sci_history - ru rusec lib_at_rus.ec LibRusEc kit 2013-06-11 Tue Jun 11 17:37:07 2013 1.0

-

.

15 1880 .

8 1954 .

1903 . 1903-1908 , , , , , , , .

1908-1918 - " ". 1919-1920 - ( ). 1920-1922 - .. 1922 : " ", , , ... 1926-1933 - , 1933-1937 . 1937 - "". 1943 . 1948 - - .

" " (1908), "" (1909), " " (1911), " " (1914), " " (1915), " " (1916), "-" (1918), "" (1920), " " (1924), " " (1924), " " (1925), "" (1927, .), " " (1932, .) .

:

1934 - (). 1936 - (). 1937 - (), (). 1938 - - (). 1947 - (), (). 1948 - ().

: "" (1926), " " (1936), " " (1936), " " (1937), " " (1939), " " (1939), " 1918 " (1939), " " (1940), " " (1940), " " (1948), "" (1949) .

-

26 1904 -.

18 1983 .

(1970).

(1947).

1922 . 1922-1929 ( . , . .) 1929-1934 - -, , / - . 1934-1938 - . 1939-1940 - / . 1941-1945 - / . . 1945 - . 1947-1983 - .

:

1941 - ( ). 1954 - (). 1955 - ( ). 1958 (). 1959 - ( ). 1963 - XVIII ( ). 1964 - (), ( ). 1965 - ( ), , ( ), - (). 1970 - ( ). 1971 - ( ). 1972 - (). 1973 - , ( -). 1974 - ( ), (). 1977 - , ( ). 1980 - , ().

: " " (1931), " " (1951), " " (1958), " " (1960), "" (1960), " , " (1964), " " (1964), ", !" (1968), " " (1972), "", (1972), " " (1974), " - " (1975), " ", - (1976), " ", (1978), "" (1979) .

30 1937 .

22 1999 -.

(1991).

1959 .. 1962 - "".

:

1959 - - (). 1961 - (), (). 1962 - , ! ( ""). 1963 - XVIII (). 1965 - "" (). 1967 - , (). 1972 - ( ). 1973 - ( ), (), (). 1974 - (). 1978 - (). 1979 - , ( ). ( ), , ( ). 1982 - ( ), , , (). 1985 - (), , (). 1989 - (). 1990 - (), , ( ). 1991 - (), ( ). 1992 - (). 1997 - , - (), , ( ).

: "" (1958), " " (1961), " " (1961), " " (1962), " " (1963), " " (1963), " " (1964), " ... " (1966), "-" (1968), " " (1970), " " (1970), " " (1972), " " (1972), " " (1977), "" (1979), " " (1983), " ", (1983), ", , , ..." (1984), " ", (1984), " " (1988), " ", (1992), " , 3" (1998) .

- .

17 1902 ( - 7 , 1901 .)

1 1991 .

(1970).

1919 . 1921 : "" (), "!" (), "" () . 1924-1928 - , 1928 - ( - ). 30- , -, - .

( .) "" (1939).

" !" (1967).

" " (1981).

" ..." (1983).

:

1939 - (). 1940 - (). 1947 (). 1953 - (). 1954 - ( ). 1956 - (). 1957 - ( ). 1958 - (). 1961 ( ). 1962 - ( ), (). 1963 - XVIII (), ( ). 1964 (). 1965 - (), "" ( ), ( ). 1969 - , ! ( ). 1970 ( ), (). 1971 - (). 1973 - 100% (). 1976 - " " ().

: " " (1931), " " (1935), " " (1941), " " (1947), " " (1949), "" (1956), " " (1962), " " (1964), " ." (1966), " " (1966), " " (1969), " ", (1970), "" (1973), " " (1975), " ", (1975), " . ", (1977), " ", (1979-1986), " " (1984), " " (1985) .

13 1934 .

6 1995 - ().

(1974).

1959 . 1972 . ... 1982 .

:

1961 - (). 1962 - , ! (""). 1965 - ( " "). 1965 - (). 1966 - ( ), , , , ( ). 1968 - (). 1971 - ( ). 1972 - (), , ( ). 1973 - , (), ( ). 1974 - (). 1975 - -! ("" " ?! ?!"), (""), (), ! ( " "). 1977 - (). 1978 - (""), (). 1984 - , (). 1986 - , (). 1987 - , ( ). 1993 - ( ), ( ).

