintings show ban-
queting, which is compatible with the ritual inferred through
F IGURE 6 . Minoan double axe. Illustration courtesy of Nanno
the kitchen near the Knossos throne room.
Marinatos.
In both cultures, the religious role of the king and queen
is confirmed by the written records: in the Linear B tablets
1999; Lebessi, 1985 and 2002). There is little doubt that the
the word wa-na-ka (king) appears frequently. The queen
extra-urban sanctuaries were under palatial control in the
may have been designated as pot-ni-ja, namely “mistress”
middle of the second millennium BCE. Many, however, sur-
(Laffineur and Hägg, 2001). The takeover of Minoan royal
vived the end of the palatial system.
and religious symbols by the Mycenaean dynasts is here very
evident. We find in the Mycenaean kingdom double axes
The palaces were abandoned shortly after the middle of
and the mountain sign (figures 5a, 6).
the second millennium BCE, with the exception of Knossos
that survived for another seventy-five years. The reasons are
Small shrines existed in addition to the palatial megaron.
not yet completely understood, but they may have to do with
They had benches with statues on top, and hearths for offer-
social upheaval rather than a Mycenaean invasion. The end
ings. Some were incorporated into the palace; others were
of the palaces certainly also meant the end of the theocracy.
physically independent and spread throughout the town, as
in Tiryns (Kilian, 1988) and Methana (Konsolaki, 1999;
The new era, termed post-palatial, takes us to the end
Whittaker, 1997).
of the second millennium. In this period, a new type of
One shrine within the citadel of Mycenae is revealing
shrine was preferred: a modest room fitted with benches
because it included paintings above and around the bench
upon which were placed statues of goddesses, tables of offer-
(figure 7).
ings, and other cult implements. The type is common in the
late Bronze Age and can be found on the mainland of
Above the bench two goddesses were painted facing
Greece, as well as on the Levantine coast; we may speak of
each other. Between them hover two small sketchily rendered
an East Mediterranean type of shrine or small temple. Typi-
figures that probably represent souls of the dead (Marinatos,
cal of Crete are clay goddess statues with upraised arms and
1988). These may be two of the goddesses of Mycenaean reli-
elaborate headdresses. Religious syncretism with the Myce-
gion. Below, on the side of the bench, is probably the queen
naean religion of the mainland certainly took place in all pe-
identifiable by her tall headdress with a plume (or a minor
riods of Minoan Crete.
goddess accompanied by a griffin). Although the iconogra-
phy of this fresco is nowhere matched exactly on Crete, the
The end of the Minoan theocracy must have brought
visual vocabulary is familiar from the latter culture. The My-
with it many changes of the social and religious structure, but
cenaeans borrowed the visual vocabulary of the Minoan pal-
the main symbols and (probably) the main gods survived
ace culture to express their own theocratic institution.
into the end of the Bronze Age (c. 1200 BCE). The Greeks
of later times thought of the island as one of ninety lan-
Data from the tablets. The decipherment of the Linear
guages, multiple ethnic groups, and ninety cities (Homer,
B script in 1953 by Michael Ventris as a form of Greek threw
Odyssey 19.172–202).
a new light on Mycenaean religion by revealing a pantheon
that included many names of the later Greek gods.
MYCENAEAN RELIGION. Mycenaean religion is similar to Mi-
The tablets were made of unbaked clay and were used
noan in that it was also centered on the palaces and utilized
as scrapbooks. They were accidentally preserved because they
the same symbols as Minoan Crete.
were baked after a conflagration. They record lists and pro-
Places of worship. Mycenaean places of worship are
vide economic documents. Indications about religious rituals
different from those of Minoan Crete, however, the varia-
and gods are only incidental in the form of offering. Still, it
tions being detectable in the archaeological evidence (Hägg,
is clear that a multiplicity of male and female deities are pres-
1998). One extra-urban mountain peak sanctuary was exca-
ent, among whom is a male god who bears the name of the
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42
AEGEAN RELIGIONS
wanax, which in the Homeric poems is usually applied to the
king.
THE MINOAN AND MYCENAEAN PANTHEON AND THE NEAR
EAST.
Despite their differences it is a priori likely that Mino-
an and Mycenaean religions had many similarities in the my-
thologies and the personae of their gods. Both were palatial
cultures that maintained close contacts with each other and
with the Near East. The Mycenaean presence in Crete
(whether to be explained by dynastic links and intermar-
riages or by conquest) is securely attested by the presence of
tablets written in Linear B shortly after 1400 BCE. After that
time, there was a pool of common gods, such as Poseidon,
Zeus, Athena, Dionysos, Diwija, and Hermes, all of whom
are attested on both Crete and the Mycenaean mainland
(Palaima et al., 2001). A religious synthesis between Minoan
and Mycenaean religion in the fourteenth and thirteenth
centuries BCE is thus certain. It is perhaps not correct to speak
of a Mycenaean religion on Crete in the post-palatial period,
but rather of a synthesis of the two systems. This synthesis
may be pushed back into the sixteenth century BCE, however.
This is the time when Crete was at the peak of its power, and
spread its influence in the Aegean. The Mycenaeans (who
were developing their own palatial system) readily adopted
F IGURE 7 . Fresco within a Mycenaean shrine within the
Minoan symbols and images of gods. The adoption of such
citadel of Mycenaeas, reconstructed by Marinatos. Illustration
symbols as the double axes and the mountain signs (horns)
courtesy of Nanno Marinatos.
implies that there were already common elements in the two
religions, and it was this commonality that enabled the trans-
mission of the Minoan religious vocabulary to the Mycenae-
great god of the classical Greeks: Zeus. There was also a pan-
ans. The picture that emerges is a complex one, with influ-
theon that we recognize as the later Olympian Greek divini-
ences flowing in both directions at different times.
ties: Po-si-da-jo (Poseidon), He-ra (Hera), A-ta-na Po-ti-ni-
ja (Athena), Erma (Hermes), Enyalios (Ares), and Di-wo-nu-
We know, moreover, that such religious equivocations
so (Dionysos). Yet the hierarchy and articulation that define
between deities took place between cultural groups in the Ae-
the Greek divine family do not seem to characterize the My-
gean and the Near East: Akkadian Ishtar was likened to Uga-
cenaean gods. It is to be noted that Po-si-da-jo (Poseidon)
ritic Astarte and Sumerian Inanna; later on she was fused
played a preeminent role at Pylos, whereas A-ta-na (Athena)
with the Greek Aphrodite. The Egyptian Seth was likened
is attested only at Knossos. There are also gods unknown to
to Ugaritic Baal, both being young warrior gods. Anat and
the later Greek pantheon, such as Ma-ri-neu and Ma-ka
Baal, a famous couple in Ugaritic myth, resemble Isis and
(Palaima et al., 2001).
Osiris of Egypt. It is likely that the Minoan divine couple
had properties similar to its Egyptian and Near Eastern
The Mycenaean gods constituted a divine family, al-
counterparts. The religious translation of one god into an-
though relations between them were not necessarily the same
other in cultures of the Near East makes it a priori likely that
as those of later Greek religion. For example, one god, Di-ri-
the same happened between Minoan Crete and the mainland
mi-jo, is listed on a tablet from Pylos on the Greek mainland
Mycenaean religion. It is possible to go even further and sug-
as being the son of Zeus and Hera. This god dropped out
gest that the East Mediterranean was a melting pot of reli-
of the later Greek pantheon. But Di-wo-nu-so (Dionysos)
gious syncretism.
seems to have been a son of Zeus both in the Creto-
Mycenaean tablets (attested by a tablet found at Chania,
The following points may be established about the Mi-
Crete, KH. Gq 5) and in Greek times.
noan-Mycenaean pantheon. The prevalent idea that there
was a dominant mother goddess in Minoan Crete (figure 1)
The offerings listed were sent from the palace to the
must be revised. Both Minoan and Mycenaean religions had
sanctuaries. This proves that the religious organization was
important deities of both genders. Even the Mycenaeans,
interwoven with the palace administration. This is typical of
who are considered a typical patriarchal society, had female
theocracies. Offered were animals—cattle, sheep, and pigs—
deities that are referred to in the Linear B tablets as “mistress”
as well as objects of value.
(pot-ni-ja). This word undoubtedly represents a title (com-
One term has been variously interpreted: wa-na-ka. It
pare with the epithet “st lady” given to Anat or Ishtar in the
is undeniable that it constitutes the prototype of the word
Near East, the Akkadian “Belet-ili” given to the mother god-
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AEGEAN RELIGIONS
43
dess in the Atramchasis epic, or the Ugaritic “ra-ba-tu” given
Hägg, Robin. “Ritual in Mycenaean Greece.” In Ansichten gr-
to the great goddess of the sun [Wyatt, 1998, 224]).
iechischer Rituale: Geburtstags-Symposium für Walter Burkert,
edited by Fritz Graf, pp. 99–113. Stuttgart, Germany, 1998.
The divine couple is attested iconographically in both
Minoan and Mycenaean art, and textually in the Linear B
Hägg, Robin. “Religious Processions in Mycenaean Greece.” In
tablets. It can be further established that the gods were con-
Contributions to the Archaeology and History of the Bronze and
Iron Ages in the Eastern Mediterranean
, edited by Peter Fi-
ceived as members of a divine family. In a Linear B tablet
scher, pp. 143–147. Vienna, 2001.
from Pylos the triad Zeus, Hera, and Di-ri-mi-jo are attested
(Tn 316). At Chania, Di-wo-nu-so is associated with Zeus,
Hägg, Robin, and Nanno Marinatos, eds. Sanctuaries and Cults
in the Aegean Bronze Age. Stockholm, 1981.
who is presumably his father.
Hallager, Erik. The Master Impression: A Clay Sealing from the
The points above suggest that the Minoan and Myce-
Greek-Swedish Excavations at Kastelli, Khania. Göteborg,
naean pantheons were (1) similar (although not identical) to
Sweden, 1985.
one another and (2) similar to those of the Near East. It is
Jones, Donald W. Peak Sanctuaries and Sacred Caves in Minoan
tempting to postulate that myths that are common to the
Crete. Jonsered, Sweden, 1999.
Near East and Egypt may also have been shared by the Mino-
ans and Mycenaeans. There are many uncertainties about
Kaiser, Otto, ed. Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments
(TUAS). Gütersloh, Germany, 1993–1995.
Minoan and Mycenaean myths, but they obviously did exist
and they were more rich and complex than the Frazerian the-
Keel, Othmar, and C. Uehlinger. Göttinnen, Götter, und Gott-
ories of the dying god and the fertility goddess would
essymbole. Freiburg, Germany, 1992.
suggest.
Kilian, K. “Mycenaeans up to Date.” In Problems in Greek Prehis-
tory, edited by Elizabeth B. French and K. A. Wardle,
SEE ALSO Labyrinth.
pp. 115–152. Bristol, U.K., 1988.
Konsolaki, Eleni. “The Mycenaean Sanctuary on Methana.” Bul-
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For Plato (Philebus, 64e), the evaluation of poiesis re-
OLIVIER PELON (1987)
quires a sense of proper proportion of means and ends, of
NANNO MARINATOS (2005)
measure (summetrica). The concept of measure, or standard,
became central to his thought as he sought to identify the
standards of truth, justice, beauty, and goodness, which he
AESTHETICS
also called the Forms, or Ideas. The concept of measure sug-
This entry consists of the following articles:
gested the possibility of a Form of Forms, a prior source of
PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
reality and human beatitude, that could be termed “reli-
VISUAL AESTHETICS
gious” and was considered such by some successors.
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AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
45
For Plato the highest form of art is that of the divine
Excellence or beauty in a work of art depends upon im-
maker (demiurgos) who composes the universe as an imita-
manent standards: perfection of form and felicity of method,
tion (mimesis) of ultimate and unchanging Forms. Practi-
which render a work both a satisfying whole in itself and
tioners of the fine arts, however, engage in imitations that
fruitful in its effects. A composition must exhibit symmetry,
are more complex and more problematic. In this poiesis,
harmony, and definiteness. Aristotle’s only surviving treat-
moral, psychological, and other factors color a more vivid
ment of aesthetic issues, the fragmentary Poetics, focuses on
rendering of reality through appearance. Plato therefore dis-
one form, tragic drama. Like Plato he saw literary and dra-
trusted artists’ claims to knowledge and was wary of the
matic poietik¯e as mimetic. Unlike Plato, however, he believed
moral and political effects of epic and drama. He advocated
that tragic drama may be a definitive means of knowing reali-
a form of censorship by philosopher-guardians of the state
ty through the presentation of philosophical truth and psy-
and distinguished between true imitation (eitastik¯e) and false
chological insight in character, plot, and action. Tragedy
semblance (phantastik¯e), or illusion.
arouses the emotions of fear and pity, but the well-made trag-
Plato also held that something in true art is not reduc-
edy effects both a therapeutic purgation of these from the
ible to know-how. The poet, it appears, is inspired, and his
soul of the spectator and a resolution in the drama itself that
achievement, insofar as it cannot be reduced to rules by the
is akin to ritual purification. Indeed it may be said that Aris-
normal, conscious intellect, appears to be a form of madness.
totle saw in the art of tragedy the natural development of reli-
The poet imitates the divine demiurgos (Plato, Phaedrus, 245;
gious media that seek to negotiate the ambiguities and para-
Ion, 523–525). Plato’s dialogue “Symposium” both describes
doxes of life, with their associated feelings of awe and guilt.
and exemplifies the ascent of the soul to the vision of the
For some who find traditional religious resolutions anachro-
Good through the allure of the Beautiful. The Beautiful is
nistic, irrelevant, or superficial, expressions of the tragic in
the chief propaedeutic to the Good, which is the Form of
art can serve important religious purposes, as the irrational
Forms, the end also of the religious quest.
or nonrational dimensions of life are represented and lived
through aesthetically.
Thus Plato includes concepts central to the relation of
aesthetics to religion. The conviction that aesthetic vision is
The Aristotelian insistence on the significance of the
also religious apprehension appears in Jewish wisdom litera-
material—the “of what” of anything that is to be explicated,
ture and in early Christian theology and is consonant with
what Aristotle himself called its “material cause”—is reflect-
some Hindu and Buddhist accounts of salvific knowledge.
ed in increased interest in material culture or subculture: the
Plato’s emphasis on the discernment of measure and fitting-
material objects and commodities prized in any culture or
ness is echoed in some forms of Confucian philosophy as
subculture. The seemingly spontaneous, natural, or transpar-
well. Poiesis is a metaphor for the relation of the divine to
ently motivated products of material culture can be decon-
the world in the cosmogonies of many religious traditions.
structed to reveal operations of power on behalf of dominant
In some Hindu speculation, all that is only penultimately
ideologies or constituencies (races, classes, genders, religions)
real is ma¯ya¯, or illusion, and is said to be the sport or play
or to express resistance to sublimated power. This approach
(l¯ıla¯) of the ultimately real (brahman). In many religions of
includes specific attention to aesthetic and religious elements
archaic societies, poetic or prophetic (shamanistic) inspira-
of culture. Thus even Aristotle’s “material cause” is subject
tion is a means to perception of the sacred, that which is
to a hermeneutic of suspicion in pursuit of truth that frees.
foundational to and constitutive of ordinary or profane space
A major representative of this critical approach was Michel
and time and which is articulated in accounts of events in
Foucault (1926–1984). Aristotle’s attention to the ritual na-
illo tempore.
ture and effect of tragic drama is reflected in increased inter-
Aristotle (384–322 BCE), like Plato, saw art as the capac-
est in “ritual studies” in the field of religious studies.
ity to “make,” to cause the coming into being of ends set by
Plotinus (205–270 CE), in The Enneads (1.6, 5.8, 6.7),
reason. The character of the envisioned end (telos) deter-
incorporates a Platonic vision of ascent into his understand-
mines the appropriate means for its realization. For Aristotle,
ing of contemplation as active and productive of a form of
however, the forms (patterns or essences of things) do not
knowledge. His Neoplatonism decisively influenced the for-
exist apart from the materials formed, except perhaps in the
mulation of Christian doctrine and shaped mystical expres-
case of those ultimate ends, or reasons why, that reason may
sion in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions through the
contemplate. It is in the capacity for such contemplation, Ar-
Middle Ages. Elements of his metaphysics were subsequently
istotle says in Nichomachean Ethics, that human beings are
resurrected by Italian Renaissance humanists, by seven-
most godlike and, therefore, perhaps immortal. While some
teenth-century Platonists of the Cambridge school, and by
things in nature occur by reason of the material that consti-
nineteenth-century German Romantics.
tutes them—that is, by necessity—the primary causes of all
events are the ends to which they lead and for which they
For Latin Christianity, Augustine (354–430 CE) gave
appear to be designed. There is a sense therefore in which
the Neoplatonic tradition the form it would retain through
for Aristotle nature is best understood as imitating art. The
most of the Middle Ages. Augustine saw the arts not simply
source of all processes is an Unmoved Mover whose ultimacy
as an embellishment of explicitly religious materials but as
was taken by later theologians to be of religious significance.
a direct means of participation in the divine. Human art,
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AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
when guided by divine will, may reflect the art of the divine,
1804) was the first to develop a systematic theory of aesthet-
as in numerical proportion, rhythm, and harmony (Augus-
ics as an integral, if not foundational, part of a philosophical
tine, De musica; De ordine 11–16). In keeping with his exal-
system. Kant set himself the task of answering three ques-
tation of auditory art, he exemplified and fostered a charac-
tions: “What can I know?”; “What ought I to do?”; and “For
teristically Latin attention to rhetorical forms of expression.
what may I hope?” In Critique of Pure Reason (1781) he fo-
While Greek Christianity tended to prize visual representa-
cused on imagination, whose work he traced from basic intu-
tions and look to liturgical praxis for the development of
ition or awareness of bare sensation, localized in the forms
doctrine, Western theological reflection explored a multilevel
of space and time, to the reproduction of images schematized
textual hermeneutic in which metaphor, parable, and other
under “the categories of the understanding”: quantity, quali-
narrative forms are seen as vehicles of revelation. Augustine
ty, relation, and modality. These categories yield determinate
applied that tradition not only to Scripture, in On Christian
concepts, expressed in propositions, analytic and synthetic,
Doctrine (De doctrina Christiana; 3, 10.14, 15.23), but also,
in the context of the “transcendental unity of apperception”
in The Confessions, to the life of an individual seen as an oper-
or self-world consciousness. Such is all that the faculty of un-
ation of divine grace. John Cassian (c. 360–c. 435 CE) for-
derstanding can supply and all one can know in a sense war-
mulated a fourfold distinction between levels of scriptural
ranted by the regnant conception of science. Yet reason re-
meaning that became standard in the Middle Ages and influ-
quires the “transcendental ideas,” or “regulative ideals” not
enced the development of modern literary criticism.
only of self (or soul) and world but also of God as ground
of world and soul.
Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) also turned to Scripture
and Christian tradition for ultimate authority, relating them,
Turning from the data of nature to the datum of free-
however, to the newly recovered philosophical teachings of
dom, of persons as moral agents, the dictates of pure practical
Aristotle. Every being (ens), he said, is one (unum), true
reason (praxis) reveal a categorical imperative: never to make
(verum), and good (bonum), terms that apply to different be-
an exception of oneself to the demand of moral law; to treat
ings variously according to their natures. Religious language,
all persons as ends and never merely as means; to recognize
or talk of the divine being in terms of the finite, is possible
the moral dignity of persons as persons. In exploring the de-
by analogy, or proportion, as the created order displays the
mands of moral life in Critique of Practical Reason (1788),
character of its origin. Truth is the equation of thought and
Kant asks how disinterested moral virtue is to be related to
thing, and good is fulfillment of desire in the truly desirable
the quest for happiness, which is also a legitimate component
beauty. Contemplation of the good as beautiful renders
of the supreme good. A rational answer to this question, says
knowledge of the good, because in it the soul resonates with
Kant, demands the recognition of freedom in immortality.
the divine form. The beautiful is marked by integrity, pro-
A basic power assumed in the first two critiques, namely
portion, harmony, and clarity. Thomas’s doctrine of analogy
judgment, operates to subsume particulars in generals, parts
and his emphasis on the revelatory character of the created
in wholes, and so forth. Judgment is evidenced in acts, in-
order played major roles in subsequent theological develop-
cluding logical operations, and expressed in the propositions
ment and in Thomist and neo-Thomist accounts of the rela-
of theoretical reason and the moral determinations of practi-
tion of aesthetics to religion (cf. Thomas Aquinas, Summa
cal reason. In The Critique of Judgement (1790), however,
Theologiae, 1.13.5, 1.16.1, 1.5.4, 2.1.27.1).
Kant seeks to lay bare the general power of judgment as such.
ENLIGHTENMENT AND POST-ENLIGHTENMENT FORMULA-
Here its form is expressive of pure feeling, of pleasure or dis-
TIONS. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century developments in
pleasure. The controlling aesthetic category, beauty, is expe-
“natural philosophy” undercut the authority not only of
rienced when the free play of imagination, articulated in aes-
Western religious traditions, identified as they were with a
thetic forms, results in a “delight in ordering” produced by
discredited cosmology, but also of Platonic idealism and Ar-
the creative artist and enjoyed by persons of aesthetic sensi-
istotelian scientific method. In the “enlightenment” that fol-
bility and informed taste. Feeling, however, is neither its
lowed, the sense-bound character of all experience became
cause nor its differentiating characteristic. Feeling merely sig-
problematic in a new way; definitions and criteria had to be
nals that aesthetic judgment is at work.
developed for subjective experiences that could not be quan-
Aesthetic judgment is characterized by four “moments”:
tified. Chief among these were experiences of the beautiful
and of the holy. The use of such terms as feeling and sensibili-
(1) In quality, the grounding experience is that of “disinter-
ty and attempts to articulate the variety of subject-object
ested interest.” The judging subject is fully engaged, but
transactions characterized this debate. The relation of feeling
the focus of engagement is neither the self nor the fasci-
or sensibility to the good and true was explored in terms of
nation of being engaged, but rather that whose worth
religious theory by some and in terms of aesthetic theory by
is not a function of the act of engagement.
others. Still others sought to bring both art and religion
under a comprehensive theory.
(2) In quantity, judgment of the beautiful is singular yet of
universal import. There is no class of which all beautiful
Although Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (1714–1762)
objects are members; a specific work of art is judged to
coined the term aesthetics in 1750, Immanuel Kant (1724–
be beautiful. (Religious expressions of the unqualified
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AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
47
singularity of the divine display a similar resistance to
are least distinguishable. Coleridge’s theory of imagination
systematic formulation or classification.)
is central to his understanding of this basic apprehension.
Primary imagination, he says in Biographia Literaria (1817),
(3) In terms of relation, aesthetic judgment expresses “pur-
is the “living power and prime agent of all human percep-
posiveness without purpose” or “finality without use.”
tion, and a representation in the finite mind of the eternal
Parts are also wholes, and wholes are parts; means are
act of creation in the infinite I AM” (Coleridge, 1956,
also ends, and ends are means. This suggests analogies
p. 86). Secondary imagination differs from primary only in
with religious judgment concerning the integrity or
degree and mode of operation, but it is similarly creative,
wholeness of the holy.
seeking “to idealize and unify.” From this basic characteriza-
(4) In modality, aesthetic judgments are subjective and par-
tion spring Coleridge’s theories of poetry, symbol, and reli-
ticular, yet they are also necessary and universal. Here
gion. Religion, he says, “unites in its purposes the desiderata
the judgment bespeaks a universality and necessity that
of the speculative and practical being; its acts, including its
its logical form as analyzed in the first critique denies
events, are truths and objects of philosophical insight, and
to judgments of particulars. This “given” of aesthetic
vice versa the truths of which it consists are to be considered
judgment, Kant said, may suggest a sensus communis, a
the acts and manifestations of that Being who is at once
universal structure of intersubjectivity. Some theorists
Power and Truth” (p. 167).
of religion appear to designate a similar structure as the
G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831) aspired to complete the
sensus numinous, a shared sense of the holy or sacred.
movement of modern philosophy toward a conception of re-
Kant also examined another category of aesthetic experience,
ality as Mind or Spirit. In his Philosophy of Fine Art (1807)
the sublime. While beauty is formal, limited, and related to
he treated art and religion as authentic expressions of Spirit,
discursive understanding, the sublime is experienced various-
whose concrete development, portrayed in his historical dia-
ly as the infinite or the overpowering. It arrests attention,
lectic, would finally be superseded in true philosophy. Art,
“performs an outrage on imagination,” and seems to draw
he said, is the sensuous appearance (Schein) of Idea, or the
us into a supraempirical or supernatural realm. For Kant, this
Real (Spirit). It seeks to give rich concreteness to unfolding
experience is not mystical intuition and affords no privileged
reality; in it, a concept shows itself for itself. Its earliest form,
access to what lies beyond the world of appearances. Some
Hegel thought, is the symbolic. In classical art, whose con-
successors, however, did associate the experience of sublimity
summate form is sculpture, the divine is expressed through
with the experience of the holy.
the perfection of the human form. Classical art, however, be-
trays its inadequacy for the expression of Spirit in the very
Friedrich Schelling (1775–1854), pursuing an aspect of
concreteness of its forms. In the Romantic arts of painting,
Kant’s thought as amended by J. G. Fichte (1762–1814),
music, and poetry, Spirit is exhibited in increasing purity; in
produced a philosophy of seminal influence on literary fig-
poetry, the art of sounded imaginative concepts, it achieves
ures such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834) and
its most powerful artistic expression. This theme has been
theologians such as Paul Tillich (1886–1965). Schelling’s
elaborated by poet-critics like T. S. Eliot (1888–1965) and
philosophy of identity appropriated Kant’s notion of aesthet-
others. Religion, thought Hegel, is a historically parallel
ic purposiveness as that which makes scientific inquiry intel-
manifestation of the Real in that it vivifies the Real as God
ligible, but whereas this was only a regulative principle for
in myth, ritual, and theology. Indeed, the God of Romantic
Kant, it became for Schelling the objective determining prin-
art, he seems to suggest, is the God of Christianity. With full
ciple of reality. In System of Transcendental Idealism (1800)
disclosure of the way the Real as Spirit works in the dialectic
Schelling affirmed that “intellectual or rational intuition” re-
of history, the eclipse of art and religion in their historical
veals the ultimate identity of thought and being, real and
forms had, he thought, begun.
ideal. In art, he said, a fleeting glimpse of this harmony or
identity is made fully objective. Philosophy therefore should
So⁄ren Kierkegaard (1813–1855) reacted vigorously
ultimately pass over from reflection on art to become art it-
against Hegel’s views of the ultimate character of reality and
self. Even art, however, cannot fully express reality as under-
of the place of the aesthetic and religious in its perception.
stood in Schelling’s final “positive” philosophy and in his
Truth, he said, is not the objective working out of Idea, Rea-
philosophy of mythology and revelation. Positive philoso-
son, or Spirit; a logical system is possible, but there can be
phy, which asserts the primacy of will, is said to be verified
no logical system of personal life as it is actually lived, of exis-
in the actual history of religions, which points toward an “age
tence. Truth is a matter not of what but of how one thinks,
of the spirit” in which all is fulfilled. The function of art is
as displayed in the engaged conduct of a life. Truth is an exis-
thus replaced by the history of religions.
tential grasp of “essence” arrived at not by logical conclusion
but by life-committing choice.
For Coleridge, as for Schelling, philosophy begins in a
“realizing intuition,” an act of contemplation that is both
According to Kierkegaard, three major valuations of life
theoretical and practical, the coincidence of subject and ob-
are open to truth-seeking choice, or the quest for authentic
ject on which all knowledge rests and to which all knowledge
existence: the aesthetic, the ethical, and the religious. The
aspires. Here knowing, doing, and making, science and art,
grounding principle of the aesthetic, which may include all
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AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
forms of human making, is enjoyment. The aesthetic is basi-
cher and aspects of Kantian philosophy. Otto’s book calls at-
cally ahistorical because its fulfillments are only accidentally
tention to nonrational dimensions of the holy, which is
related to temporal and spatial situations. It involves less than
viewed as the distinctive religious category. Rational charac-
the whole person; its criterion is that of fittingness or defini-
terizations of the holy are expressed in conceptual superla-
tion. As life orientation, the aesthetic is ironic, because it ex-
tives (supreme being, supernatural) and other conceptual ab-
presses only the individual as he or she is, rather than posit-
solutes. A sense of its reality, however, must be evoked rather
ing a task for indefinite striving. Dependent for its
than rationally demonstrated, just as a sense of the aesthetic
satisfactions on the vagaries of fortune and taste, it leads, he
must be. The aesthetic realm thus provides for Otto the chief
said, to “the despair of not willing to be oneself.”
analogies for modes of apprehending the dimension of the
holy that he termed “the numinous,” the “mysterium tre-
In the ethical perspective, one experiences the dignity
mendum et fascinans.” This realm of mystery is both awe-
of the whole self and the equality of persons before the moral
somely overpowering and the source of that fascination that
law; the moral imperative does set a task for unending pur-
leads, through the history of religions, to beatitude. “Divina-
suit. Herein, however, lies the irony of the ethical: one can
tion” (Otto’s term for the discernment of the numinous),
always do more than is required by or consonant with moral
like aesthetic intuition, operates through the senses. The ex-
law, or one experiences the impossibility of complete obedi-
pressions of such discernments, like those of aesthetic intu-
ence to moral law as guilt, leading to “the despair of willing
ition, may be nonconceptual or idiosyncratically conceptual
to be oneself despairingly.”