:

" " (1959), " " (1960), ", !" (1960), " , !" (1961), " " (1962), " " (1962), " " (1963), " " (1964), " " (1965), " " (1965), " " (1965), " " (1965), " " (1966), " " (1966), " " (1968), " " (1968), " " (1970), " " (1971), " " (1972), "" (1977), " " (1979), "2010", (1984), " ", (1988), " ", (1989), " ", (1994) .

21 1927 .

(1991).

1950 . 1950-1953 . 1953-1990 - - .

:

1952 - ( ). 1953 - (). 1954 (). 1955 - (), (). 1956 - (), (). 1959 - (). 1962 - ( ), , (). 1964 - (). 1965 - ( ). 1967 - (). 1969 - (). 1975 , ! ( '), ( ). 1978 - (). 1983 - (). 1984 - , ().

: " " (1948), " " (1948), " " (1949), " " (1950), " " (1956), " -" (1957), " " (1957), "" (1957), " " (1957), " ", (1959), " " (1961), " " (1963), ", ... " (1967), " " (1968), " " (1968), " " (1970), " " (1973), " " " (1983), " " (1994) .

( - ).

13 1923 .

(1988).

1936-1940 . 1940 . 1941-1942 . 1946 - . 1947-1949 - , , 1950 - , 1958-1959 - . 1962-1977 - - , - .. 1993 .

III (1968) " " ( ).

1996 " ". 1998 "" " " . . 2002 "" " ".

:

1944 - (). 1946 - ( ). 1949 - (). 1954 - (. ), - ... (), (). 1955 - ( ). 1958 - (), ( ). 1961 - (). 1962 - (), - ( ). 1963 - ( ""), (), , (). 1965 - (), "" ( ""), ( ). 1967 - (), (). 1971 - - (), , (), ( ). 1973 - 100% (), (). 1974 - (). 1975 ! (). 1977 - ( ). 1979 - , , ! (). 1980 - (), (), ( ). 1982 - (), ( ), -82 ( ). 1986 - ( ). 1987 - , (). 1988 - , ( ). 1991 - ( ), (), STREET, (). 1998 - ( ). 1999 - ().

: " " (1941), " " (1953), " " (1954), " " (1955), " " (1956), " "" (1958), " " (1959), " " (1959), " " (1960), " " (1963), " " (1965), ", ... " (1967), "- " (1969), " - " (1975), " ", (1976), "" (1976), " " (1978), " ", (1980), "" (1981), " " (1984), " " (1986), " ", (1987), " , 3" (1998) .

31 1950 .

(1994).

1967-1968 , , . . . 1972 . . 1972-1974 - . 1974-1999 2001 - - . 1999-2001 .

:

1975 - - (). 1978 - , (), (), -, (), ( ), 12 , (). 1979 (), , (), , (). 1980 (). 1981 - (). 1982 - (), , (), " ", (). 1983 - (). 1985 (), (). 1987 - (), ? (). 1988 - (). 1990 - (). 1991 - ( ), (), ( ). 1997 - (""). 1999 (). 2003 - ( " ").

: " " (1975), "" (1976), " " (1976), " " (1977), " "" (1977), " " (1979), " " (1980), "34- " (1981), ", " (1982), ", " (1982), " " (1983), " " " (1983), " " (1983), "-" (1984), " ", (1985), " " (1986), " " (1986), " ", (1989), "" (1989), " " (1990), " " (1991), " " (1991), " " (1994), " " (1994), " " (1996), " " (1997), "" (1998), " " (2001), " " (2001), " " (2002) .

11 1930 .

(1996).

(1955). 1958-1959 - , 1960-1961 - - , 1962 - , 1962-1963 - , 1963-1966 - , 1966-1970 - , 1970-1980 . 1980 - ( -) ...

:

1973 - , ... ( ). 1975 - ! ( ). 1976 - " " ( ), , (). 1978 - , (), , ( ), , (). 1979 - , ( ). 1980 - , (), -, (), , (), (). 1981 - , ( ), (), ( ). 1982 - , , ( ), , (), (). 1983 - , (), , (). 1984 - ( ). 1986 - , ( ). 1987 - (). 1988 - (), , ( ). 1989 - , (), , "" (). 1991 - ! (), (), (), ( ). 1992 - (), ( ). 1993 - (), ( ), (" "), (). 1995 - (). 1998 - (). 1999 - ! ( ""!).