(“ideograms”); they may issue directly in sound, light, dark-
It is within the religious perspective, Kierkegaard
ness, or holy silence or be conveyed indirectly through music,
thought, that authenticity is to be experienced. Christian
poetry, or other art forms. The closest analogue to that which
faith, in particular, entails the most inward and passionate—
is so expressed, said Otto, is the sublime as described by
and therefore the most complete—engagement of the self,
Kant, though without Kant’s critical restrictions.
because it is committed to an absurdity: that the infinite be-
Gerardus van der Leeuw (1890–1950), whose Religion
came finite, that God became a historical person. This com-
in Essence and Manifestation (1933) influenced many theo-
mitment, which is also openness to divine forgiveness and
rists of religion, describes the phenomenological stance in
grace, restores the individual to the realm of authentic fini-
terms strikingly similar to those employed by some in de-
tude. For Kierkegaard, the aesthetic, like the ethical, is not
scribing the aesthetic attitude. Phenomenology of religion,
abandoned or denied in the religious attitude; it is fully af-
he asserts, is not philosophy of religion, insofar as it brackets
firmed and enjoyed, but in its proper place and not as a way
questions of religion’s relation to reality and truth. It is not
of salvation. Other modern existentialists have found some-
poetry of religion, because it seeks to understand what is ex-
thing approaching religious significance in various aesthetic
pressed through its poetry. The phenomenologist of religion,
forms, even though for many the authenticity proclaimed
rather, seeks “lovingly to gaze” on that which is to be under-
therein is that of the tragic vision or of unredeemed and un-
stood and, through understanding, cherished. Schleierma-
redeeming absurdity.
cher had said that the historical forms of religion are to reli-
AESTHETIC AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE. Friedrich Schleier-
gion as the various forms of music are to music. Leeuw
macher (1768–1834) turned to the life of affections or feel-
sought to comprehend the temporal and cultural diversity of
ing to identify and celebrate the religious in his On Religion:
religious expressions through the exercise of “surrendering
Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (1893). A brilliant preacher,
love,” a sympathetic mode of cognition “linking old and
hermeneut, translator of Plato, and teacher, Schleiermacher
new.”
was identified with the circle of German Romantic artists
whose attention to the affective dominated their work. Reli-
Mircea Eliade (1907–1986) frequently described his
gion, he affirmed, is not primarily a matter of beliefs or of
monumental work as history or science of religion, but the
divine undergirding of moral law; it is rooted in a distinctive
stance he commends is in part that of the phenomenologist.
feeling, which he variously designated “the feeling of abso-
However, it is not simply a matter of “gazing at” or resonat-
lute dependence,” “the sense of the Whole,” or in his later
ing with apparently alien religious forms. Homo religiosus is
work, The Christian Faith (1821–1822), the sense and taste
universal. Understanding the diversity of experience of the
for the Infinite (Schleiermacher, 1928, p. 55). Religious ap-
sacred requires trained sensitivity to the forms and functions
prehension is akin, he said, to the experience of the sublime
of the sacred, many of which are explicitly aesthetic in char-
as described by Kant. While for Kant, however, the experi-
acter. Whether there is or could be in modernity a complete
ence of the sublime bespeaks finally the dignity of man, for
loss of the sense of the sacred is for him problematic; if such
Schleiermacher it is a key to the experience of God. In the
a loss did occur, it would be comparable to, though more
figure of Jesus as the Christ, he said, one sees exemplary God
fundamental than, the loss of aesthetic sensitivity or orienta-
consciousness or complete transparency to the divine.
tion in relation to works of art.
Rudolf Otto (1869–1937), whose Idea of the Holy
Some modern philosophers, eschewing traditional for-
(1917) decisively influenced developments in the theory of
mulations of religious faith, have found an analogue in the
religion, was himself strongly influenced by both Schleierma-
aesthetic. George Santayana (1863–1952), poet, essayist, and
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AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
49
novelist as well as professional philosopher, keyed his under-
envisagement of ideals and religious commitment to their re-
standing of verifiable knowledge to a conception of science
alizations. Indeed, Dewey argues, one may use the term God
that, he believed, portrayed the world as an insensate, me-
to express the active relation of ideal to actual. The sense of
chanical arrangement of atoms, one existing prior to human
belonging to a whole, he says in Art as Experience (1934), is
consciousness and destined to continue after human con-
“the explanation of that feeling of exquisite intelligibility and
sciousness has disappeared. Spirit is unable to rearrange the
clarity which we have in the presence of an object experi-
forces of nature basically or permanently, or to eliminate the
enced with esthetic intensity . . . it explains the religious
exigencies of life. From within the perspective of spirit, how-
feeling that accompanies intense esthetic perception. We are,
ever, persons may perceive these exigencies as necessities of
as it were, introduced into a world beyond this world which
existence and experience a transmutation of them “under the
is nevertheless the deeper reality of the world in which we
aspect of eternity.” The gifts of the spirit entail more, howev-
live in ordinary experience. We are carried beyond ourselves
er, than the passive acquiescence in fortune. Imagination
to find ourselves” (Dewey, 1934, p. 195).
may envision and affirm ideal values that become goals of
highest human aspiration and sources of endless delight,
Between 1910 and 1913, Bertrand Russell (1872–1970)
even though (or perhaps because) they are never fully incar-
and Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947) published their
nate in the realm of existence. Chief among these is beauty,
magisterial Principia Mathematica, foundational for later
which exemplifies the ideal harmony that is the good. A life
work in the logical structure of mathematics and symbolic
conducted in the presence of these ideals is eternal because
logic. Both thinkers went on to engage in philosophical in-
the ideals that thus constitute its essence are eternal. They
quiry and theory in a wide range of human concerns. White-
are not everlasting; they are timeless. Partially embodied in
head eventually sought to articulate a metaphysical-
aesthetic experience and vivified in the religious life, they
cosmological view authentic “for our cosmic era.” In the pro-
provide for human beings another world in which to live,
cess he created a special vocabulary needed for the exposition
one that celebrates the distinctively human dimension of the
of his thought. The basic ingredients of reality he called “ac-
real. Religion is poetry that guides life.
tual occasions,” “actual entities,” “events,” or “droplets of ex-
perience,” emphasizing ongoing relatedness in the process of
John Dewey (1859–1952) held a quite different under-
reality. In reality, each occasion incorporates a funding from
standing of scientific inquiry and its implications for life and
the past and an “ingression” from the future. Novelty is a fea-
society. Patterns of inquiry, beginning in doubt or problem
ture of all actual occasions, and freedom is a category. There
and moving through experiment to resolution, are not limit-
are three formative elements in the process that is reality:
ed to cognitively problematic situations in which we “do not
Creativity, God, and Eternal Objects. Creativity is a “given,”
know what to think.” They are also exhibited in morally
and it does not presuppose a Creator. Eternal Objects consti-
problematic situations, in which we “do not know what to
tute the timeless realm of infinite possibility. “God,” in
do.” The latter may be resolved through careful discrimina-
Whitehead’s term, in God’s Primordial Nature timelessly en-
tion between the temporal ends of courses of action and the
visions these Eternal Objects (cf. Santayana). Some logical
ends as goals of moral aspiration; that is, between the desired
possibilities are also ontological potentialities. God in God’s
and the desirable. We are justified, Dewey thought, in choos-
Consequent Nature is involved in the actualization of these
ing those ends that enlarge the range of possible fulfillments.
potentialities. God provides both “lure” and companionship.
The aesthetic in experience is that which makes any ex-
Whitehead entitled his major work on religion, Religion
perience an experience. In experience as aesthetic, exempli-
in the Making (1926). Religions celebrate in various ways the
fied in those experiential achievements called works of art,
mystery, awesomeness, and splendor of existence and its con-
the continuities of form and matter and of creative initiation
tinuous coming to be or realization of actual occasions in the
and aesthetic consummation are presented directly. Experi-
society of all other actual occasions in the cosmos. White-
ence as aesthetic is consummatory and a good in itself. In the
head’s frequently quoted statement that “religion is what an
creation and enjoyment of a work of art, one gains new per-
individual does with his own solitariness” (Whitehead, 1926,
spectives on and energy for the pursuit of all other forms of
p. 16) is sometimes construed to express an existentialist in-
experience. The sense of communion generated by a work
dividualism. Actually, it is his way of saying that all individu-
of art, says Dewey, may take on a definitely religious quality
als are individualizations of a reality that is inherently social,
in what one interpreter has called “the religion of shared ex-
and religion itself is always “in the making.” See below for
perience.” In aesthetic experience thus understood, nature
why Whitehead thought the future of world faiths may lie
achieves its human culmination.
between Christianity and Buddhism.
Dewey also understood the religious in experience in
Whitehead never wrote a book on aesthetics as such.
terms of adapting nature to human ends and accommodat-
Perhaps he felt that he was writing about aesthetics in nearly
ing human life to those aspects of it that cannot be changed.
everything he wrote. In his description of aesthetic experi-
In A Common Faith (1934) he describes the religious in expe-
ence he emphasized the transactional-transformative charac-
rience as expressing the deepest and most pervasive of accom-
ter and transfigurational effect of the experience. Beauty is
modations: faith as basic confidence, which may sustain the
the harmonious mutual adaptation of all of the elements of
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AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
aesthetic experience, and beauty is the one self-justifying
until these were incorporated in influential Western systems.
aim.
This does not mean, however, that profound reflection on
Martin Heidegger (1889–1976), like Whitehead,
aspects of aesthetic theory in relation to religious experience
stressed the primacy of temporality in reality. (His basic work
is not present in many classical Eastern texts. Ananda Coo-
is titled Being and Time [1927].) But for him it is simply the
maraswamy (1877–1947), a pioneer in introducing Eastern
“being-ness” of being that is foundational. He sought to re-
art and aesthetics to Western communities, incorporated
cover for philosophy that primordial sense of being that, he
many of these reflections in an original and influential theory
believed, characterized early Greek philosophy and had
that he described, in Christian and Oriental Philosophy of Art
been lost in Western philosophy by the attempt to dom-
(1956), as a “doctrine of art intrinsic to the Philosophia Per-
inate Being through the strategies of scientific inquiry and
ennis.” Its major themes, he thought, are expressed in Aristo-
various patterns of technological cultural and institutional
telian, Neoplatonic, and other philosophies foundational to
engagement.
medieval Christian thought and culture and also in Indian,
Buddhist, and Confucian classics. Central to his analysis is
Like Whitehead, he found that the articulation of his
the view that all true art is iconographic; authentic art forms
philosophy required a distinctive vocabulary. In the “tem-
and objects are to be understood as media for embodying
poralizing” of Being, Being “comes-to-light.” Dasein is
and transmitting “ideas” or spiritual meanings. Authentic ex-
“there-being,” which can question itself about its own being.
perience of a work of art requires appropriate preparation of
It is human being. But Dasein is also transparent to various
both artist and experiencer for the work and its appreciation,
modes of unconcealments, in subjectifying and objectifying
and it results in a transformation of the percipient. The su-
procedures. There are three “equiprimordial” elements in
preme achievement of individual consciousness is to lose (or
this unfolding. The first is Befindlichkeit—“feeling” or
find) itself in what is both its beginning and its end. The
“moodness.” The second is understanding—standing under
transformation of the artifact also effects the transformation
or within that which comes to light. All understanding is in-
of the artist and the percipient. The object-subject of appre-
terpretation. There is no bare uninterpreted engagement
hension is an imaged idea that moves the will and attracts
with Being. The third ingredient in Being’s coming to light
the intellect of the artist; the idea is the source of the forma-
is discursive reasoning. Dasein is both being in the world—
tion expressed in and through the work of art. Universal
being in the “worldhood” of things—and being with others.
themes and motifs or archetypes, he thought, are expressed
The “thinghood” of things is first of all the thinghood of
in varying ways in great art, whether literary, plastic, or per-
equipment—things at hand for use. Through abstraction,
formed.
use relations may become theoretical relations. Being with
others entails affirming and celebrating the otherness of oth-
Coomaraswamy’s articulation of the transactional na-
ers in their unique integrity. The ultimate future of all au-
ture of religious apprehension through aesthetic experience
thentic beings as Dasein is death. Authentic living unto death
foreshadows later interest in general “response theory.” A
courageously affirms death as finis and also death as telos—
useful and suggestive work in this area, drawing on neuropsy-
one affirms one’s completion of being in finitude. In authen-
chological and general theories of perception, is Michael Ste-
tic living, thinking is thanking.
phan’s A Transformational Theory of Aesthetics (1990). Ste-
What mode of being is a work of art? It is at one level
phan focuses on visual experience. He summarizes
a thing as equipment. Conservation is an essential element
neuropsychological-evolutionary data on the sites of sensory
of its being. But a work of art may also portray that form
information in lobes and modules of the brain and their
of being which is “thing” being. A work of art is also a kind
paths of intercommunication, and he emphasizes the princi-
of working—an artistic “creation.” The work of the artist in
pal sites of visual experience in nondiscursive areas. Icons as
all media is poiein—poetizing in a sense epitomized in Greek
unalloyed or uninterpreted visual experience are sui generis.
sensibility. In poetry Being comes to light most clearly, or
Foundational experience, however, includes affective import
as Heidegger would later say, is most clearly “heard.” Does
that gives rise to emotional response (cf. Heidegger’s Befin-
poiein, whether in linguistic or other form, have religious sig-
dlichkeit or moodness). Psychological “item response” theo-
nificance?
ries are discussed by Wim van der Linden and Ronald K.
Hambleton in Handbook of Modern Item Response Theory
If religion celebrates a sense of transcendence, there is
(1997). A principal advocate of “reader response” theory in
a sense in which others transcend self and Being transcends
literary criticism is Stanley Fish, author of Surprised by Sin:
all beings. But Being is not a being among beings, or tran-
The Reader in Paradise Lost (1998) and Is There a Text in This
scendent “Being-itself,” or a degree of being—“Higher,”
“Supreme,” or otherwise. For much of his career Heidegger
Class? (1980).
seemed to emphasize the Mystery of Being. Later he has
The ultimately Real is designated brahman in major
seemed to emphasize the mystery of Being. Many contempo-
schools of Hindu philosophy. Brahman is transspatial and
rary theologians seem to concur in this move.
transtemporal. The penultimately real is ma¯ya¯, frequently de-
EASTERN VIEWS. Eastern philosophers did not attend to the
fined as illusion, but it is as real as the realm of space and
systematic development of comprehensive aesthetic theories
time. The ultimate reality in that world is brahman as a¯tman,
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AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
51
usually defined as soul or self. The goal of human souls is
or “no ownership.” Another was the role of karma in attain-
moks:a or deliverance from the realm of ma¯ya¯ through realiza-
ing the ultimate goal of beatitude: nirva¯n:a.
tion of (making real) the identity of a¯tman and brahman.
As the Way spread, other concepts became important.
The world of ma¯ya¯ is governed by karma, the law of cause
One is that of the bodhisattva, one who has generated enough
and effect that regulates both physical and nonphysical
good karma to enter nirva¯n:a but will not do so before he or
reality.
she can be a means for all others to attain the goal. Much
In traditional Hindu culture the path to moksha leads,
of Buddhist devotional, meditational, and aesthetic practice
for souls that have been in human form for at least one life-
focuses on one of these or on enlightened masters who share
time, through four stages: studenthood, householderhood,
their teachings with disciples through various forms of disci-
forest-dweller (retreat to a life of meditation), and sam:nya¯sa,
pline.
(living in the world as one not of the world). In the house-
Major forms of such schools or sects developed in Tibet,
holder stage one should be guided by dharma (religious
China, Korea, and Japan. They range from manifestations
duty), artha (worldly welfare), and ka¯ma (sensory pleasure).
of faith to receive the grace of a bodhisattva to disciplined
The Ka¯ma-Su¯tra is the Hindu classic of forms of sexual plea-
study and practice under the guidance of a master that can
sure. Ka¯ma is an essential ingredient in the four-stage path
lead to satori or salvific enlightenment. The Chan school of
to moksha.
China, source of the Zen school of Japan, is of the latter type.
The ideal measure of ka¯ma is rasa, usually translated as
Zen practice has strongly influenced many of the arts in
“Beauty.” But rasa is an elusive concept. There are at least
China and Japan. This includes that freedom and spontane-
thirty definitions in standard Sanskrit dictionaries. It is a spe-
ity that follows release from the hegemony of “normal” con-
cific blend of specified feelings and emotions, with various
sciousness through ko¯ans whose verbal form opens the way
rasas assigned to various art forms. As in other theories dis-
to supradiscursive insight. The pursuit of such insight may
cussed above, the experience of rasa incorporates all of the
focus on complete concentration on the ingredients of a vo-
elements of aesthetic experience in a manner that is transac-
cational activity, like that of the warrior or athlete. Or em-
tional, transforming, and transfigural. May it also be a form
phasis may be on the highly ritualized restraint that should
of religious experience? The acme of experience as rasa is san-
characterize the work of the actor or other artist. The “spirit
tarasa. Santarasa, writes Eliot Deutsch, “is just that transcen-
of Zen” may be made manifest in many forms.
dental realization that is joy-ful and peaceful. It is grounded
In China, Buddhism encountered the indigenous Con-
in the Self and is realized as a kind of self-liberation”
fucian tradition, which espoused the goal of harmony be-
(Deutsch, 1975, p. 19). And ultimately “santa is silence
tween “Heaven,” humans, and earth, expressed aesthetically
. . . . The art-work in the fullness of its experience as san-
in poetry and landscape painting. The Daoist tradition em-
tarasa points to Reality and participates in it. In pure spiritu-
phasized spontaneity and paradox expressed in these media.
al experience there is only the Real. To the enlightened—but
only to the enlightened—all experience is santarasa
In Japan, Buddhism was related in a variety of ways to
(Deutsch, 1975, p. 19).
Shinto¯, the indigenous religion of the islands, which in itself
exhibits many aesthetic elements in its practices. Donald
Whitehead said that “Buddhism is the most colossal ex-
Keene has noted several terms in shared Japanese aesthetic
ample in history of applied metaphysics . . . a metaphysics
vocabulary. Aware expresses a sense of wonder at the “give-
generating a religion,” in contrast with Christianity, which
ness” of things. It also means, he says, “a gentle sorrow, ad-
is “a religion seeking a metaphysic” (Whitehead, 1926,
ding not so much a meaning as a perfume to a sentence. It
p. 50). The metaphysics of Buddhism shares many affinities
bespoke the sensitive poet’s awareness of a sight or sound,
with the metaphysics of Whitehead. Siddha¯rtha Gautama (c.
of its beauty and its perishability” (Keene, 1958, p. 72). Mi-
563–483 BCE), known as “S´a¯kyamuni”—“sage of the S´a¯kya
yabi “was applied to the quiet pleasures which could be sa-
clan,”—inherited many of the basic Hindu beliefs of his cul-
vored by (those) whose tastes had been educated to them—a
ture, which were retained as basic in Buddhism. When, as
spray of plum blossoms, the elusive perfume of a rare wood,
a scion of a noble family, he experienced major confronta-
the delicate blending of colors in a robe” (Keene, 1958,
tions with the facts of old age, disease, and death, he moved
pp. 174–175). Yugen, says Keene, “was a word used to de-
on to the stage of withdrawal for intense meditation on a
scribe the profound, the remote, the mysterious” (Keene,
Way that would transcend these features of life in ma¯ya¯. He
1958, pp. 174–175). Sabi suggested not only “the old, but
found that Way in an experience of enlightenment that made
the taking of pleasure in that which was old” (Keene, 1958,
him the exemplary Buddha—Enlightened One—and that
p. 278). It is most profoundly felt in the tea ceremony and
he shared with others, who became carriers of the Buddhist
the tea hut. It is a quality, says Keene, that is captured in
enlightenment, first to Southeast Asia, then to Central and
many brief and allusive poems called haiku. Again attention
East Asia, and eventually to other continents. In the process
is drawn to the impermanence of things. This is not be-
several themes were constant. One was the transitoriness of
moaned. As in the Buddhist Way, it is noted simply as “the
life. Another was the transitoriness of all of those elements
way things are.” This sense is further expressed in ukiyo, the
that constitute a human self, leading to a doctrine of “no self”
“floating world” of wood-block prints and of the transient
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52
AESTHETICS: PHILOSOPHICAL AESTHETICS
passions. Some followers of many religious traditions are ask-
Hegel, G. W. F. The Philosophy of Fine Art. 4 vols. Translated by
ing anew what is “floating” and what is permanent or endur-
Francis Plumptre Beresford Osmaston. London, 1920. Sets
ing in the realms of aesthetics and religion within the mul-
forth Hegel’s views of the relation of art to religion in his un-
ticultural world of globalization.
derstanding of the dialectic of Spirit.
Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Translated by John Macquar-
SEE ALSO Aristotle; Art and Religion; Beauty; Biblical Exe-
rie and Edward Robinson Jr. New York, 1962.
gesis, article on Christian Views; Icons; Images; Literature,
Heidegger, Martin. On the Way to Language. Translated by Peter
article on Literature and Religion; Plato; Platonism;
D. Hertz. New York, 1971.
Plotinus.
Heidegger, Martin. Poetry, Language, Thought. Translated by Al-
bert Hofstadter. New York, 1971.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aristotle. Works. Translated and edited by William D. Ross. Ox-
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by Norman
ford, 1910–1937. The classic translation of the relevant Aris-
Kemp Smith. New York, 1929. Presents Kant’s view of theo-
totelian materials. See especially Nichomachean Ethics and
retical knowledge.
Poetics.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason and Other Writings
Augustine. De doctrina Christiana. Translated by Thérèse Sulli-
in Moral Philosophy. Translated and edited by Lewis White
van. Washington, D.C., 1930.
Beck. Chicago, 1949. Discusses the nature and implications
of moral judgment.
Augustine. Divine Providence and the Problem of Evil. Translated
and edited by Robert P. Russell. New York, 1942. Transla-
Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Judgement. Translated by James
tion of De ordine.
Creed Meredith. Oxford, 1964. Shows how the nature of
judgment as such is exemplified in aesthetic judgment; also
Augustine. De musica, a Synopsis. Translated by W. F. Jackson
contains Kant’s treatment of the sublime.
Knight. London, 1949.
Keene, Donald. “The Vocabulary of Japanese Aesthetics I.” In
Augustine. Later Works. Edited by John Burnaby. Library of
Sources of Japanese Tradition, edited by William Theodore de
Christian Classics, vol. 8. Philadelphia, 1955. Includes De
Bary, vol. 1. New York, 1958.
Trinitate. This and the three preceding works embody the
principal themes in Augustine’s treatment of the aesthetic in
Kierkegaard, So⁄ren. A Kierkegaard Anthology. Edited by Robert
relation to beatitude.
Bretall. New York, 1959. Contains the substance of those
Bernabeo, Paul. “With Blended Might: An Investigation into
works of Kierkegaard that set forth his understanding of the
Schleiermacher’s Aesthetics and the Family Resemblance be-
relation of the aesthetic to the ethical and religious. See espe-
tween Religion and Art.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University,
cially “Stages on Life’s Way,” “Either/Or,” “Fear and Trem-
1981. The significance of Schleiermacher’s aesthetic theory
bling,” and “Concluding Unscientific Postscript.”
for his theology.
Leeuw, Gerardus van der. Phänomenologie der Religion. Tübingen,
Brown, Robert F. The Later Philosophy of Schelling. Lewisburg,
Germany, 1933. Translated by J. E. Turner as Religion in Es-
Pa., 1977.
sence and Manifestation (London, 1938; 2d ed., New York,
1963). Portrays a phenomenological approach to under-
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria. Edited by George
standing religion that exhibits many similarities to aesthetic
Watson. London, 1956. Contains Coleridge’s statements of
attitudes.
the relation of imagination to religious and aesthetic insight.
Martin, James Alfred, Jr. Beauty and Holiness. Princeton, N.J.,
Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. The Transformation of Nature in Art.
1990. Includes extended discussions of several topics dis-
Cambridge, Mass., 1934; reprint New York, 1956.
cussed in this article.
Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. Christian and Oriental Philosophy of
Niebuhr, Richard R. Schleiermacher on Christ and Religion. New
Art. New York, 1956.
York, 1964. Schleiermacher’s aesthetic theory’s significance
Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, vol. 1, Selected Pa-
for his theology.
pers. Edited by Roger Lipsey. Princeton, N.J. 1977. These
Coomaraswamy works are thoughtful analyses of aspects of
Otto, Rudolf. Das Heilige, 9th ed. Breslau, Poland, 1922. Trans-
Asian art in relation to classical Western philosophy and the-
lated by John W. Harvey as The Idea of the Holy (London
ology.
and New York, 1923; 2d ed., London and New York, 1950).
An influential theory of religion that draws heavily on analo-
Deutsch, Eliot. Studies in Comparative Aesthetics. Honolulu, 1975.
gies from aesthetics.
Dewey, John. Art as Experience. New York, 1934.
Plato. Dialogues of Plato. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Oxford,
Dewey, John. A Common Faith. New Haven, Conn., 1934. These
1871. The classic translation of the dialogues, which set forth
two Dewey works offer a naturalistic and humanistic under-
Plato’s understanding of the role of the aesthetic in philo-
standing of the relation of the aesthetic to the religious in ex-
sophical and religious truth. See especially Philebus, Phae-
perience.
drus, Ion, and Symposium.
Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in This Class? Cambridge, Mass.,
Plotinus. The Enneads. Translated by Stephen MacKenna and re-
1980.
vised by B. S. Page. New York, 1957. Contains the Neopla-
Fish, Stanley. Surprised by Sin: The Reader in Paradise Lost. Cam-
tonic formulation most influential in subsequent Jewish,
bridge, Mass., 1998.
Christian, and Muslim thought.
Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge. Translated by
Santayana, George. Interpretations of Poetry and Religion. New
A. M. Sheridan Smith. London, 1972.
York, 1911.
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AESTHETICS: VISUAL AESTHETICS
53
Santayana, George. “Reason in Art.” In The Philosophy of Santaya-
characteristics are supplemented by all kinds of knowledge,
na, edited by Irwin Edman. New York, 1942.
but since such knowledge conveys only indirect information,
Santayana, George. “Reason in Religion.” In The Philosophy of
it is less immediately effective. Images act primarily not by
Santayana, edited by Irwin Edman. New York, 1942. These
what one knows but by what strikes the eyes. They speak
works contain major statements of Santayana’s humanistic
through the properties of shape, color, space, and sometimes
and naturalistic position on art and religion.
motion. These properties are the carriers of visual dynamics,
Saxena, Sushil Kumar. Aesthetical Essays: Studies in Aesthetic Theo-
directed forces whose configurations act as symbolical equiv-
ry, Hindustani Music, and Kathak Dance. Delhi, 1981. De-
alents of the dynamics that determine one’s own mental and
scribes the emergence of aesthetics in Indian thought and its
physical existence. The expressiveness of pure form enables
relation to philosophical and religious issues.
nonrepresentational art such as architecture and “abstract”
Schelling, Friedrich. The Ages of the World. Translated by Freder-
painting or sculpture to make effective statements about
ick de Wolfe Bolman Jr. New York, 1942.
human experience.