: "" (1974), " " (1974), " " (1976), " " (1977), " " (1981), " " (1982), " " (1984), " ", (1984), " " (1985), " " (1985), " ", (1986), " " (1987), " , " (1987), " " (1988), " ", (1989), " " (1992), " " (1993), " " (1994), " Alla Russa" (1994), " " (1998 - " 1999") .

30 1934 .

(1989).

(2000).

1957 . 1957-1963 - . 1964 - . 1993 - " ".

:

1956 - ( ). 1965-1980 - " "13 ", ( ). 1972 - "" ( ). 1982 - , ( ). 1984 - , (). 1985 - , , (). 1987 - ? ( ). 1988 - , ( ). 1989 - (). 1991 - ( ). 1992 - (). 1994 - (). 1995 - ! (). 2001 - , (). 2002 - (), ().

: " " (1969), " " (1970), "", (1970), " ", (1973), " " (1976), " " (1978), " " (1978), ", , " (1978), " ...", (1980), " " (1981), ", , " (1984), " - !" (1985), " " (1985), " ", (1988), " " (1990), " " (1994) .

24 1912 .

19 1990 .

(1974).

1933 - . -. 1935-1965 - , 1965 - "".

:

1939 - ( ). 1940 - (. ). 1941 - (). 1943 - (). 1948 - (). 1954 ( ), - ( ), ( ). 1955 - (). 1956 - (), (). 1957 - (), (). 1958 - (), (). 1959 - ( ), ... (), (), (). 1960 , ! (). 1961 - ( " "), (). 1962 (). 1963 - "" ( "" ""), (). 1964 - ( ). 1965 - (), (), (). 1966 - (). 1969 - ! (), (). 1971 - ( ). 1972 - , (). 1973 - ( ), -? ( ). 1975 - -! ("" " ?! ?!"), ! ( " "). 1977 - (). 1978 - ( ). 1979 , (). 1980 - , - (), ( ). 1982 -82 (), ( ). 1984 , (). 1985 - (). 1989 - , "" ().

: " " (1938), " " (1940), " " (1943), " " (1944), ", !" (1945), "" (1947), " " (1948), " " (1956), " " (1957), "" (1957), "" (1959), "" (1968), " " (1968), "" (1971), " " (1974), " , ", (1976), " ", - (1976), " - " (1977), "" (1977), "" (1979), " " (1980), " ", (1981), " ..." (1984), " , !" (1988), " ", (1988) .

30 1932 .

1954 - . 1955-1957 - - . 1957-1966 - . 1966-1969 , 1966-1971 - . 1971 "". 1973-1974 - . 1975 - / .. 1975-1982 - "". 1982 .

: " " (1969), " " (1970), " " (1971), " " (1971), "" (1972), " " (1976), " " (1976), " " (1977), " " (1977), " " (1978), " " (1980, - VIII ), " " (1981), " " (1982) .

:

1955 - (). 1956 - (). 1958 (). 1959 - (). 1960 (), , ! (-). 1961 (). 1962 - (). 1964 (). 1966 - (). 1967 - ! ( ). 1973 100% (). 1975 - ! (). 1976 - - (). 1977 - (). 1978 - (). 1982 - ( ). 1984 - ( ). 1988 - (). 1989 - ().

: " " (1955), " " (1957), " " (1957), " " (1959), " " (1961), " " (1961), " " (1962), " " (1965), " " (1976), " " (1982), " " (1984), " " (1987), " " (1987), " " (1988), " " (1989), " " (1990), " " (1991) .

6 1923 ().

(1977).

(1949).

1941-1943 . 1948 1994 - . , " ", 1965 " ". II 1982 " ".

:

1938 - (). 1954 - (). 1959 - ... (). 1964 - - , - (), ( ). 1966 - (). 1967 - ( ). 1968 - , (). 1973 - -? ( ), ( ). 1975 - -! (" " " ?! ?!"), ! ( " "). 1977 - ( ). 1978 - ( ). 1982 - , (). 1984 - ( ). 1987 - ? ( ), ().

: " " (1939), " " (1948), ", !" (1950), " " (1954), " " (1954), " 306" (1956), " " (1959), " " (1960), "" (1961), "713- " (1962), " " (1963), " " (1964), " " (1966), " " (1971), " " (1972), " " (1972), " " (1974), "" (1976), "" (1977), " " (1978), " " (1979), " " (1980), " " (1980), " ", (1984), "" (1985) .