Schelling, Friedrich. System of Transcendental Idealism. Translated
RELIGIOUS ART AND REALITY. When put at the service of
by Peter Heath. Charlottesville, Va., 1978.
religion, art favors embodiment; that is, it favors objects of
Schleiermacher, Friedrich. On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured
worship taking the shapes of physical existence, such as
Despisers. Translated by John Oman. London, 1893; abr. ed.,
human figures, animals and trees, buildings and mountains,
New York, 1955.
water and light. Not all visual images meet the conditions
Schleiermacher, Friedrich. The Christian Faith. Edited by H. R.
of art, but for reasons to be discussed later it is all but essen-
Mackintosh and J. S. Stewart. Edinburgh, 1928; reprint
tial for religious purposes that they do so. Some of the condi-
New York, 1963. These two works portray Schleiermacher’s
tions to which works of art are subject may create difficulties
aesthetic theory.
for their application toward religious ends. One such condi-
Stephan, Michael. A Transformational Theory of Aesthetics. Lon-
tion is that images, to be effective, must adhere to what may
don and New York, 1990.
be called a unitary reality status: they must share a common
“Theorists and Critics: Michel Foucault.” Available from http://
universe of discourse, whether physical or metaphysical. As
www.popcultures.com/theorists/foucault.html. A compre-
long as superhuman powers are represented as differing from
hensive survey of primary and secondary works, including
terrestrial life only by degree, there is no problem. The Ho-
digitally authored resources.
meric gods, for example, are stronger and more beautiful
Thomas Aquinas. Basic Writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas. 2 vols.
than mortals and are exempt from the laws of nature, but
Edited by Anton C. Pegis. New York, 1945. Contains the
otherwise interact with mortals at the same level. Therefore
major statements of Thomas on aesthetic themes in relation
to theology. See especially Summa Theologiae, 1.13.5, 1.16.1,
the nature and activity of these gods pose no difficulties for
1.5.4, 2.1.27.1.
the painter. The same is true for biblical subjects. Regardless
of how artist and viewer conceive the ontological status of
van der Linden, Wim J., and Ronald K. Hambleton, eds. Hand-
book of Modern Item Response Theory. New York, 1997.
God, Michelangelo’s frescoes in the Sistine Chapel can show
the creator only as a human figure, albeit one endowed with
Whitehead, Alfred North. Religion in the Making. New York,
1926.
superhuman powers.
Whitehead, Alfred North. Process and Reality. New York, 1929.
Even invisibility is no obstacle to the painter as long as
Whitehead, Alfred North. Alfred North Whitehead: A Primary-
it is represented as a phenomenon of the visible world; but
Secondary Bibliography. Edited by Barry A. Woodbridge.
if a supernatural power were to be shown as beyond the
Bowling Green, Ky., 1977.
sphere of visibility, namely as purely spiritual, the painter
J
could solve the task only by shifting the entire theme to the
AMES ALFRED MARTIN, JR. (1987 AND 2005)
spiritual realm, the qualities of which would be represented
symbolically. If, for example, the Pentecostal outpouring of
the Holy Spirit were depicted in the manner of the Italian
AESTHETICS: VISUAL AESTHETICS
futurists by stylized flames descending on a group of dark ab-
An article on the application of visual aesthetics to religion
stract shapes, this visually coherent image could work very
might be expected to concentrate on paintings and sculpture
well as a symbolical representation of an entirely spiritual
with religious subject matter as well as on architecture de-
event. A painter would be unable, however, to show the in-
signed for religious functions. Such an article, however,
teraction of a spiritual, immaterial power with a material
would duplicate a monograph on sacred art. The following
event. Marc Chagall’s Bible illustrations may be cited as an
discussion undertakes in a more general way to describe some
example of this limitation. Meyer Schapiro observes in his
basic perceptual and cognitive aspects of visual imagery and
Modern Art: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (New York,
to examine their effects on religious art. Particularly relevant
1978): “Chagall feels awe before the divinity. How can he
to this discussion are forms of art and kinds of religion not
render God, who has forbidden all images? He has given the
bound to traditional legendary subject matter.
answer in [one of his illustrations] the Creation of Man.
Visual imagery defines the things and events of the
God’s name is inscribed here in Hebrew letters in a luminous
world by their perceptual appearance. To be sure, perceptual
circle in the dark sky” (p. 130). Here the qualitative differ-
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54
AESTHETICS: VISUAL AESTHETICS
ence between the immaterial and the material would seem
prevails regardless of how much or little an artist knows
to be indicated by the insertion of a diagrammatic sign,
about the actual appearance of his or her subject. Religious
which can be understood intellectually but does not express
images can be intended as such portraits or chronicles, that
visually the nature of the divine. This inherent break in aes-
is, as representations at the same level of truthfulness as his-
thetic expression is circumvented in certain images created
torical documentation or scientific illustration; but there is
in medieval Europe and the Far East, where heaven, earth,
no telling by mere inspection in which cases this is in fact
and underworld are represented as separate entities within a
the artist’s attitude. Certainly it would be a mistake to as-
continuous picture. Interaction is sacrificed, but the visual
sume that in religious imagery the more realistic representa-
concreteness of each realm is safeguarded.
tions are necessarily the more “literally” intended ones or
that, vice versa, the more stylized and abstract images are
One can make a similar point by stating that visual im-
meant to be more remote from actual fact. An artist of the
agery does not readily accommodate a worldview that suffers
high Renaissance, for instance, may have depicted the repen-
from the modern scission between what is considered accept-
tant Mary Magdalene very realistically for the purpose of sen-
ed knowledge, especially scientific knowledge, and what is
suous enjoyment, caring very little about the truth of the
merely believed on the basis of what was held to be true in
story the work was telling; whereas certain more abstract
the past. In a work of art, everything is equally true, and all
styles, which today look remote from nature, may have
truth is known by one and the same means of visual evi-
seemed quite lifelike to their originators and may have been
dence. The angel of the Annunciation is as real as the Virgin,
inspired by a deep belief in the truthfulness of their images.
and when, in a painting by Tintoretto, Christ walks on the
waters of the Sea of Gennesaret, the walk is as real as the
Universal. It is, however, in the nature of artistic per-
water and the boat. As far as aesthetic reality is concerned,
ception that an image is seen not simply as an individual ob-
no faith is needed where there is the certainty of sight. At
ject, person, or happening, but as the representative of a
the same time no picture offers scientific proof for the truth
whole class of things, the significance of which goes beyond
of anything it shows. A painted tree is no more real than a
that of the individual. One may know the name of a gentle-
winged dragon. As a work of art, a painting or sculpture per-
man portrayed by Rembrandt, but beyond the image of the
suades only by the power of its visual presence. Thus it can
individual is seen in the painting an expression of melan-
satisfy a viewer who accepts the story as literal truth and
choly and resignation, vigilance and thought. In fact, one of
equally one who considers it purely symbolical, but it balks
the principal virtues of a great artist is the ability to handle
at combining both views in the same image. Given its per-
shapes and colors in such a way that universal validity im-
ceptual nature, visual art favors a conception of religious ex-
poses itself through the individual instance. This symbolic
perience emerging from what is accepted as factually true.
quality of images is entirely compatible with the belief in
KINDS OF AESTHETIC TRUTH. Works of art, then, call for
their historical truth. When Dante Alighieri, in his letter to
the unitary reality status of everything they show and refer
Can Grande della Scala, explains that a biblical story, such
to. That reality status, however, is not always the same. One
as that of the departure of the children of Israel, can be un-
can distinguish the following kinds.
derstood “in more senses than one,” he distinguishes the lit-
eral from the allegorical meanings. The individual story may
Iconic. What is the ontological status of an icon that
or may not be intended or understood as historical truth.
is worshiped, offered gifts and sacrifices, asked for help or in-
When such truth is excluded, the human validity of the pre-
tercession? For believers it is clearly treated as a physically ex-
sentation may be nevertheless entirely preserved. The viewer
istent power residing in their world. At the same time, the
enters the aesthetic category of fiction.
admission of an image to the world of the living is rarely the
RELIGIOUS SUBJECT MATTER. In fiction the historical truth
result of an illusion. Typically, believers are not deceived
of the subject matter is commonly considered irrelevant, or
about the reality status of the icon’s body. They know that
even an obstacle to the creative freedom of the artist. Con-
they are in the presence of an object of wood, stone, or paint-
cerning religious art there is the question of whether such an
ed canvas. A naive psychology would see here a puzzling con-
attitude toward the subject matter is acceptable. For exam-
tradiction. What counts, however, is not the biological reali-
ple, can an artist who is not a believer create a convincing
ty of the iconic entity but the power attributed to it. As the
image? (The term believer may be defined for the moment
carrier of such power, the icon is taken neither for a living
in the limited sense of someone convinced of the historical
creature nor for a mere representation of something active
truth of the depicted facts.) A telling example of an enterprise
elsewhere in time and space. It is an immediately present
that has had considerable religious and artistic success but
source of active energy.
has also stirred up much protest is that of the Church of
Historical. When an Egyptian sculptor made a portrait
Nôtre-Dame-de-Toute-Grâce at Assy, France, commis-
of Queen Nefertiti, or when Diego Velázquez depicted the
sioned by the Dominican fathers during the early 1940s. The
surrender of the Dutch city of Breda to the Spanish conquer-
story of the church, to which William S. Rubin has devoted
or in 1625, the artist was convinced that he was offering a
an extensive monograph (Modern Sacred Art and the Church
likeness of someone who was actually living or had lived, or
of Assy, New York, 1961), is complex. It involves the more
of something that actually had taken place. This conviction
general issue of popular aversion to modern art, but also the
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AESTHETICS: VISUAL AESTHETICS
55
fact that prestigious painters and sculptors, known to be
um of Modern Art in New York. Significantly, he changed
atheists, communists, or religious Jews, were called upon to
the title of his lecture to “Art and Ultimate Reality,” arguing
design a mosaic for the facade, a tapestry for the apse, a cruci-
that the quest for ultimate reality was an indispensable aspect
fix, and other decorations. None of the artists testified to any
of religion and also the aim of all true art. He proceeded to
particular difficulty with the religious subject matter, nor did
describe five types of stylistic elements that he considered ex-
they feel that the task differed in principle from the secular
pressive of ultimate reality—a survey suggesting the general-
work to which they were accustomed. It seems safe to assume
ization that any artistic attitude whatever can meet the crite-
that the religious subject matter to which the artists commit-
rion, provided the work attains the depth that goes with
ted themselves, the Apocalypse, the Crucifixion, the Virgin
aesthetic excellence. In the discussion following his lecture
of the litany, and so forth, exerted upon them the evocative
Tillich was willing to conclude that “ultimate reality appears
power that inheres in any great subject, whatever its origin.
in what is usually called secular painting, and the difference
The impact of the universally human dimensions of the sub-
of what is usually called religious painting is real only insofar
jects upon the artists may account for the more specifically
as so-called religious painting deals with the traditional sub-
religious effectiveness of their contributions.
ject matters which have appeared in the different religious
traditions” (Cross Currents, 1960).
In a more general sense this episode raises the question
of whether visual images can ever be called religious when
Even when such a thesis is accepted in a general way,
they lack the traditional subject matter of any particular
it seems evident that certain kinds of secular subjects are
creed. One thinks immediately of representations of nature
more congenial to common forms of the religious attitude
that are intended to testify to the existence and qualities of
than others. Thus images of nature point more readily to su-
its creator. When Augustine in his Confessions (10.6) inquires
pernatural powers beyond the objects of physical appearance
about the nature of God, he reports:
than do images of the works of man. More generic views do
I asked the earth; and it answered, “I am not he”; and
better as religious images than those of specific things or epi-
whatsoever are therein made the same confession. I
sodes. Stylized presentations can more readily transcend in-
asked the sea and the deeps, and the creeping things
dividuality on the way to ultimate reality than realistic ones,
that lived, and they replied, “We are not thy God, seek
and this makes a Byzantine mosaic look more religious than
higher than we.” I asked the breezy air, and the univer-
a naturalistic photograph.
sal air with its inhabitants answered, “Anaximenes was
deceived, I am not God.” I asked the heavens, the sun,
The extreme case is that of nonfigurative art, where ab-
moon, and stars: “Neither,” say they, “are we the God
straction reaches a maximum. The predicament of abstract
whom thou seekest.” And I answered unto all these
art, however, has been, from the beginning, that although it
things which stand about the door of my flesh, “Ye have
may claim, as the painter Piet Mondrian did, that it repre-
told me concerning my God, that ye are not he; tell me
sents ultimate reality more directly than other kinds of art,
something about him.” And with a loud voice they ex-
its relation to concrete experience becomes so tenuous that
claimed, “He has made us.” My questioning was my ob-
it risks proclaiming everything and nothing. For example,
serving of them; and their beauty was their reply.
Fernand Léger, in 1952, decorated the side walls of the Unit-
The things of nature give their answer to Augustine’s ques-
ed Nations Assembly Hall in New York with large abstrac-
tion through their “beauty” (species). When one views a
tions; his two gigantic tentacled clusters might well convey
painted landscape by Altdorfer or Rubens or Sesshu¯, one may
the sense of consolidated forces, but this very generic mean-
note such qualities as power, inexhaustible abundance, vari-
ing can be channeled into a more specific application only
ety, order, ingenuity, and mystery. The greater the artist, the
with the help of the architectural setting and its known sig-
more compellingly does he or she present the objects of na-
nificance.
ture as embodiments of these virtues. What the artist cannot
The limitations of nonfigurative imagery are reinforced
do, however, is give them the voice by which Augustine
when the absence of narrative subject matter is combined
heard them answer: “He made us.” A landscape cannot do
with an ascetic parsimony of form. The grids of the late work
in a painting what it does in Augustine’s verbal invocation;
of Mondrian were threatened by a discrepancy between what
visually, cause and effect can be shown only as acting within
was intended and what was achieved. When the form is even
the realm of the forces of nature themselves, as when in a ro-
more severely reduced while the suggested subject becomes
mantic landscape a cataract smashes against boulders or
more specific. An extreme case is that of the fourteen Stations
when a blacksmith is seen striking the glowing iron. To be
of the Cross painted around 1960 by the American artist Bar-
sure, images can be used superbly to illustrate the belief in
nett Newman. These paintings, limited essentially to one or
a creator, as Augustine does with his enumeration of the
two vertical stripes on a plain background, tend to transcend
things of nature, but the belief must be brought to the images
the boundary between the pictorial and the diagrammat-
as an interpretation; it is not pronounced by the images
ic—a distinction of considerable relevance for the problems
themselves.
of religious imagery. A diagram is a visual symbol of an idea
In 1959 the Protestant theologian Paul Tillich was in-
or set of facts. It often reflects some essential property of its
vited to lecture on the topic “Art and Religion” at the Muse-
subject; but although it can evoke powerful emotions in the
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56
AFFLICTION: AN OVERVIEW
viewer—as when someone contemplates a chart depicting
SEE ALSO Architecture; Art and Religion; Human Body;
the increase of nuclear warheads—it does not create these ex-
Iconography.
periences through its own formal expression. It merely con-
veys information. Something similar is true for traditional
BIBLIOGRAPHY
signs, such as the national flag, the cross, or the star of David.
On the religious attitude of artists see, for example, Edgar Wind’s
They, too, can release powerful responses, which are based
article “Traditional Religion and Modern Art: Rouault and
on empirical association, not on the visual expression inher-
Matisse” in his The Eloquence of Symbols (Oxford, 1983).
ent in the image.
Vincent van Gogh in an often-cited letter of December 1889
to Émile Bernard discusses the use of religious subject mat-
AESTHETIC AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE. The distinction
ter, a topic interpreted in its broader context by Meyer
between mere factual information, as given for example in
Schapiro in a paper “On a Painting of van Gogh,” contained
scientific illustrations, and aesthetic expression points at the
in his Modern Art: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (New
same time to one of two fundamental similarities between
York, 1978), pp. 87–99. Explicit references to “ultimate real-
aesthetic and religious experience. It is generally acknowl-
ity” occur in the writings of Piet Mondrian found in Plastic
edged that for a religious person it does not suffice to accept
Art and Pure Plastic Art (New York, 1945).
certain facts, such as the existence of God, but that the forces
For the more general aspects of visual symbolism see, for example,
asserted to exist must be sensed as reverberating in the believ-
Margaret Miles’s “Vision: The Eye of the Body and the Eye
er’s own mind, so that when, for example, in the Book of Job,
of the Mind in St. Augustine’s De Trinitate and Confessions,
the Lord answers out of the whirlwind, the reader of the
Journal of Religion 63 (April 1983): 125–142. I have also ap-
Bible is to be overcome by the greatness of the creation. This
proached these issues in Visual Thinking (Berkeley, 1969),
heightening of information into religious experience, howev-
the chapters on “Art and Thought” and on “Models for The-
ory”; the essay “The Robin and the Saint,” in Toward a Psy-
er, is strongly aided by the poetry of the biblical language.
chology of Art (Berkeley, 1966); and the chapter “Symbols
It does not differ in principle from what distinguishes secular
through Dynamics,” in The Dynamics of Architectural Form
aesthetic experience from the mere conveyance of factual
(Berkeley, 1977).
knowledge. One may learn all there is to learn about Picas-
so’s response to the Spanish Civil War in his painting Guer-
RUDOLF ARNHEIM (1987)
nica and yet never experience the painting as a work of art,
unless the forces of suffering, brutality, resistance, and hope
come alive in the viewer’s own consciousness. For this reason
AFFLICTION
the purpose of religious art can be greatly enhanced when the
This entry consists of the following articles:
images are of high artistic quality and thereby carry intense
AN OVERVIEW
expression.
AFRICAN CULTS OF AFFLICTION
But is there really no difference between aesthetic and
religious experience? Is it not essential for religiosity that ex-
AFFLICTION: AN OVERVIEW
periencing the nature of the world into which one is born
Men, but more so women, have frequently viewed them-
leads to a corresponding conduct of worship, of living in
selves as the victims of unsolicited and malevolent attention
conformity with the demands revealed by that experience?
from the spirit world. Sometimes such affliction is thought
In comparison, aesthetic contemplation may seem to be
to come out of the blue or to result from some quite trivial
mere passive reception. Such a view of aesthetic behavior,
misdemeanor. More often it is thought to result from dis-
however, is too narrow. First of all, the very fact of artistic
putes or transgressions committed by the victim or by a rela-
creation is the artist’s way of placing his or her most impor-
tive. The outward signs of affliction are not uniform or obvi-
tant behavior, a life’s work, actively into the context of the
ous. They range from grossly stigmatizing conditions such
world he or she experiences. The art historian Kurt Badt, re-
as leprosy or madness, through trance, to a subjective malaise
calling Ruskin and Nietzsche, has defined the activity of the
or a feeling that one has not received one’s just deserts. The
artist as “Feiern durch Rühmung,” that is, as celebration
mechanics of attack vary. Some victims are able to describe
through praise (Kunsthistorische Versuche, Cologne, 1968).
the details of the method of attack with great precision. Oth-
Such a definition does not turn art into religion, but it high-
ers show no interest either in the reason for attack or in the
lights the affinity of the two.
method deployed. In the course of fieldwork in Maharashtra
In an even broader sense, no reception of a work of art
this author was told, “We are all laymen where witchcraft is
is complete unless the viewer feels impelled to live up to the
concerned.” In other words, no one likes to admit to a famil-
intensity, purity, and wisdom of outlook reflected in it. This
iarity with the techniques of witchcraft for fear of being sus-
demand to emulate the nobility of the work of art by one’s
pected a witch oneself.
own attitude toward the world was strikingly expressed by
Affliction is thought to be the result of human agency
the poet Rainer Maria Rilke when he celebrated the beautiful
in some cases, divine in others. Under the rubric of divine
forms of an Archaic marble torso of Apollo. He followed his
agency lies a whole gamut of gods and spirits who are
description abruptly with the admonition “Du musst dein
thought to take an interest in human affairs. The divine
Leben ändern” (“You must change your life”).
agents who interfere and cause damage in human lives have
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AFFLICTION: AN OVERVIEW
57
been described as peripheral to the central religious concerns
ness and leprosy widely so. Other symptoms are not so easy
of the society in question. This nomenclature is more fully
to place. In some societies categorization is made easier by
discussed by I. M. Lewis in Ecstatic Religion (1971). Chil-
immediate recourse to a healer who makes the diagnosis on
dren’s ailments in particular tend to be attributed to posses-
behalf of the patient. In Nepal, for instance, the bulk of the
sion by a deity. In Nepal, for instance, there are three deities,
population initially consult a healer in order to determine the
Hartimata, Bhat Bhateni, and Swayambuth, whose special
causation of symptoms and to ascertain whether consultation
sphere of interest and activity is the diseases of children. In
with a medical doctor would be appropriate. The healer will
India smallpox is commonly attributed to the Hindu god-
determine whether or not the illness is likely to respond to
desses Sitala and (in some regions) Chechak. In such cases
Western medicine and, if so, when would be an auspicious
it is important to identify the deity responsible for illness or
time to consult the doctor. Failure to consult at a proper time
misfortune in order that he or she may be appeased and fur-
and day may jeopardize one’s chances of recovery. In prac-
ther damage averted. This is not the case where the afflicting
tice, once the healer is consulted, few patients are turned
agent is a spirit: in such instances victims and their families
away, as the healer’s province of practice is all-embracing.
express a relative indifference concerning the exact identity
Where the individual alone assesses the etiology of his or her
of their adversary.
illness, criteria for distinguishing spiritually caused from nat-
urally caused illness are less clear-cut. Spiritual affliction is
More often, however, affliction is thought to result from
suspected if Western medicine and treatment fail to make
the malevolent machinations of another human being. This
one better, or even make one worse. Sometimes the quality
involves either capturing a spirit and directing it to possess
of a pain has a distinctive and unusual flavor that raises in-
the victim or else attacking the victim less circuitously by
stant suspicions in the patient’s mind. Respondents are hard
magical means. In either event the afflicted feels circum-
put to describe the precise quality of this distinctiveness,
scribed by malice. Social anthropologists have often advocat-
however confident they themselves may be of identifying it
ed a distinction between sorcery and witchcraft. The basis
correctly. In other cases it may be the circumstances, such
for the alleged distinction is that sorcery involves some physi-
as an earlier dispute or envious comments, that alert the pa-
cal manipulations and its efficacy depends upon learning the
tient to the possibility of a nonnatural causation of his illness.
appropriate skills or techniques to achieve its ends, whereas
In Nepal, among people who make use of both traditional
witchcraft depends upon the possession of appropriate pow-
healers and of doctors, there is a tendency to take routine ail-
ers that transform malevolent desires into reality. (For a fuller
ments such as fevers and diarrhea to the doctor and more un-
discussion of this distinction see Middleton and Winter,
usual or serious complaints to healers. Quite how such treat-
1963.) In practice this distinction appears to be more impor-
ment choices are made remains to be studied.
tant to anthropologists than to those who bear the brunt of
attack by witchcraft or sorcery. Far more important in terms
It is widely held, but only partially true, that the spiritu-
of the severity of the illness, its prognosis, treatment options,
ally afflicted are predominantly women. Informants them-
and eventual outcome is the source of the affliction—in
selves, both women and men, readily acknowledge that
other words, whether it has been wrought by divine or
women are more vulnerable to spirit possession. Most often
human agency. It is widely held that where the afflicting
reference is made to women’s alleged lack of willpower and
power is of human origin the illness is of a more serious na-
alleged emotional liability. Frequently, mention is made of
ture and less amenable to treatment, whereas illnesses of di-
the greater risks run by women during menstruation. At such
vine origin on the whole respond more readily to treatment.
times women are held to be more vulnerable to attack by
The idea that humans are less tractable and less persuadable
spirits. Members of the spirit possession and healing cults of
than gods may seem strange from a Western perspective.
northeast Africa described by Lewis (1971) are, indeed, al-
However, whereas a dialogue can be initiated with a possess-
most exclusively female. Lewis has been most explicit and in-
ing spirit, witchcraft represents an irredeemable breakdown
fluential in his exposition of a specific epidemiology peculiar
of human relationships: One may plead with the gods but
to spirit possession. Briefly, he argues that deprived women
not with an angry relative. In Maharashtra women who have
in a harshly repressive masculine culture succumb to spirit
lost status through, for example, divorce or barrenness inter-
possession, particularly if they are embroiled in some person-
pret their plight in terms of attack by witchcraft. This obser-
al dispute with their husbands. However, there is danger in
vation appears to be borne out by literature from other parts
extrapolating from these zar cults of Muslim societies to
of the world: Where society fails to care for an individual in
healing cults in other parts of the world.
the sense of allocating him or her a proper place, there witch-
craft is held responsible for the stigmatized circumstances of
Much of the literature in this area has concerned itself
the individual.
with an interpretation of the healer’s art and an exegesis of
the symbolism of healing rituals. For example, Larry Peters’s
How is spiritual affliction identified and distinguished
Ecstasy and Healing in Nepal (1981) provides a uniquely liter-
from natural illness? In some societies certain conditions are
al interpretation of participant observation and is written
synonymous with spiritual affliction. For example, trance is
from the perspective of a shaman’s apprentice in the Kath-
well-nigh universally held to have a spiritual etiology, mad-
mandu Valley. As such it provides an extraordinary account
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58
AFFLICTION: AN OVERVIEW
of shamanistic theory and practice but conveys predictably
of the sufferer’s affliction was witchcraft (karni) or possession
little information on the healer’s clientele. Bruce Kapferer’s
by a spirit (bhu¯t). This malevolent power was directed at the
study (1983) of demon possession in southern Sri Lanka
whole family because of some dispute, rivalry, or envy, and
likewise demonstrates through analysis of symbols why heal-
the son or husband was seen as happening to be its unfortu-
ing rituals may be therapeutically efficacious. A study by the
nate victim. It was thought that the original affliction might
Indian psychoanalyst Sudhir Kakar (1982) suggests that
be deflected away from the first victim if the mother or some
while most of the patients afflicted by bhu¯t (spirit) at a heal-
other person took over the burden of illness and that, since
ing temple in Rajasthan were young women, affliction tend-
the family was the target of attack, any one member could
ed to shift between different family members. In other
substitute for another. While this belief augured well for the
words, the original affliction may well have affected a male
prognosis of individual affliction, it meant also that the indi-
member of the family and may then have been transferred
vidual’s cure in no way signified an end to family distress.
to a woman in the course of her caring for the patient. Simi-
Informants cited patterns of family illness in support of this
larly, studies of illness behavior in England show that women
interpretation wherein affliction assumed a hydra-headed
take on the burden of care and support for the sick.This au-
quality striking different members of the family in different
thor’s study of a healing temple in Maharashtra (Skultans,
ways. Sometimes one person, most often a woman, would
1986) finds that women attended the temple in gratitude for
pray that the burden of family affliction be transferred to her.
past cures, in lieu of another family member, or to accompa-
If and when her prayers were thought to be answered she
ny an afflicted person. Some women who were themselves
would begin to experience trance regularly and to decline
afflicted came unaccompanied. All of these cases contributed
into chronic ill health. Thus female sacrifice plays a central
toward creating a female majority. Similarly, in an earlier
role in the maintenance of family health. A significant feature
study of Welsh spiritualists (Skultans, 1974), this author
of this theory of affliction is the shared concern and responsi-
found that although the spiritually afflicted were for the most
bility it generates for conditions that might otherwise be per-
part women, the problems that beset them were common to
ceived as extremely annoying. Typically a number of courses
the family. It seems, therefore, that the afflicted are giving
of action are open to the afflicted, which can be grouped
voice to wider problems that beset the entire family.
under the categories of community care and specialist care.
Affliction is most often a family affair or even a commu-
COMMUNITY CARE. The afflicted person may join a commu-
nity affair. Its social structure is superbly described in John
nity or cult of the afflicted. Here the emphasis is on learning
M. Janzen’s highly esteemed account The Quest for Therapy
to accommodate the affliction rather than removing it.
in Lower Zaire (1978). The family is important in managing
Where the affliction involves trance, this means regularizing
the patient and his affliction (Janzen uses the term therapy
the times of trancing. The affliction is thus transformed from
managing group) and is also implicated in the causation of
a sudden, unintelligible outburst into a routine and usually
the affliction. The affliction is thus seen as being in large part
mild handicap carrying with it a number of secondary bene-
the responsibility of family and community. While the onus
fits. Foremost among these is the companionship of the simi-
for making major treatment decisions lies with the kin thera-
larly afflicted. Such communities do not usually offer special-
py group, so does the obligation to resolve interpersonal con-
ist treatment, but they are run by veterans who have
themselves experienced and learned to live with the full spec-
flicts and rivalries within the group. It has become well-nigh
trum of affliction. Indeed, cults of affliction share many of
a truism that illness—spiritual affliction in particular—
the features of Western forms of group therapy.
provides an opportunity for demonstrating social solidarity
through a reassertion of mutual loyalties and common val-
SPECIALIST CARE. From a treatment perspective, healers can
ues, and most studies appear to bear this theory out. The very
be categorized according to the amount of time they are able
act of reintegrating the afflicted individual into his social
to devote to individual cases. Some healing rituals are lengthy
group serves as a reminder of the group’s identity.
affairs spanning several days. Social anthropologists have
demonstrated the therapeutic goal, if not the effect, of such
In the course of fieldwork for a Maharashtrian study the
rituals. An important ingredient of all such rituals is the sym-
author of this article uncovered a complex web of family in-
bolic representation of internal conflicts and the process of
volvement. Although initially one particular family member
their resolution; the rituals thus come to symbolize the newly
would be singled out as in need of help, it would soon be
reconstituted self. They are public and involve a large audi-
found that the entire family was afflicted. The typical pattern
ence. Such demonic healing rituals have been particularly
of affliction developed thus: Mothers, or sometimes wives,
well described by Kapferer in the study already cited.
would bring their psychotic or mentally handicapped sons
or husbands to the temple. A short while after arrival the pa-
Most often, however, the confrontation between healer
tient’s chief caretaker, usually the mother, would start going
and afflicted is of a more fleeting and less intense nature.
into a state of trance. Such trance was seen as a diagnostic
Healers who have acquired a reputation for the successful
tool whereby a dialogue could be initiated with the possess-
management of the afflicted attract a huge clientele. The
ing spirit that would provide information concerning the na-
more popular a healer becomes, the less time he is able to
ture of the illness. Trance invariably revealed that the source
devote to any one patient. This results in the paradoxical sit-
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AFFLICTION: AN OVERVIEW
59
uation that the elaborate healing rituals described in loving
SEE ALSO Exorcism; Healing and Medicine; Spirit Posses-
detail by social anthropologists are carried out by those heal-
sion; Witchcraft.
ers who have relatively few patients. Such time constraints
on treatment are evident in Arthur Kleinman’s description
BIBLIOGRAPHY
of the practice of a popular Taiwanese shaman (Kleinman
Frank, Jerome D. Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of
and Sung, 1979). This shaman is described as spending an
Psychotherapy. Baltimore, 1961.
average of five minutes with each patient and only two min-
Henry, Edward O. “A North Indian Healer and the Source of His
utes on busy nights. No doubt such restrictions on consulta-
Power.” Social Science and Medicine 11 (1977): 309–317.
tion time inhibit the performance of healing rituals. Thus,
Hitchcock, John T., and Rex L. Jones, eds. Spirit Possession in the
it seems, the price one pays for consultation with a presti-
Nepal Himalayas. New Delhi, 1976.
gious healer is the whittling away of healing rituals. Howev-
Janzen, John M. The Quest for Therapy in Lower Zaire. Berkeley,
er, the abbreviation and attenuation of contact between heal-
Calif., 1978.
er and patient do not appear to diminish the popularity of
Kakar, Sudhir. Shamans, Mystics, and Doctors: A Psychological In-
the healers or, indeed, their reputation for success in curing
quiry into India and Its Healing Traditions. New York, 1982.
affliction. Perhaps, therefore, the power to alleviate the afflic-
Kapferer, Bruce. A Celebration of Demons: Exorcism and the Aes-
tion lies as much in the circumstances surrounding the con-
thetics of Healing in Sri Lanka. Bloomington, Ind., 1983.
sultation as in the actual consultation itself. Family support
Kleinman, Arthur, and Liliash Sung. “Why Do Indigenous Practi-
for the victim, as well as an explanation of the affliction that
tioners Successfully Heal?” Social Science and Medicine 13
lays the burden of responsibility on the family rather than
(1979): 7–26.
the individual, may play a part in the recovery of the patient.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. Structural Anthropology. 2 vols. Translated
by Claire Jacobson and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf. New
Psychiatrists have suggested various explanations of
York, 1963.
trance (the most frequent manifestation of affliction), but
Lewis, I. M. Ecstatic Religion: An Anthropological Study of Spirit
none is entirely satisfactory. The most commonly held view,
Possession and Shamanism. Harmondsworth, U.K., 1971.
derived from Freud, is that trance is akin to hysteria, a view
Middleton, John, and E. H. Winter, eds. Witchcraft and Sorcery
that unwittingly reinforces the stereotype of trance as a fe-
in East Africa. London, 1963.
male affliction. Freud himself made the much-publicized
Obeyesekere, Gananath. “The Ritual Drama of the Sanni De-
claim that he had restored dignity to patients who would in
mons: Collective Representations of Disease in Ceylon.”
an earlier age have been branded as possessed by the devil.
Comparative Studies in Society and History 11 (1969):
Certainly, there are similarities between the clinical descrip-
174–216.
tion given of the convulsive attacks of hysterical patients and
Peters, Larry. Ecstasy and Healing in Nepal. Malibu, Calif., 1981.
the behavior of people in certain kinds of trance. The anes-
Skultans, Vieda. Intimacy and Ritual: A Study of Spiritualism, Me-
thesia of hysterics and the occurrence of anesthetic and non-
diums and Groups. London, 1974.
bleeding areas on alleged witches provide a further point of
Skultans, Vieda. “Psychiatric Community Care: A Maharasthrian
similarity. Jung views neuroses and possession states as shar-
Example.” Psychological Medicine 16 (1986): 499–502.
ing a common etiology, namely, moral conflict, which he
New Sources
claims derives from the impossibility of affirming the whole
Albl, Martin C. “‘Are Any among You Sick?’ The Health Care
of one’s nature. This state then gives rise either to symptoms
System in the Letter of James.” Journal of Biblical Literature
that are in some sense foreign to the self or to possession by
121, no. 1 (2002): 123–143.
a foreign being. Both conditions involve an inability to ex-
van Dijk, R. A., R. Reis, and M. Spierenburg. The Quest for Fru-
press an essential part of oneself, which is thereupon sup-
ition Through Ngoma: Political Aspects of Healing in Southern
pressed and which demands alternative expression. The rudi-
Africa. Athens, Ohio, 2000.
ments of this psychoanalytic approach to possession and
Dwyer, G. The Divine and the Demonic: Supernatural Affliction
trance have become incorporated into many later accounts.
and Its Treatment in North India. New York, 2003.
However, while having considerable explanatory power, such
Hakuin Ekaku, and Norman Waddell. “Hakuin’s Yasenkanna.”
approaches fail to take into account the element of learning
Eastern Buddhist 34, no. 1 (2002): 79–119.
in trancing behavior. In many contexts trance is viewed in
Hatamilah, M. A. Al-Andalus: al-Tarikh wa-al-Hadarah wa-al-
a positive, beneficial light and is consciously sought after.
Mihnah: Dirasah shamilah. Amman, Jordan, 2000.
Nichols, Terence L. “Miracles in Science and Theology.” Zygon
Affliction has a variety of meanings. It may signal the
37, no. 3 (2002): 703–715.
start of a career as a religious specialist. It may usher in an
Piper, J. “The Hidden Smile of God: The Fruit of Affliction in
entirely different lifestyle as a member of a cult of the afflict-
the Lives of John Bunyan, William Cowper, and David
ed. It may entail a round of consultations with various spe-
Brainerd.” In The Swans Are not Silent, edited by J. Piper,
cialists who may or may not be able to lift the affliction. Or
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it may simply be a marker for one of the expected ailments
VIEDA SKULTANS (1987)
of childhood or hazards of later life.
Revised Bibliography
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60
AFFLICTION: AFRICAN CULTS OF AFFLICTION
AFFLICTION: AFRICAN CULTS OF
region, the historic state of Monomotapa; and more recently,
AFFLICTION
in the early nineteenth century, the Zulu empire and the
An important feature of African religions, both historically
Tswana chiefdoms, and the Sotho kingdom in the southern
and in the twenty-first century, has been the interpretation
Africa area, associated with the great disturbances known as
of adversity within the framework of cults, or specialized
the Mfecane.
therapeutic communities. Although cults concerned with af-
Cults of affliction have related dynamically to these
fliction and healing are widespread on the continent, the
states, either by having been brought under the tutelage of
technical term cults of affliction has been used in scholarship
government and serving to legitimate it as a sovereign power,
specifically to describe the healing cults found among the
or by serving to preserve segments of society not directly re-
Bantu-speaking peoples of central and southern Africa. The
lated to the state. In the absence of the state, cults of afflic-
two major criteria of such cults are spirit possession and the
tion have provided a format for the perpetuation of such
initiation of the afflicted person into the cult. These cults
marginalized or afflicted social groups as women, the handi-
have also been called “drums of affliction” because of the sig-
capped, and those struck with misfortune in economy-
nificance in their rituals of drums and rhythmic song danc-
related tasks such as hunting. They are also expressly con-
ing, both termed ngoma (“drum”), over a wide area. Also im-
cerned with women’s fertility and commerce. In some set-
portant in this context is the elongated ngoma-type single-
tings, the model of the cult has provided the basis for
membrane drum, which plays a central role in rituals
normative social authority, the definition and organization
throughout the region. The importance of the drum to these
of economic activity, social organization, and more esoteric
cults can be related to the fact that the drumming is consid-
religious and artistic activities.
ered to be the voice or influence of the ancestral shades and
other spirits who possess the sufferer and also provide
In colonial and postcolonial Africa, the use of affliction
treatment.
and adversity to organize social reproduction has contributed
SOCIETIES, HISTORY, AND THERAPEUTICS. Societies from
to the perpetuation (even the proliferation) of cults of afflic-
the equator down to the Drakensberg Mountains and the
tion, often in a way that has baffled governmental authorities
Kalahari Desert in the south use many of the same terms and
and outside observers. Cults have arisen in connection with
concepts to describe their cultural life (particularly in its reli-
epidemics, migration and trade routes, and shifts in modes
gious and therapeutic aspects), including terms for sickness,
of production. They have also emerged in response to
health, and disease etiologies (especially prevalent is the no-
changes in social organization and the deterioration of insti-
tion that “words” or an ill will may cause sickness and misfor-
tutions of justice. Colonialism itself generated many of the
tune). Equally common to these societies are various thera-
cults of affliction appearing in the twentieth-century litera-
peutic techniques and materials, terms for the ancestors, and
ture on the subject.
the concept of ngoma as it relates to song-dance communities
The cults of affliction have provided African societies
and therapies. These shared characteristics occur in spite of
with a far more pervasive concept of disease and health than
much local and regional adaptation to a broad range of cli-
that which has prevailed in the Western world. Before pre-
mates, widely divergent political and economic formations
senting examples of the distribution of cults of affliction in
and colonial experiences during the seventeenth to twentieth
several societies, it is necessary to further describe their un-
centuries, as well as diverse responses to various diseases and
derlying common features.
stressful environments.
COMMON FEATURES AND VARIATIONS. Beneath the diversity
Many of the societies of the subcontinent were lineage-
of cults of affliction there is a characteristic worldview re-
based agrarian communities, practicing some hunting and,
garding misfortune and how it can be classified and dealt
in regions where the sleeping-sickness-carrying tsetse fly is
with. Adversities that are regarded to be in the natural order
absent, livestock tending. Especially in coastal regions, com-
of things are handled through the use of straightforward,
mercial cities have emerged, linking the continent to overseas
often individual and private remedies, techniques, and inter-
mercantile centers. The region includes southern savanna
ventions. Extraordinary adversities, or those that are attribut-
matrilineal societies such as the Kongo, Lunda, Chokwe,
ed to human or spiritual forces, can only be dealt with by
Kimbundu, and Bemba of the Democratic Republic of the
placating these forces or by intervening in the spiritual realm.
Congo, Angola, Zambia, and Malawi; patrilineal societies
Rather than everyday problems, cults of affliction address
such as the Luba, Lozi, Nyamwezi, and others of the central
this second level of adversity. A hunter’s chronic failure to
region; and in the southern region, the Shona, Sotho, and
find game, an employee’s chronic loss of a job or failure to
Tswana and the nearby Nguni-speaking societies of the
find one, accidents that occur despite taking every precau-
Zulu, Swazi, and Xhosa. Numerous precolonial states and
tion, and misfortune juxtaposed with social conflict are all
empires existed in the subcontinent, including the cluster of
examples of extraordinary adversities.
states of the Luba, Lunda, Kimbundu, and Chokwe; on the
western coast, the Kongo, Loango, Kakongo, and Ngoyo
The worldview that inspires cults of affliction includes
states; the states of the eastern lakes, Kitara, Busoga, Buny-
as an axiom the idea that ancestral shades and spirits, ulti-
oro, Buganda, and, eastward, Nyamwezi; in the Zimbabwe
mately expressions of the power of God, may influence and
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AFFLICTION: AFRICAN CULTS OF AFFLICTION
61
intervene in human affairs. The shades may either be direct,
cially women, who carry the burden of being single-parent
identifiable lineal ancestors or more generic “human” spirits.
household heads.
Other spirits of the central and southern African pantheon
may include more distant nature spirits, hero spirits, or alien
The cults of affliction are concerned with problems and
spirits that affect human events in varying ways. Old as well
responses that go well beyond trying to provide an alternative
as new knowledge tends to be related to the shade and spirit
community when kin relations are in disarray. An important
forces, as events are interpreted and adversities dealt with.
function of all the cults is the intellectual, analytical, and di-
Thus, as common social problems increasingly occur outside
agnostic evaluation of the nature of life and the reasons for
the domestic community, there has been a tendency for lin-
misfortune. In this connection, distinction is often drawn be-
eal ancestors to be supplanted by more generalized spirit
tween divination, the intellectual analysis of a situation, and
forces in cults of affliction.
ritual therapy, the attempt to intervene in the situation to
change it. This distinction accounts for some of the diversity
Therapeutic attention to affliction, through the form of
of affliction cult types, for where social change is intense, the
cults, often entails the initiation of the afflicted individual
need for cognitive clarity increases. Thus, in eighteenth-
into membership in the cult, ideally resulting in his or her
century coastal Kongo, during the decline of the kingdoms
elevation to the status of priest or healer in the group.
of the area and with the increase of trade, including the slave
Whether or not this happens (there are many “dropouts” in
trade, divination cults—particularly those related to adjudi-
cults of affliction) depends on the novice’s progress through
cation and conflict resolution—were extremely abundant. In
early stages of therapy and counseling, on his or her econom-
southern Africa today, the term ngoma is often identified
ic means, and the extent to which the cult’s resources are
with divination because of the pressing need for analysis and
controlled by an elite (where they are controlled, access is re-
interpretation of life in a region adversely affected by apart-
stricted). Throughout the wider cult of affliction region, ini-
heid. Closer examination, however, shows that the functions
tiation is marked by two distinct stages: an initial therapeutic
of divination and network building are complementary, with
neutralization of the affliction, and, if the novice progresses
both usually present in varying degrees and ways.
through counseling and further therapy, a second stage, a
graduation to the status of fully qualified priest, healer, or
Divination, or diagnosis, always accompanies cults of af-
professional.
fliction, either independently of the healing role or as a part
of the specialized techniques and paraphernalia of a particu-
The efficacy of the therapy, regardless of its specific
lar cult. Divination must be thought of as a continual query-
techniques, is partly assured because of the support given by
ing of the whys, whos, and wherefores begun in the family
the community of the fellow afflicted, who may or may not
setting in the face of misfortune, but carried through by spe-
be the sufferer’s kin. In most instances of prolonged sickness
cialists with expert judgment and training. These specialists
in African societies the diagnosis and decisions relating to the
may have had their own profound individual dilemmas or
course of therapy—the “quest for therapy”—are in the hands
have been recruited to a particular mode of ritual life or been
of a lay managing group made up of kin. In the cases that
initiated and trained to deal with the spirit world. As a tech-
come into the orbit of cults of affliction, the support com-
nique, divination may be based on a mechanistic system of
munity broadens to include the cult members. The quality
signs and interpretations, such as the southern savanna ngom-
of support shifts from ad hoc aid from kin to a permanent
bo basket, which is filled with symbolic objects signifying
involvement with a network in the initiate-novice’s life, cor-
human life, the bone-throwing technique of southern Afri-
responding to the long-term involvement of the individual
can Nguni society, or the recital of scriptures from the Bible
with the affliction, or as a healer-priest over it.
or the QurDa¯n. Alternatively, divination involves direct re-
course to possession, in which the diviner, as medium, speaks
Some cults of affliction, such as Nkita among the Kongo
the words of the ancestral shade or spirit in answer to the
of the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the
query. Recent observers suggest that this form of divination
Congo, are situated within lineages. Nkita responds to the
is on the increase. Some diviners, however, use a combina-
unique circumstances and symptoms of lineage segmenta-
tion of both techniques. In any case, these divined diagnoses,
tion. Appropriately, when a generation of Nkita within a lin-
representing a type of analysis or interpretation of daily life,
eage fragment is afflicted, the cult provides the rationale and
are the basis for the more synthetic, ritualized follow-through
the setting for the regeneration of the lineage organization,
of the cults of affliction.
and the members are reaffiliated with the ancestral source of
their collective authority. Most cults of affliction, however,
Although they vary tremendously, the rituals of initia-
occur outside the kin setting. Functioning as a substitute for
tion, healing, and celebration have common features
kin relations, they give the individual lifelong ties with others
throughout the area. Everywhere song and dance are at the
along the lines of the new affliction- or occupation-specific
heart of the participation of the initiate or celebrant. The
community. This feature has led some to hypothesize that
ngoma (“song dance”) is the product of the initiate’s personal
the cults may proliferate where kin-based social units are in
pilgrimage, and its lyrics tell of dreams and visions, as well
disarray. In the urban setting of South Africa, for example,
as mundane experiences. These songs, and their rhythms,
recruitment to affliction cults is prevalent among those, espe-
create a framework of reality within which the affliction or
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62
AFFLICTION: AFRICAN CULTS OF AFFLICTION
condition is defined and the remedy or mode of relating to
centered upon the mode of hunting (whether bow and arrow
it formulated. Thus, despite the collective setting, a great
or gun) and the type of animal (e.g., elephant, snake, porcu-
deal of individualized attention is available. The moving,
pine). The Sukuma snake-handling order was, and is, a
pulsating context of ritual celebration is conducive to cogni-
prime example of a cult devoted to the control and reproduc-
tive dissociation and restructuring, lending affliction cults a
tion of technical knowledge. Known for effective snakebite
psychotherapeutic, even conversion-like quality, although
treatments, the snake-dance society members possess anti-
they are not sectarian or exclusive in membership. The need
dotes to the numerous poisonous snake venoms of western
to define and redefine experience persists throughout the ca-
Tanzania.
reer of the initiate and priest-healer; seasoned elders continue
to deal with their own dilemmas and life transitions.
In coastal Kongo several cults dealt with trade and com-
merce, an appropriate focus, for these important economic
Beyond these core features, the content of affliction
activities brought divisive mercantile techniques and atti-
cults varies greatly depending on the scope of issues chan-
tudes into lineage-based societies, as well as several conta-
neled into the format. It may range, as has been seen, from
gious diseases. On the Kongo coast, where formerly central-
treating epidemic or chronic diseases and deformities to oc-
ized kingdoms had featured appeal courts, the cult of
cupational roles that require specialized knowledge or may
affliction format emerged in the eighteenth century as the ve-
be dangerous to the individuals yet necessary to society. In
hicle for judicial affairs and conflict resolutions. In nine-
one setting the range of issues may be placed into a single
teenth-century Sukumaland, antiwitchcraft medicine cults
ritual format; in others, issue-linked communities may grow
were introduced from the Kongo Basin in response to the ris-
into numerous named orders or dances. These communities
ing social disorder that characterized the early colonial peri-
may in turn be organized as a decentralized series of local
od. The Ndembu responded to early colonialism with cults
cells, or overlapping networks. Alternatively, the prevailing
of affliction focused on new illnesses, including fevers, “wast-
structure may become highly hierarchical, territorially cen-
ing,” and “disease of the paths,” and other suspiciously colo-
tered on a fixed shrine or central administration. Economic
nial contagious sicknesses such as malaria, tuberculosis, and
and political factors often play a role in shaping the structure
venereal diseases brought in by migrant labor. Everywhere,
of affliction cults. However, the taxonomy of issues ad-
the cults paid much attention to twin and breach births, and
dressed usually depends on the environmental conditions or
other dangerous or unusual conditions of reproduction.
on the cults’ leaders, who often express their visions of solu-
tions to human needs. The parameters of homogeneous and
The label “affliction cults,” understood in the narrow
diversified, decentralized and centralized structures in cults
sense often used in the post-Enlightenment West, does not
of affliction may best be described by sketching several his-
adequately fit the cults of central Africa. At the beginning of
torical and contemporary settings.
the twentieth century, in the setting of early colonialism, the
ngoma groups provided a means of buttressing and celebrat-
SETTINGS AND SAMPLES. The cults of affliction reveal the
ing social categories of economic pursuit (land, hunting,
greatest concentration of common features in the area where
trade), social order and justice, and the very fabric of society
linguistic homogeneity among Bantu-speaking societies is
(marriage, authority, women’s health, reproduction), as well
greatest—in a belt across the midcontinent that ranges from
as specified areas of sickness in the narrower sense. The cele-
Kikongo speakers in the west to Swahili speakers in the east.
brative, reflexive dimension of the ngoma needs to be empha-
A brief comparison follows of turn-of-the-twentieth-century
sized, as well. In some societies, notably those of East Africa,
accounts of cults of affliction among the coastal Kongo, the
the ngoma served as a means of entertainment and competi-
Ndembu of Zambia, the Lunda of Zaire, and the Sukuma
tion, as sport, a role that is increasingly prominent today. In-
of the Lake Victoria region of Tanzania, all decentralized so-
deed, in much of East Africa, the distinction is drawn be-
cieties.
tween therapeutic and entertaining types of ngoma. Perhaps
While they were associated with individual affliction in
the underlying characterization of the historical ngoma orders
the narrow sense, cults of affliction, or orders, in these socie-
would be that they ritualized key points of the social and cul-
ties also related to the sacralization and organization of tech-
tural fabric that were highly charged or highly threatened.
nical knowledge and its relationship to the legitimation and
Affliction or misfortune merely served as a mode of recruit-
reinforcement of the social order. Divination played a role,
ment to leadership and a means of reproducing specialized
either specific to each cult as among the Sukuma, or as a
knowledge.
more specialized set of techniques as among the Ndembu
The picture of cults of affliction within centralized states
and Kongo, both of whom practiced the ngombo basket tech-
contrasts markedly with the settings described above. In so-
nique.
cieties such as the Tswana, where historically there has been
Some cults related explicitly to the prevailing economic
a strong chieftainship providing social continuity and mate-
activity in each society, largely through the cultic techniques
rial support, cults of affliction are less influential or even en-
that were preferred and the types of people who became af-
tirely absent. Cults are known to have provided the impetus
flicted. Thus, in Ndembu and Sukuma society, hunting was
for the emergence of centralized polities, as in the case of the
the focus of several ngoma orders, with specific organization
Bunzi shrine of coastal Kongo. They have also emerged in
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AFFLICTION: AFRICAN CULTS OF AFFLICTION
63
the wake of historical states, picking up the aura of royal au-
SEE ALSO Central Bantu Religions; Interlacustrine Bantu
thority and the trappings of sovereignty and transforming
Religions; Kongo Religion; Mbona; Ndembu Religion.
them into the source of mystical power. A prime example of
this was the Cwezi cult of the interlacustrine region of eastern
BIBLIOGRAPHY
central Africa, which is today a limited cult of affliction
The hallmark of scholarship on cults of affliction in central and
whose spirits are the royal dynasties of the ancient Cwezi
southern Africa remains the work of Victor Turner, who first
kingdom of the same region.
gave the subject scholarly identification, in The Drums of Af-
fliction: A Study of Religious Processes among the Ndembu of

This dynamic relationship of cults to centralized polities
Zambia (Oxford, 1968), and Revelation and Divination in
has been accompanied by changes in the way spirits and
Ndembu Ritual (Ithaca, N.Y., 1975). Studies of possession
shades are focused in consciousness and ritual. As the scale
cults in Africa outside the central and southern regions that
or function of a cult expands, narrowly defined ancestor
have influenced research on ngoma, and offer comparative
shades may give way to nature, alien, or hero spirits. In a few
perspectives, include Ian M. Lewis’s Ecstatic Religion: An An-
thropological Study of Spirit Possession and Shamanism
(Har-
instances, centralized shrine cults have persisted over centu-
mondsworth, U.K., 1971), and Janice Boddy, Wombs and
ries, defining primary values and social patterns for genera-
Alien Spirits (Madison, Wis., 1989), concerning the Zar cult
tions of adepts. The Bunzi shrine cult of coastal Kongo, the
in Islamic Somalia and Sudan respectively; Vincent Crapa-
Mbona of Malawi, and the Korekore and Chikunda in Zim-
zano’s The Hamadsha: An Essay in Moroccan Ethnopsychiatry
babwe are examples of well-studied cults that, though centu-
(Berkeley, Calif., 1973); and Michael Lambek, Human Spir-
ries old, continue into the present. Some authors have distin-
its: A Cultural Account of Trance in Mayotte (Cambridge,
guished between these centralized, regional cults and the
1981).
topically focused cults of affliction. But the orders, taken in
Noteworthy works that have described examples of cults of afflic-
their entirety, suggest more of a continuum along several
tion in general ethnographies and histories, and have focused
axes: centralized and segmentary, inclusive and specialized,
on theoretical analysis, include the following: Regional Cults,
controlled by state sovereignty versus independent, or even
edited by Richard P. Werbner (New York, 1977), brings to-
opposed to state sovereignty. Cults have crystallized opposi-
gether studies on centralized “regional” cults in southern and
tion to states in both precolonial and colonial settings and,
eastern Africa, including work on Mbona in Malawi by J.
Matthew Schoffeleers, on southern Africa’s high-god cult by
to a lesser degree, in postcolonial times. Thus, the Cwezi cult
Werbner, on regional and nonregional cults of affliction in
channeled opposition to hierarchical structures in a number
Zambia by Wim van Binsbergen, on prophets and local
of interlacustrine states, especially Rwanda. Cult leaders or-
shrines in Zambia by Elizabeth Colson, and on disparate re-
ganized opposition to Rhodesian labor-recruitment practices
gional cults in Zimbabwe by Kingsley Garbet, as well as a
and inspired strikes in the mines in the late nineteenth centu-
theoretical introduction. John M. Janzen’s Lemba, 1650–
ry. There are other cases of tacit resistance to colonial govern-
1930: A Drum of Affliction in Africa and the New World
ments inspired by cult leadership.
(New York, 1981), details the emergence of this cult of afflic-
tion in the context of the coastal Congo trade and slavery.
Through the twentiety century and into the twenty-
Terence Ranger’s Dance and Society in Eastern Africa, 1890–
first, cults of affliction tended to be short-term movements
1970: The Beni Ngoma (London, 1975), describes the rise of
born out of desperation; trying to provide a panacea for soci-
an urban twentieth-century ngoma order. René Devisch, in
ety’s ills, they are an expression of the pains experienced by
Weaving the Threads of Life: The Khita Gyn-Eco-Logical Heal-
ing Cult among the Yaka
(Chicago, 1993), offers a rich eth-
a large segment of the populace because of chronic social
nography of a widespread Western Bantu fertility cult. Marja
problems. There has been a great deal of interpenetration be-
Liisa Swantz describes ngoma orders on the Swahili coast in
tween these cults and independent Christian churches and
Ritual and Symbol in Transitional Zaramo Society (Uppsala,
with Islamic orders in some areas such as East Africa. New
1970). John M.Janzen, Ngoma, Discourses of Healing in Cen-
permanent cults have arisen around such characteristic ills as
tral and Southern Africa (Berkeley, Calif., 1992), undertakes
the nuclear family or the maintenance of a household in an
a broad comparative perspective of ngoma through regional
urban setting; epidemic diseases such as tuberculosis and
field studies in Western Equatorial Africa, East Africa, the
how to cope with the chronic problems related to it; the divi-
Nguni south, and the Western Cape, establishing historical
nation of problems such as unemployment in a proletarian
connections, common features, regional variations, and theo-
setting; and how to succeed in business or retain a job. Many
retical perspectives. The Social Basis of Health and Healing in
Africa
(Berkeley, Calif., 1992), edited by Steven Feierman
cults also focus on the alienation and entrapment so com-
and John M. Janzen, includes cases by Gwyn Prins on the
mon in the African urban setting.
Nzila cult of Zambia, by Janzen on Lemba, and by Ellen
Affliction cults in central and southern Africa have thus
Corin on Zebola of urban Kinshasa and sangoma networks
of southern Africa by Harriet Ngubane. The Quest for Fru-
used the classic themes of marginality, adversity, risk, and
ition through Ngoma: Political Aspects of Healing in Southern
suffering in order to cope with the ever-necessary task of re-
Africa (Oxford, 2000), edited by Rijk van Dijk, Ria Reis, and
newing society in the face of the profound economic and
Marja Spierenburg, reviews and critiques Janzen’s 1992
social change that has occurred since the late nineteenth
monograph within the context of the contributors’ own re-
century.
search on ngoma, including those cases of its Christianization
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64
AFGHA¯N¯I, JAMA¯L AL-D¯IN AL-
within Afr